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Full text of "Vignana Deepika-Vol Ii"

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(To Know) wa &&&. 
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~ \ / ^J?r$ oJaiDO^rO WO W 



(Repeated) 



as 

I R"A1 rvTif.'lrv^ f-4fj 7^J(V). CJUJ~ PJ 

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Exact Scie- 



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(Discriptive Science') 



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(Ethics) &, 



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Science) 
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(8^) S&^tfes fe Sa)?6o^^ (Re- 
petition) 

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factors 



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eras 



Natural Phenomenon) 



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of Oscillation of Pendulum) 



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19 



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(1564-1642). 
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16-19 



18 



(Spectroscopy) 



1621 



1666 



(White Light) 



(Phenomenon of Diffraction of 

Light) 18010* QP&S d&ofi' ^oa 
(Interference of Light) 



5oSf$3S D SSs$ , 



o e 



S'es 



(Polarisation of Light) 

sod efcforvex) S^?!" 

> 

. 1862^ 



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(Moons of Jupiter) 



14 



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(Mersenne) 



19 



fofi 3 [n* o J" 
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Beats) 



(Phenomenon of 



(Phenomenon of Resonance) 
(Rayleigh) 



(Herschel), a^ol (Quincke) 



1877 . 



(Edison) 



(Phillip Reis) 1861 S* 



17 



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1714 



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issi s 



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1824 



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Theory of Heat), r J 

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1851 



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1698-1739) 



16-19 



15 



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(Two Fluid 



Theory of Electricity) \&r>8> 
(charge) &? 
(charges) < 



(Benjamin Franklin 1706-1790) 



(One Fluid Theory of Electricity) 

18 



(1713-1810) &c 



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(1777-1851) 



1820 



(1775-1836) 



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1831 



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BDO 



L fe (1799-1878) sSS^tffSo SO 



coveries) 19 SS 
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1896 



1897 d^ 

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Rays) 3. 3. Q5*&5 ^^ff'^fic). 20 S5 






national Political Power) * 



flnter- 

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phrast Von Hohenheium 1490-1541) & 
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(Theories of Chemical Structure) 



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1734) S& 






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jjjfe (Joseph 



Priestley 1733-1804) 



(Respiration) 

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fiocSr'^ SScptfSSbiQSh 

d> ex. 

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18585^ 



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16-19 



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O'er* 



?6as2jo 



(Fructose)?&, gr^^" (Glucose)^ 



, b&fr 



(Percentage Composition) 

tf&/r3^tio, 1865 flf 8 -agbjS (Kekule) 
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id'SSpeso^co ^o ftsS^ sSodtfisSoo (Closed 
Ring) S Kipacs 

5^^)" (Organic) 

6:)^gejT.eo (Struc- 
tural Formulae) 
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oa^a. ^5" (Tar) 
(Aniline) 
. 1856 
(Aniline dye) $ 



l)SS (Antipyrene, 

1883), |>^&SS' (Plenacetin, 1887) 3& 

(1899) 



19 



^OD (Proteins), ff*^ ^^o*ex) (Fats) 
(Carbohydrates) AcS^S). 
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. 1887 <i9&><" (Amino acids) 



&'S' (Peptones) 



19 



&oci 



(Living Organisms) 8* 



CO Q 



(Chemical Affinity), 
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anism), 



o (Mono- 
molecular and Dimolecular Reactions) 1) 

, 1864^ 

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agel) 1877 ^ d*oS~ &^> (Van't HoflF) 
^50^^ #, ^d&&^ (Law of Mass 
Action) 



18 



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Electrical 



conductivity) 



jjS"^ (Hittorf) 

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\ / w o 

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ciate 



1887 ^ fts[fi^dSo5 (Arrhenius) 
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c3 D oo i) R^ ^d^fioo'efo. 

(Theory of Solutions) 






^(Ss'^^ogb (Crystalloids), 



1850 



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(Thomas Graham) 



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(Sir W. B. Hardy), t> ff 3, 



(Anatomy) S^ 13 
co estf^SdSb. &o[& 
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1657) tf tfi 

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. 1661 



(Malpighi) 



>o) 

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(Nervous 



16-19 



19 



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(1818-1878) 



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(Majendie), 



Active 



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J 



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&oa (Decomposes) 
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(Starch) 

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. 1884 ^ 



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3b^biT i^ 

(Biology) : 



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(Grew), 



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sag S 



. "3 
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Plants) & Bag 



(Sex - Organs of 



(Biologists) 
(Species) 



(Evolution^ : 



(Idea of 



Evo- 



lution) 

(Atomists) 



(Species) 



cartes 



", * o 



(Des- 



(Lamarck, 1744-1829) 
" 



(1809-1882) 



20 



II 



'> 



Species) 



1859 
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(Anthropology) 



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o o \ 

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). 1838 

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(Fermentation) ar<3jAo3 ^eg? (Yeast) 

(Living Cells) 



(Louis Pasteur, 1822 - 1895) -e 
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disease), eso&S&o^S "3aS /"Rabies j 



(Microbe or Bacterium) o 



|" (Antiseptic) 
(Phenol) & ^&* 
rgical Operations)ex> 



(Anaesthetics) 

(Koch), ^d 

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disease) S S'oK^'ft rSpap^d ^X^ ^.^S 

(Viruses) olj sj 25 5* 8>j- (Ivonovski - 

1892), ^ (Frosch, 1893) OD 



16-19 



19 



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, 20 sS 



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20 



19 sS 
o o 



3v 

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(Space Age) 



a~gdo 



1948^ 






10 9 



10 



12 



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(RADAR - Radio Detection And Ran- 
ging). 



tf 



Microwave Spectroscopy) 

3o<3 eseaoS&o 



(Atomic Clocks) 



8> 8 



fSolid State 
\ 



Devices^ 



KS"^ (Gunn) 

Impatt (Impact Avalanche Tran- 
sit - Time) &<3s*5, Trapatt (Trapped 
Plasma Avalanche Triggered Transit) 



1945 sS 
53ox> (Atomic Bomb) |j$o3j* 



1928 



T J, 



19S2 



nomy) 



pfiV^&i (Radio 



(Radio 

Sources) S'&fr^rfo aa5A^(3. ^s ^^,^6* 

S)6S)r? spefaiS &S&8 ^jasS" f Solid State 
<P \ 

MASER - Microwave Amplification by 
Stimulated Emission of Radiation) 

19S4 sS SSoS^tfotf* ^AflTiSaDasa. S^ 
cSs^cJi^^ es^sSafl^a S$^j^)o (Heavenly 
Bodies) 



(Coherent) 5*0$ 

(LASER - Light Amplification by Sti 

mulated Emission of Radiation) 

1980 <5* 



(Sulpha Drugs) 



?65" 






, 1928 
S^o^", " 
(Antibiotic) 
" 6p ap 8 
(Micro Organisms) 3dtoE>a?5 



1944 



1944 



xyribo Nuclic Acid - DNA) 



(Deso- 
1948s5 



g'esSioo 



DNA 



1866 SS 



(Genes) 



SScs-tf&a DNA 
DNA 



1958 



DNA 
(Ribo 



Nucleic Acid - RNA) &*S$o<gV3 
. DNA, RNA ssesoS&o 



6. 



tfo 






iS 



it 



(Synthetic Fibres), 



S* 






t>ojjSc& 



CO Q CO 



"So^S" ^Sb ('Madder 

a co \ 



root) 
(Indigofere 

er' 



. sfo 



I8b7 



(Mauve), 



(Raaulfia Serpentina) 



^ 0*002 <J 



(Emetine) 3' 
S5o?6 C5^) es <*oeso 



' (Reserpine) 



(Psycho Chemicals) 



[JDS', 



&eiac!$p 



1935 






26 $*$&&$ II 



>> Stfeo, 



CO O CD 



[8Sb ?Sossa a. 5. a (D. D. T 
a 5 



3c<S EO^SJ'^ESO^ (Macro Mole- 
cule) & 
(^Polymerisation) 



i <S" (Pyrethrin) % 

fc?EXS)Ofi'6'E3 



&S 






Tensile 
rto c3a* Strength), fed^psSS' ^J (Elasticity) f\8 

. 1905^ 



eoexi, 



1907 
^ofetfeso S5o 



e3 



o 

co a 



S C5 S^&OU<^^-^l I r _ 

(^5 - 



(Natural Polymen). 

S 4, 5 



(It rubs or 
erases']. ox><3 Sotfk e5odi"^ 3*<sxJ<S. ^^ ft Q ^ 

^ o . 820^ Q f\j" _ J/>1 1 



CO 

D3OQ COlXlfO TOLUJ ._ .^_ , 

O 



90% So "Srv ^efi a,"3 ^ ^.t-*^ *^ e> ^...^ 1981 



(Hevea Bra- 
siliensis) 



(Latex) & &b 



S" (Emulsion). 



C3) O C3 

sScs* 
siraSSx) rp 



cor? 

<" sSr, sj a L2>oO 
90% 



?5oK>oSoC?5 



T. 



^^?6Sb ^ 



2?&^ (Science) 



. -^6 






(Ptolemy) 



(Copernicus V 



Q 

C 



w - - , -- 29 






(Intellectual- 

Honesty V esc^S 5od[^tf 
(Corpuscular 



Newton's- 

Rings) 



gO ^e^oas II 



. $> 



fcoS 16^,6016^8 (Mass Culture). 









81 

er 



of P ^ 



-^o^Sb, 



o ' 



o & 



^Collapse of Civilisation and Relapse 
into Barbarism) 



8. 

Q 



es Stolon* sS^a 



SS-^ea 



(Predict) 



o& e^ 



II 



i c 



-J* - ^ 

s^oo 



o 






OCD, 



eo 



cb 



Aotf&fc^fo 



90 



^5 



II 



e3?5to 



710. 40%. 
1000 A. D 

* ' -*" '-* 



)\o 
a 



s*> 4-0,000 
A. 



jf o ifiptf 9Sbotf j* 



5 a 



3 rS, aefa 

C - 



c&tfc6eoScr'tf 

e, 



S&^S'o. ^odi 



a."! 






(Fossils) & 



9, < co - soXc ri 

^5 ^^^ VMT ^^ " V- 



ssa 



3 . 

O oL CO SI 1 



e 



(^International 



Geophysical year) ^<*3; 

sjofc^sWS" 
('International year of the 



Quiet sun), 

5^&Q5 (International Indian Ocean 

Expedition) 






C&O|*PG, 

L_ 



fSpeci- 

L. a u c \ 

alisation) &> 









11 



<. 



10. 



J (Energy) 



(Nuclear) 



crn* 
250 



2000 



. 05 )tf orr ?3oSS 



ss 



. 50 
, 100 

' 






25 



a 



CD o 

o 
co 



fotfotf* 

esc 



" 8 &A tf 
n 



e.g'S 
drofi. 



" r 

vy 

2000 



CO 

g'eso 



(quark) 

1+1 W__ 

> w ft) oOO9jJE3^ Sol QOS ** 

(Nucleus) 



et& 

v U 

Q?r fl^aadSbsSbo. &9i3 ^jS)oi<?tS) 

"^"' <; ^'~^ *" " 11 



CD 

40,000 



AofiootfSi 



^sao (Anti 
particle) Aocr) e^^ 



Q 



41 



3}* 



(Galaxy) 



,. 

oL 



57*^3 



1SOO 



1500 






. esfi 







n 



11. 






12. 



. 17 



, SaS-jrfb 



. 






(Probability) 



/ InvarianceV 
(non-Euclidean Geometry" 



S'o'ea ; 



Soapg 



e^o 



1. 



2. 



, 3. 



4, 

. r. 1800 



TMensurationV 



?6^ (Survey), 



(Engineering) 



ol 



^. 500 



2,500 



. 2181-1961 



44 



[I. &>. 1650 



1. tf^Dg" S&)$tfG5*0 23^0 



, e^SD r<$3o3 



. 



2200 



2000 



, a,b,c, o 



(Frustrum) 



-Jh 



a, b 



('Figurete numbers j^ 



(Pitches 



_ [I. $. 800 

(Navigation^ 



. ea sStfg&tf ^00 



^_ 5-Ootiia& 

(Prime numbers) ^ 



(Zeno) 

f Paradoxes V 



ii 



2000 ? 
(Theory of tf&Sa Ss5 f (Descartes), 



(Synthetic) 
x, y, z, ex> 5>co}?5 x 2 -f- y 2 =z 2 e 






O co 






(^Syntheticj 



[S. ^. 7 

^ 



^ eo. 6356* 



637 



Al.v'^'vL LlUJJo j C3 ^w wrf *r*s >-i w^ i> s^ N^ w w>^ < v ^^ tw>j tii<juw tw ^vnj \ju aj TO gJ o ^ C^J^Q IXA> OJ cj 

/ CO Q 



(Pure Mathe- spfib dtfir*^^ 8 *^ 

V oL Q 

matics) fiT 6 ^ ^S5^o^6 /^^ / Differential 
Calculus) 



47 



(Applied 



Mathematics. 



1 3o6 ^'SJ'BDojOOr&oS 16o5 

ss^aoa 

[Diophantus) >^ ^ss^^T 8 wtfh<3& fca 

^ ' ** ^rvTDK m !< COJO^^X'A(fr^<v X"/J*^^TB *< iSS^PCri 



^&D (Pure and 
Applied mathematics) 



O 

I Ago sS 

O 



. -. 1220 
(Fibonacci) 

J'OvU^ V^I^AJUJ^AJ (^J-VJ^l^JU 

Ow cJ)t}"AoJiOtDa 

Aso 



(Syncopation \, 



&on- 



48 SsrtSSjbS' II 

x 3 + 2x 2 + 10x=20&i 



g_d^ (Vieta 1540-160) 



&o. o3 dj 

_ ^ ^ . _ x xx 

iH* fv 



SOdSoo 
. S. 3f. 1600 



d:rro<5?5 

. ^ 18SS 



(Lagrange 1736-1818) ^6" 

(Rhetorical) 



(Syncopated), 



spaa 



. tfaStf 



gfo 



1887);2. 



(1629, 

\ 



(1866, 1684); 3. 3_ 



; 4. 



(1630-65); 

(1591-1612, 1666-1684) 



3 



50 agp&S,5f II 






Q 

. "3 s3, 



, 3 

vj i+i w 

(Synthetic-Geometry) a, 



^, ^to 

CO U 



C3 

x, y 






f (x, y) = &1 &*&x8* ^ 

\ / fr9rI^'X'c^33ror\\ A-^x ^!^?^< CT ^ >^ 

. f^x, y) = &!$ & 



x, y) = 



(Gouse) 1801 8* 

a> ^sS^^/K^ 

(Congruence] 



Sciences 



Q o 

20 



51 



20 



1840<* 



o" (Hamilton) 
(Quanternions"), 



"3 



O CO 



Sofi^S), sp^oSo^go 



1900 



. 1830 G* elusive Theories) 



1800^ 



20s5 



i9ss 



(Cremona) 



CO O 



(Euler), SpjS 



(Cosmology) 



(J. Pleeker) 



52 



II 



^^ (Cayley) 
(Metric Geometry)^ 



(Potential Theory), 
S^ ^^dfisSooo 
fCalculus of Variations^ 

V ; 



13. 



(Theory- 

of Function of Complex Variables), 
(Integral Equations! 
('Functional Analysis), 
S)"8siG3 (Statistical Analysis), S5 
(Differential Geometry) 



(Deductive Theory); 



tf sS 



(Euclidean Implements) 

(Straight Edge), sS^jf 

- Compass) 



21 



Q 



CO 

x 



8 

; 

S) 6^ o- o 



(Rational operations^) o*oo 

\ / j 

3v?, ^Sicpej'o (Square roots) 



2. , o o)J oo sj- cxa oexoo 

j a 



: a, b, 



ine Segments) 



a + b, a b, a. b,_ (b^O), 
b v y 

b+vr, 



i Galois^) ^i3 sSoSS^o ^dSi^o^cp <^rbdiDO(S 

100 oSoSSe^;\ 

(Galois 



60 



x 

(Cube root) aa^otfsS3S?o^sSj&). "IsSoo 

ejfi 



II 



tfS'o 



*oc?>o. 



(Unit) 



(Cubic Unit) 
2 



x 3 = 2 



(Delphic oracle) 

(Apollo) 3sg)S^ 
(Altar) 
"Sodoe^eo ^&? 



"SoSo^co aa 



(By 



trial and error") 3$ 

/ o 



foe6 



(Degree) sSjpjjf&o 



1882 



(Lindeman) 



(Rational number) 

(Transcendental num- 



ber 



CcroS", 



SSj<So 



of Konigsberg) 



(Bridges 

eatf^ 
(Pregel) 



56 




C 

A 



, A, B, D 
B, C, D, 

. C &>o& A 
, D 



a*"! 
(Euler) 



17S6 



A, B, C, 



(Odd Vertex) 
A, B, C, D ex> 



, B 



C 



B 



A, D 



A Sooft D 
D 




(^Topology) 



Combinatorial 



Topology 



(Latin Squares) 



18 



. nX n 

, 2, 8, ... . n w$ 
/Rows) 6*&, n 



\&Q&& 3X3 



1 


2 


3 


2 


8 


1 


3 


1 


2 



c3o<& n X n 



a, 



38^0000^ -^8 



^Orthogonal) 



1 


2 


3 


3 


1 


2 


2 


3 


1 



X n 



co o 



(1,1) 


(2,2) 


1(3, 8) 
(1,8) 


(2,3) 


(8, 1) 


(3,2) 


(>' 8 ) j 


(2,1) 



OO8007T 1 



1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


1 


3 


1 


2 



2 


3 


1 


3 


1 


2 


1 


2 


3 



(1, 2) 



(1, 2) 










(1,2) 




(1,2) 





oosoof? 



n 



n X 



(Prime number 1 ) 



1 



. 3oooo5~ 1779 6* 
n=4t + 2 
n X n epfiS 



2 (t= 
6 (t= 1) wa3Syy&, ^o<& 2X2 



6X6 



oo8Don* 



(Tarry) 



1900 fir 8 



10(t =2 



1959 6* 
oos^orv 



3o<3o 10 X 10 

(Computers) 



n = 2,6 



n = 4 t + 2 



logy 



Combinatorial Topo- 



(Statistics) 
(Projective Planes) 



Q CT. 



1. W. W, R. Ball, Mathematical Re- 
creations and Essays. Macmillan 
(1959) ; Chap. IX. pp 242 - 254, 
Chap. XII. pp 326-349. 

2. Courant and Robbins, What is 
Mathematics ? 

Oxford University Press (1953); pp 
134 - 138! 

3. H. J. Ryser, Combinatorial Mathe- 
matics Carus Mathematical Mono- 
graphy Chap. 7 pp 79-94. 

4. Van der Waerden, Modern Algebra 
Vol.L F. Unger publishing Company 
(1953) ; pp 183 - 187, 



1. 



Mathematics), 
Mathematics") ~do&> 

J 



(Pure 
(Applied 



(Axioms') < 



(Geometries), 



(Bertrand Russel 1872 - 1969) 



be3 



, 3 tf* 



- sios- 



406) 



^aS (Euripides B. C. 480 - 



- ^- 1800- 1600 






("Leonardo 

o \ 

Da vinci 1452 . 1519) ^o-S" 

(Lodovica Sforza i 



59 



3 



tfS ^Study in proportion). 

2. &r&o3j* - enS oSsSj) 1 ^ (Duccio : 
Last Supper) 

3. ese^S" &tf5": as ^5" e55 6 fceSoA" 

eJo L- ej 

SS^S". (Albert Durer: 1471-1528- 
Designer of the Sitting man). 

4. 1)5* 3ej |^ ) S'"S>^;_: <5 ^^^(S" 

o L. CT CD o 

(Piero Delia Francesca: 1420-1492 
The flagellation), 

5. 



(Architectural View of a City) 

6. tte^JO rf^St [SS^^^?S (Perspective) 
[]S^o3 cp"?)S" (Raphael : 1483 - 
1520) 



' (Projective Geometry), 
(Convergence) e5S6?5^e3) (Diver- 



gehce), 



), SOSD 



(Canvas) 



^ 



ceptions) 
relations) 



> (Giotta : 1266-1337) e^ 
(Visual Per- 
(Spacial 



gsSdJd (Partially boxed -in room) 



S35bS (Birth 

QO N 

and Naming of St. John, the Baptist). 



60 



II 



2. 



1601 - 1665) 

/ 



. 17 SS 



de Fermat: 



on 



Albert! 1404 



-1472) 



(Battista 

\ 



(Central perspective^, 
(Vertical Perspective) 
(Terraced Perspective) "S^^S 



(Paolo Uccella: 1397 - 1475), Ler^o 
|^pi3^5- (Piero - della Francesca 
1416-1492), S<aK?^ cp afe^ 



^ A (Adoration of Maggi) 



cr 5 



(Treatise on Painting) 



61 



3. 



. $f. 1430 
S 



fcotf 



B ^, 



d 



4. 






L 



2. qito 8. 



62 aspfSoobJf II 



4. &e*5* 5. CTSro^g 6. &>& 7. . 

8. 






jf g (Applied 
Art), i 



(Abstract) ^ 



(Pythagoras B. C. 



b : 4 : 6 s$a ^ en**' vco^^ *<,<V'TS CT T, %^_ A T>*\ Q 



AC, CB 
(Key note) L ^&o ^^ &rfgtf ^^^^ AC = a; CB = b 

a : b = b : a + b ^^^ QS 4 C 
ABS 



C 

H a] + |b > 



A B = 58 
AC = 22 

CB = 36 



(Ivar Bentsen) ^o^eafi (1918), 
fir*^) e5o|&dir io*^S (Andrea Palladov : 
1508 - 1B80) as^oa^S S^Ss-Q 
(Villa foscari), b s5"ead8Q5 (Le Cor 
busier : 1887-1974) ^6^oOo3 S)^-nd^S 
(Villagarches), <3 &p"c^e3 ^^(The Mars- 
eille Block), & 

/ 



(i97) 



2. Experiencing Architecture 

d"tf ?5 : Steen Eiler Rasmussen. Chap- 
man & Hall., London (1959) 

3. A Study on Vastuvidya : 

tff?5 : Tarapada Bhattcaharya, 
Patna. Published by the 
Author (1947) 

4. 



15. 






, I. ^F. soo 



0/6 



Elements') es^ 18 



2,000 



(Deductive Process) 



(Independent) s-, 



. 1899 



(1862-1943) 



ons of Geometry) 



(Foundati- 



A, B, 



a, b, c..od 
a, /3, Y, .. 



(Linear) 



(Space Geometry) 



2. 

, 

4. 
5. 



tftf 



; A S)o&$) a 



a, A 



65 



A CTCP a 8 



"1^02)5" 



CD CD 



, 1, p o 



P 0*30* 1 



'Si^a (Equivalent). &> 



, 2000 



(Intuitively) 



. 1763 



5 $ e^ o & 
G. S Kluegal 



S 



(Saccheri) 



180 eo 



(Gauss), 
Bolyai), 



3. 



(Poincare) 



^gcxo (Johann 
(Lobochevskey) 



cp| 



a.g' 



O- 



^CP 



(Intuitive Appeal) 



Y>O 



oca 



x 



(Half Rays) 



2. 



8. g 



; U, VOD x 



U, Vo 



5. 



6. 



7. 



> a, " 



330^00 



9. I, m, 
m 



P )oeSbSj)(No4 l. 
p q w cxo ^, p 



10. 



Q 



4. 



20 



G. F, B. 






67 



, 33^ 






(Psuedo 

Plane) n- sS6tfeS^&D. Q$ *r&ol)&Sj L 
jo (Antipodal points) 



o 



(Great 
ircle) &>g 



ti'tfg&otfe) p p, ^~ 

gs 



*< 

fcjj-^^OJUU OJ &JiJ 

2. 



S 6 & tf 



3. 



4t |&$bS3 o3 ^Cf^a^ ^ ss & \ M i" 

( ,TT ^ ^SdipfiS'^sio (Spherical &u*j r tf&& f?5 & s'gSb^a 

Excess) ovjc 



I OQJUCslO Otf ^*J I Q 

K ^ v'-s = A x ^73 ?< J5 ^ "^:ietfc5* r6o6>^)r6o (Phenomena) 



o 

u ^ - ^n-a:,^ 

tc - - - cA, 



i : *. 

,^ 

6. "Soe 

sssSQ^oD. ^Enclose space). 

7. 



II 



References 

1. Encyclopaedia Britannica Vols 8 

'< and 10 

2. The Elements of non - Euclidean 
Geometry and Trigonometry, By 
H. S. Carslaw, Langinan's Green 
& Co. 



3. Non - Euclidean Geometry, By 
Herbert Mesehkowsiki, Academic 
Press, New York and London. 

4. Mathematics and the Physical 
World - By Morris Kline. John 
Murray, 50 Albemarle Street; 

London. 

-A 



(sSb o db 
(Premises^ 



. S5p 384 - 



322) LSS 



^Theory of Valid Arguments 
or Theory of deductive Inferences] e) 



r? 



8} 7 T/F 1 
TTriie/False Statements); 



Connections 



1 (Conjunction) 



)isjunction) 



(Conditional) 



. 2, 



2. 



Ac? : 



2. 



(Negation) 



N 



N 



?5sT 



p, q, r, 



^^ q j [SS 
q p A q 



p V q 



p V q 



p, q ex> 



^oa. pVq 



p 


q | pVq 


3 


SS 


55 


<3 


.6 


15* 


es 


9 


es 



70 



H 



p A q (p &Qc&> q) 



p 1 q | A pq 



p 


Np 


?3 
!6 


69 



P 
P 



q, q 



<p 
p > q 



P 


q 


p-^q 


cS 


cS 


oS 


?o 


65 


S9 


65 


cS 


CJ 


a 


9 


iS 



Pi 



ss 



69 



p 

p, q 
p 



. P 

, q 



p | q 


p Aq 


pVq 


P-* q| P< 2q 


N P 


Nq 


S3 


1 * 


55 


SS 


J3 | iS 


69 


69 


?S | 69 


65 


S 


e 1 w 


69 


cS 


e | oS 


e 1 ?S 

1 


S 


. 69 


o> 





49 


W 


K5 


49 


?S 


69 


* 


S 



(Tautologies): 



: p, q, r, x> ?. ss 

(p v q) /\ r p v ( q y\ r) 



(Tautologies) Stfg |jSsStfSSaa> 

p V N p [SS25tf^sS Qo^Sb euS' ^ 

[(p-* q) A (q^Ol ^ P 
p esceo^Syytfe?* q, q 



r, 



71 
Np 



p * q 

"~TOU &w sj (UVJU 

1918 



H- t -=i >6~ / n* i-o \-* >>,, ^ SPQoSOD NllD 

* M. A0 (Sheffer)S &*S$>a?5<>. 3* \ 

^ / 0\ ,X _ vS 9 

I . o^^ 0X060 ndoo ^otpo^. 4< D/a* 

^^ .r/ T. 

P SS' c6sF q ft9r^ ^fioio. &>o"S) 



N (p 
P /\ N q 



p & 
p s^tfrSbfacS^* N (p qV p /\ Nq < 



p 


q 


P * q | N[p *q 


p A Nq 


oS 


cS 


SS | 69 


69 


iS 


69 


| ^ 


rS 


69 


cS 


<6 | 65 


69 


69 


69 | 55 | 


69 



p ^jesSSxirT' ft oou q 

_ ' 1- Introduction to Mathematical 

o Oc Logic - Flora Dwikins, Appleton 

tfeltf tfo-^jSSa Century Crofts. Ltd. 

2. Introduction to Logic - Patric 
Supples; (University Series in Under 
graduate Maths.) 

3. Logic in Elementary Maths. Exner 
& Roskoff; Me Graw Hill. 



IT. 



(Natural numbers) cSg 

& a,-" e -SP ^ff (Henry Weyl)^ 



TMathemetical Analysis), 



^Theories) 



S) a tf 



I'oe^ 



2. 
8. 

4, 

5. 



" 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 
tfowceo. 

gers) & 



(Positive Inte- 

5b, S)S^* S)M 
5?e$s*ex> (" Divisors) Ac6^S>. 



, 1, 2 



("Prime number) 



2,8,5,7,11 



numbers) 

10, 11, 12 ...... 1 



^Composite 

: 4, 6, 8, 9, 



fFundamental Theorem 

\ 

of Arithmetic) n "fj^^-o^iSj. &C5 : 
2 = 2; 3= s ;4 = 2 2 ;5=5; 6=2X3; 
7=tj 8=2 3 ; 9=S 2 ; 10=2X5, ........ : 

225 =* 3 2 X 6 2 .., ; 15625 = 5 6 ; 44100 
=2 2 X8 2 X 5 2 X7 2 ; 57717 = 3 2 
X 53 ..... . . 



Joo^g 



table). 



(Infinitely coun- 



. 2, 



6, 7, 11 



(2X3X5X7X11) +1=2311 



; a,d 



j a + nd/n = 1 , 2, 3 ...... I 

(Arithmetic Progession)^ 



1837 



(Dirichletj 



1949-50 
(P. Erdos), A 



ex, 



8,9,10/11, 12, 18) 



n = 23 



, n 



;n=47 &>o& n, n 4- - o sSotfg 
8 



. n 



,n3, n -f 



10 6 

SiStfes ^ 



(P. P + 2 ) [SScK?oS'tf<gcSScpQ[) (Pripii- 
tive twins), (p, p + 4 p+6) (p, 
p + 2, p + 6) tfr>so* &o"3 

i tf ctfpeo iaSb^^coo' ? S^CT* ? 
L 



It 



(3, 5, 7) &[$-& (p, p + 2, 



?6odo f 



2. 



(Riemann Hypothesis) fir^ 



(Mathematical Analysis) 



(4)* 



* (x) - f 
7 J l 

(Asymptotic) 



80 



, (Man Goldt), 
(Vallie-Poussin) 1887 



1950 



C (s) == 



(Complex variable) 



* 'tfoitf s - 

G3 



fs") 

\ / 



N. 



(1974) i 



f(x)=x 2 x + 41, (x 



X = 41 



e7 B F =2 2 + 1 

CO tl 



(Fermat 1601- 1665) 



F 2 =17; F 3 =257, F 4 =65,587 
5 F , F fi o 



(Necessary and Sufficient) 
(Gauss') ari:r'&o3&. n 



M = 
p 



(3 M 
op 



M 



1648). 



(1588- 



1974 



24. esi&. -^s |j5o<3 p 
2; 3; 6: 7; 13; 17; 19; 81; 61; 89; 107; 
127; 521; 607: 1279; 2203:2281; 8217; 
4253; 4423; 9689; 9941; 11213; 



6* 6002 



. &aa 1971 



M 



<5 M eo 



(6, 



GO 



(Perfect numbers) 



(n) 



n a 



2 W _1 



2 W -1 



2 n -l 



24 



(2 2 -l); o- (6)=J +2 -1-3 + 6= 12; 



(28)56. 



10 20 



. 14, 15, 18). e 

^j^sSa52T^ rSoepgex) (Exponen- 
tially Perfect numbers) e$^ sp^a d6o. a. 



Tfi *\-.vf&S^ TT 

f u flJeS^roQcGS 11 

sr 



22). $|> BIOS* 



33,000,000 



EPS" ?5 



5*0 _^ 

1742 

oj 

. Q % 

3 + 7; 12 = 5+7; 14=7 + 7; 16 = 
8+13 = 5+11; 18=5 + 13=7 + 11: 33 "^o^ & ft 

20 = 31-17=7 + 13; 22 = 3 + 19= &$>S S oS* a.^. 

5 + 17=11+11 ; 



x 2 + y 2 * z 2 



^ oStb^{$'e5'S S'oex) : /, 4, 5"), 
(5, 12, 18); (8, 15, 17); &vfoia 

/ V / oJU 

(Generally j a, b, o^r 8 euS'S ?5a 



s^ 

[ k (a 2 _ b 2 ), 2 kab, 



^o^. ^> o "S x= 3, y=4, 
= 5; x = 5; y= 12, z= 13; ...... 

3ajsSn- x = k (a 2 b 2 ), y = 2 kab 
Schmrelmann ] isS^f z= + k (a 2 + b 2 ) & 



(Density) 



77 



+ y n =z n 9, n 



>2 



(Format) "n > 2, 



(Wolfkehl), 



100, 000 
1,60,000 



|j3cSfi8^oacS& 
, 2. e5 



(tip. 6,6) 



n = 8 4, 5, 



SKfr>S>b EPCO. 



253, 747, 889 

SSSSbeS), 

p=4001 

-^ 
p = 



M. 



=z p 



o 

IT. 



p, x y z o 



References : 

1. Abbot, H. L. Etal-Quasi Perfect 
numbers, Acta Arithematica 22. 
(1973) 

2. Ayoub R.-Euler and the Zeta 
Function; Am, Math. Monthly. 

3. Dickson L. E. - History of the 
Theory of Numbers; Vols. 1, 2, 3 
(Chelsea) 

4. Edwards H. M. - Riemanns Zeta 
function : Academic Press, (1974) 



78 



II 



5. Frankel A. A.-Integers and Theory 
of numbers; Scripta Mathematica 
Studies No. 5. 1955 

6. Gandhi J, M. ~ Formulae for 
nth Prime; Proc. Washington 
State University Council on Num- 
bers Theory; Pullman. (1971) 

7. Gillies D. B. - Three New Merse- 
nne Primes and Statistical Theory; 
Mathematics of computation, 18. 
(1964) 

8. Ingham A. E. - The Distribution 
of Prime numbers; Landon. 1932 

9. Kavan. G. -Factor Tables. London. 
1937. 

10. Lehmer. D. N. - Factor Tables 
for the first ten Millions; Carne- 
gie Institute; Washington. 1909. 

11 List of Prime numbers from 

from 1 to 10,006,721; Carnegie 
Institute; Washington. 1915. 

12 Scripta Mathematica, I 

(1933) 

13 Amer , Mathematical Month- 
ly 40. (1933) 

14. Me Carthy P. J. - Odd perfect 
numbers; Scripta Mathematica 23. 
(1957) 



15. Muskat. J. B. - On Divisors of 
odd perfect numbers; Math, of 
Comp. 20 (1966), 

16. Mills. W. H. - Bulletin Am. Math. 
Soc. (1940) 

17. Nicol C. A., Sefridge J. L. & 
Vandiver. H. S. -Proof of Fermat's 
Last Theorm for all Prime, ex- 
ponents less than 4,002 Proc. Nat. 
Academy of Sciences 41. (1956) 

18. Ore, O 1 - Number Theory and its 
History, Me graw Hill. (1948) 

19. Peri Sastri. M. - On Fermat's 
last Theorm; Am, Math. Monthly 

75 (1965), 

20 On Fermat's last Theorem; 

II Journal Maths. 265 (1974) 

21 . Shockley J. E, - Introduction to 
number theory; Holt Rinehalf and 
Winston (1967). 

22. Strauss E. G. &Subba Rao M, V- 
On Exponentical divisors; Duke 
Math, Journal (1974). 

23. Uspensky J. V. dt Heaslett M. A. - 
Elementary Number Theory, 
London (1939). 



is. 



rSo$x>ex>rp 

2) 

l)83 

65^ 



A 



. a.^ ^ 

(Unary Operation) ^ 
(Binary Operation) 
(ternary operation) 



s5gS5fS& SldSo 

~ ^ -JR v' v 

M J?\ rfmA > 

J5o^^ A rv 

e) Q 

$ a, b, c, ^c 



a,b,c co 

P (1) ?3oS$^$ ^gd&SS : A 



a a 



so sgrtfa&s' n 

sr 

P (2) S"*2r*5tfg uT*gd&3$w i ^f^) 2&&oS) cTd&s5o$ (Absorption 



P (3) *#s&a* <> S#S$x> : f\*XA,^.ffi p /j\ 



1=1 a -a . (non - negative) ^o* 



""a e A <Sa a-i = A ( N 

a, t= A 0.30 a t= A v ' 



> roeo c^gcojiy^ tj" lw ~*e> "*** ^ClocJc 

Algebra^ e$odj8o. M ^c3 



P (5) S&gotftf c^gdfibSSjj : 1 , 2, 3 m e5&?6D m 

A " " 



, A J6^a fot^eo IS fk"! = (k+ 1 k^m 

, v ; i 

]1 k = m 



M 

(N(g))(M, IEI) 



P 16) 2)^?> e3*gdbbSaj c6^& 8 

a ! ( a z ^ a 3 ) = ( a ! a 2 ) E (a t a 3 ) 9 ( (s) ) = H ( 6 (s) 

rv 



31 



(Semi grouf?) S <3 &Sb8 
S50[dSc)^ P (1), P (2) 
S a e9g&&p$S*S$ ^ (S 



(Monoid): 
(S, ) S rf^sSxpsSsS P (8) 



(Group) : (S, (g))e3 



(S, ), P (5) 



S es^ cSsSs^SfoSaflte G *S 
(l), P(2), P(8) r P(4), 



G. 



(6) 



G 



?6o^grT > 



S 8*& a 



82 



n 



, G, G 1 



1-1 



. S 



oo~> G 0*3 (jSS&pog'&D g, 
g- 1 S g=S. 



(Ring) 



, P 
i 
P (5) 



. A SSo 



(Field) 



(Vector Space) 
V 5^ 



, F 
. V, F 



a 



(ii). <5( 
+ C/J (iii). ^C 1 e F 

1 ^ (i v ) 

a) (v) 1 a = 



B 



A 



. a, b, c 



co B 



(i) a V a = a A a=a 

a A b b A a 

a v b 5= b V A 

a A (b AC) = (a Ab) AC 

a v b (v c) = (aV b) V c 

(ii) a A (a v b) = ay (aA b) = a 
(iii) ^e ^ 



(iv) B a* O, I 

A a=O, OVa = a 

1 Aa = a, IVa = I 



(v) B 

a' ^ S^if^&D B 
a A a x = 
a Va 1 = I 



83 



. S 



x, y, z 



rt^ x ^ x 

(ii) x<;y, 



(iii) 



"3o 



V 



, S 



19. SS 



(Calculus of Variations). 



co o 






John Bernouli 



1667-1748) |jS 
(Brachistochrone Problem) 



otfon- 



[I- ^, 1689 
(Principia) 



Lo<2>8 



SS"| 



(Euler : 1707-1783) 



(Bolza") 

\ / 



ii 



- - e -- - e - o, L oa 

i. P,Q 



CO 

& 30& 

(Space Tech- 3 fl* spfia 

y = y(x) ;Xl ^x^x 2 (i.i) 
y (x^y^ y(* 2 ) = y 2 (1.2) 

(Algorithms) sSg. 



[Soft 




r ,S 

LS 



(Real valued functions) t5a^^&D. ?6&?3s. Li^oieJ tfoo 15 ^. (1-2) 

Sgo^ y(x) 
L2 



L 

P,Q 



(Domain of the Function) a^ 

?SSi>S^ a.S' IfSSjS' ArSS^5Sbd, dc3^d"e3gb P ? Q 

T^ g'oJS ^T^spa^ S 



(Technique 
of Variations") *$^ a.^ S)?s5."Sy^ Sjtf^a ^c5n" P O 

/ 65 * O 3 



P, Q 

(Catenary) 



2. 

(Minimal Suifaces of Revolution) 



3. 

G 

(Brachistochrone Problem) 
P (x ll0 ), Q (x 2 ,y 2 ), 

X x , ^ X 2 , y 2 > O 

3o& ao2fi$e. P> 
y 



. P 3 Q 



(Elastic) 



P &o^ Q s 

o. P,Q 



= y (x) 



X 



SSdi?6o sSaoAd&zs'SS S) 

. "30^ 

y-y(x) 

T 



. P(x 1> y^, Q(x 2 , y a ) 



(2.1) 



V 



2gy 



: T 



y(x), P, Q o 
(Cycloid) ea 



S Stfrfo^ rfoo-9. (2.1) 

S^ y(x) 
. S 



II 



G. A. BLISS; Lectures on the Calculus 
of Variations; University of Chi- 
cago Press; Chicago, 1946, 

O. BOLZA: Lectures on the Calculus 
of Variations; Dover pub. 1961 

P. CICLA : An Engineering Appro- 
ach to the Calculus of Variations; 
1946 

A. R. FARSYTH : Calculus of Vari- 
* ations ; Dover Publications ; 1960. 

M. R. HESTENES : The Calculus of 
Variations and Optimal Control 
Theory; John Wiley & sons ; 1966. 



S. H. GOULD : Variational methods 
for Eigen Value Problems ; Univ. 
of Toronto Press ; 1957. 

F. D. MURNAGHAN : The Calculus 
of Variations Spartan Book; Wash- 
ington. D. C. 1962. 

LA. PARS : An Introduction to the 
Calculus of Variations ; John 
Wiley & sons; 1963. 

H. SAGAN: Introduction to the Cal- 
culus of Variations ; Me. Graw Hill 
Company ; 1969. 



20. 



. *. 1900 * alj-, 32) fcSdj* (Ricci and Levi Civita) 
Ikti e,sf 

tf^o, $ 

feS" (Einstein) 
o \ / 



"(Scalar) 

sSj 
(Vector) 



87 



StfooootS 



a, "3 



to & 



(Elasticity^o 

27 ?6ospQO) 

C 

(Rank) 



= 3) 



3 3 ^9o"fe 27 






_tf^ (homogeneous and isotopic) 



/Components) 



(Deformation) 



(Summation convention) EPA* 



w&*S$3. fisi^tf T, p OD 
(Current Co-Qrdinators) x, y, z s^, x 1 , x 2 , x 3 e 



It 

(Basic Vectors) e^ e^ 5 3 , &a l 
A" &, n> oo*oeo A* e^ gr? A 1 5^ + A 2 
Sb 3o& Stf&oSjS ^cj-enoy^ooo. baa A* (i = 1, 2, 
(Contravariant) ^tferean A (i = l, 2, 3) S ^sJ*t^o (co variant) 



A* = A.. 

SiSo 






(cylindrical polar axis), fiVs*tf ^53X So^sSxi (spherical polar axis) 

' 



(Metric) e 
(Elementary arc) Ptf 

ds 2 = g dx l dx j ' 



g. . 

g. ,= e. , e. = -. 
* 



,. ; 

= : i ^ j 



(Kronecker delta) 
:>x 
id^tfrS^S 3*K3 tfeoD^o'tf fo6Vea) (^Dual basic vectors) 

/ 



A* 3^ A. 



1 , x' 2 , x /3 , ...... 



A/ ax* .a 

A i= 77- A 



( , A 



A i = g.. Aj 



A* J " t A. ., A . 



A* J 



K 



es 



A'. ' = 

3 



K 



(r + s) ^oSb Sb|ysS) 



dx 



ax 1 



dx" 



dxPs 



i. " dx' ; 



dx /f 



n0 



(Absolute) 



90 



II 



{ ,+B. . = C. . 



A* 



A*. B, 7 =C*., 7 
j feltn jfeiw 



"BS^fio 



"fj 



"Bc6^g )2r>tf!g&> (Outer product) 

"SoSoo 



(Inner product) a, So* 'asp co' 

"So&o 



(Inner multiplication") 



. wotftfo 



A\ B. T =C. T 

j tim jlm 

a,S" [jS^tfo &*& (Contra variant index) 
"B^fio ^o^)^, 2 ^/^e&oa. 

A ijfe A Jfe 
A I* A 1 

*<)ess o 2foflr*ft) A cXss*^ fSo^tJsio (contraction') 65 

^ 3o&& a,^^^ (5^ ^o& 
StfSb 



?3e 



(even rank tenser) 



A 1 oSp, A* B. fc 



(Quotient law) 



^ B. fe 



A^=A* e, escco^ 

t 



e. 



dA = A { di. + d(A { ) 5. 



A ^D x 



dA 



di. 
"a?" 



61 



dx fe 
A G3ba^^. 

A. 



9 ^CPG &T;J*&D& (Aggregate) &ptfo fSatf A { So- 



fe 



ofiS 1 A* c3x>;,_ SkS-iSo wSSg'osrtQ;) A'; 
A i .,.= 



A*. fe , A { . fe 



^Christoffel Symbols) : 

?5oa3, 



, . fe 

91. 
p = - . _ L 

lfi i ei 8*" 

de. 

p , = e* _ L. 
1 



[Sofl 



jfe 



= 1 _ + 

ft j* 5 ^ dx* 

r d g 

pt _ 1 gtl I * ? _L 

1 * ~ 2 L V s 



(Metric Tensor) &d3j*Aoa [So<5 



ii 



. 
= 1?" " 



A = dA *J - 
~~ 



dA.. 



a a 



..IT 



* 



fe <rf a 

...*... .^... 



ki 



"BS^Cfi 



grad, ^ = - r 
dx* 



Div A = A* . 



curl A = 



(1) Vector and Tensor Analysis By H. LASS. 

(2) Tensor Calculus By B. SPAIN 



: Dr. P. V- 



21. 



93 



6S. e*&d6 



SS5 

9 C? 



94- 



(theories) 



sjg 



?3o5J^ea 



s-iSb. 



(predict) 
StfSb 
^fic' 
dence) 



(empirical evi- 



$638* 



II 



- (Economic Microscope) 



(indirect effects) && 



o (Behavioural changes) 



output technique) 



(W. W. Leontief) 
(Input- 



96 



(Sectors) JT 
S30(^b?&. 
^sSx)o?63 So8 
(goods and services) 



(Theory of firm) ?5o<& 



X' (lamda) 
J d 
e^ 
(cost function) 



X = a+bQ -fcQ 2 (a, b, c ex ft 



(a) 



inal cost-MC) 



dX 
"dQ" 



(b\ c6/(&a s5gd3osSx?i (Average cost-AC) 



96 



X a 



(c) 






"derivative) 



I 


* 



U/ 







1 T dX X 
Q''dQ' ~ ~Q 



] 



= - [MC-AC] 



'k' 
ward) 



(down 



M 

Q y 



<0 



(MC-AC)< 



?3o?S 



lowest 



point) sStf 



22. 

23 1 






SB 



(Plots) fear?ss$3&. s^a^ 6 03 



sSoS)?5 



(Design 

of Experiments \ e3^> "|J$8tfj$ \^\&& ^^> atfd&S&oexi ^disStSrj 

b" (Sampling Techniques) 

3iO > 53*Sb 



si<3 



98 



II 



(Anthropo- 

metric Measurements) 
/ 

^Nutritional Deficiency) 



?6sSd6sSxa*, 



(Status 1 )^ 

\ / 

(Statista) ^ 
(Statistik^ & 



SoS 



^Observations) " 



_a 3 



ejtftf 



23. 



(Probability theory) S&^a ofifi, 



(abstract) 



Sea 



i i 



(chance) 



($#3 IJ5 ft a 



(axiomatic) 

(Random Events) 



1628-1662) So, 



(Chavalier de Me' re 1 ) 
?S^f6g^ 
(Pascal : 



"6, 6" 



26 



4 : 25 ^ 6 : 36, s-a 



(Fermat: 1601-1665) 



100 



(Von Mises : 1920) 

EPeS8c&j3 B gcS3d6 /Relative frequency 

Interpretation of probability) 

(Fisher, R, A. : 1920) 

g^b froQifi tf^Sfe&o (Statistical 
attitude) Qftjsrtfc. Sb8fccpo#s (Measure 
Theory) Q3Qtfor? ft 

(Kolroogorov : 1933) 



a, "3 



eJfif 



*0 > esfe 



flg)55 "1, 2, 8, 4, 



5, 6 



(Random Experiment) 



(Sample space) 'S' 



S : "(1, 1), (1, 2) ..... (U 6); 
(2, 1), (2, 2;, .... (2, 6); ..... ..- ; 

(6, 1), (6, 2), .... (6, 6) 4 ' w3 6 



11 



E 

(Event) 
(5, 8), (6/5) 3 2 
E 



101 



(Equally likely), 3d' 
SSSespoSSh (mutually exclusive)9& 



(Favourable outcomes) f 

\ j & 

f 



ere 



86 

(5, 6); (6, 5) 



2 
E 



(E) = 

> ' 



36 

?5oBDo$oO?6 

3j 



, 60 



aeo 



61 



&3 E 

frequency) 

(Idealised constant) 



(Relative 



(Statistical Regularity) 



E : 



, n 



- & E 



, P (E) 



: (i) 



(ii) 



Lim 



n ^ oo 



(Valid Jnferen- 

\ 



ces 



(Calculus probability), ^ 

^esSbocp 



102 >&*?$& J>^ II 



ar 



(set function) 

^Q^do ?<S ^ojpgSV^Sxs. aa&gy^&x) (Genetics) 

cDg&S"^ spe^tfea y^&a (meteorology^. 

(Axio- ^^^ (Physics), 

toatic Approach to Probability) 

E, e& 



(E) &, E 



24. 



, ss "3o&tf5o&_ A, B 



(Samples) 



o 

Ji)P(S)=l, (ii)P(E) 

(iii) E, F eo S & Bo&?5 "3o& SJQ^O -o ~ " "6 

E, F oS"^ ^^c6o 
f, P (E + F), 






A, B 9^ 65oJ*6"^OOO ^CT" o 

*)^ jJSSft LfSdficpSSsio^ 8 ^ S$56s&e>5b 



108 



; A, B o 



(Null Hypothesis) EL O. 



si o 



sjoti 



JS SSdSg'o Saoi, 



D 



(0 < a < 1) 



Q L 



104 



il 



400 



eo. fiaa o<3 

, 30 



82 



62 



80 s*o&ex> 



62 So-^Q, 30 



So 



D| = 



A = 



D 



. a = 0.06 



R)?5 D 



1.88; ajSdfc D, 
^o 5 



62 



Dl = 



p= 



P 1 -P 2 



A/ pq ( + i 

v \ D i n 2 / 



#8 



166 



y = 



n = 



2 



a = 0.05, V 



,t = 



= 



^)odx>oS. 



o-asSg 



53^ 



106 



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1 n. 



n 



s/ = 



j=i 



x = 



y = 



x.= 



, F 



S) 



fifc 



cS&ScoCT'SSbo. 



X 2 - 






X 2 = 



0. 



n = 



Tn 1 



167 



= 


Z- 


5 


V- 

v n 

\ lo s 

i i 


1~ 
^1 

l+i 
l-i 

I+P 



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r = 



p = 

^ 



- 3 > 1.96 



(n), 
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(Abraham Wald) 

^ 

]3 



53- 



n, a, 



n 
H 



& 



f 



. H Q , 



X 



f (x), ^ (x) 



x , x 2 , x T 



A, B; (0 < B < 1 < A) 



X = 



~ m I f fT \ 

- ' I *o l x i) 



i' ,m = l,2, 3... 



x , x , x S)a)S5co 

l' X 2' X 3 " 

H ^D 



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106 



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(ii) 
(iii) 6$ 
(iv) 



(vi) 
(vii) 



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1947 



,. 1960 






00 







300 



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300 



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1 



30 







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110 



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ex>r? 



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12 ft 

s^g^con', k ASS ED 
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N 



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n 



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190 



196 

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196 



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J 0-30* 



tftfsfco 



A, B, C 



A A A 


B B B 


C C C 



A 
B 
C 


B 
C 

A 


C 

A 
B 



A 
C 
B 


B 

A 
C 


C 

B 
A 



1872 



25 



A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


D 


E 


A 


B 


C 


B 


C 


D 


E 


A 


E 


A 


B 


C 


D 


C 


D 


E 


A 


B 



Aodooofi. 



. A, B, C, D 



C B A A D 
A C D B C 
D C A C D 



eg 



4 
SKJorr- 



114 



III 



4 iofioo 



A 


B 


D 


C 


B 


C 


D 


A 


C 


A 


B 


D 



e.g' er<3S 





r6S5d3C)^ 


23^) 

CO 


83"^ 


6s*a& 

ti 


SS'oaCfi 


2>l_to:56 


i 


A 


B 


C 


D 


ii 


B 


A 


D 


C 


in 


C 


D 


B 


A 


IV 


D 


C 


A 


B 



a.S'j. sS 



Sfctf 



800^ 



SSofc ^o&oofi. 



SCPCT* 



cSodiprP 



M, A., M.&p.o 



115 



[j68 



M. A., M. Sc. 



AoA. 



2T. 



(confounding^ 



S'oflS 



116 



tical Quality Control) 



(Statis- 



, SS3tfSoS*a 



(2) esofisptf sSaSo^ SStf&ea (Accep- 
tance Inspection methods") 



63 



1 

(Quality x * 

Control -Charts) . 1924 



(Wattage), g& 



SCPCJ- 



Bell telephone Laboratory 6* 
53*05" sfr*sJ5" (Walter Shewhart) 

v 



. l S 



fora 



(X), 57gS> (R), 



(o-) 



, es |j$8 
(x), 



s"a>a, 



(c) 



SS8lo^ 



(Poisson) 



(c) 



?6oeDo5oO^ 



118 3s*&&iS' II 



2. 



(Runs) &P\ 9o Sj*e8, 9S$ c&o>o s^ii. 



(n) 





X S' 

^ y ^-W t>(\j, rJcO jjNJ^ptvOn c a 

(Screening) 

(ii) L i 



53jCSS ( Single sampling plan ) 



5 5" 



119 



X , c 



c 2 , 



S C 



(Dauble-Sampling Plan) 



n (< n^ 5*0(3, 



( Multiple Sampling Plans ) 



(Sequential Sampling 



Plans) 



o \ d 

CO J 



( Planning Department ), 
( Production Department ), 
( Inspection Department ) o 



s*Sbocr, 

' 



SCPCT* 



28. 






^ 3 



Theory) 1921 5T 8 

5r^s5ap, S)^ ^6"& a^Si&o (in-put, 

out-put analysis) n* 1936 d^ W. W. 



(Linear Programming) n 

1947 ^ 



(Dynamic pro- 
gramming) 



It 



S^ofi 



ei e> 

Sc&D&J, 



a.S' 



si a 



121 



"a a 



(Balanced diet) 



53-aa 



^3 ^odi) 5jS3 



A, B 



>, A 



B 



o 



A s*S, B 

' 



1 sS 



S^ 8 ^ S3c$53 do 



W. W, 



Q O CJ o 




sra^aa 



So 



(Inventory) ?3 



(queues^ 



sjfi 



/Traffic signals) 8* |jSdoa 



rftfrs- 



123 



sjos* 



i 

u L, 



in 



29. 5 ctfo 00 





193 e 3tf on* 193 tfoa>o S3*<3 

o 



tfei 

" OL 

, 53 



633^* sSj^S^M dSbojro 






20^ 

o 



136 



10' 15 Sbdo6"e; S5ofc = 10' 31 S. 



o 

S. in*. 

atf^aa^aa 






S5g S'o 



_. L _. - e - -- - .-^^ -- (5j"ds v^ (UcOD^iPO^ eseaod'tf?6& 

GO 



8367? 



^8 



o. 



126 a*rtfa8>$ II 






a. 5*^ 



a,"! 



30. 

(Structure of an atom) 

(isotopes) 



(fundamental- 
unit^ StfsSreaaSS> fatom^ eso4j*fiS. StfsSj* 
/ \ / 

\^/ V 

(Atomic number) 



<P 
1.87 X ID' 24 



8.96X IQ- 2 ' 

L_ 

^fOoDCO OC3oJV II 

io- 12 



(Thomson model) 



19$ S'spa OS50 sVff* J, J. 

o co 



(Rutherford's 



model) 



8300E3 



(Centripetal force) S5o 



SOPCP 
\*>& 
(Characteristic 



Frequencies) 



127 
[Bohr's atom 



Model] : 



drS>) 

oL 






8*5 [Niels Bohr] 
QoD* 
stulates) : 



(Po- 



3 

(Non-radiating) 



(Angular momentum) 



(n) 



n= 1,2,8,... 



(2) ^o 



v 



128 



II 






(Classical mechanical laws) 



E -~ 



m e 4 1 



3 ^?SSx) X 



ksS 

[n>kl 3*08 



1 _ 1 / _ 27T 2 m e 4 
X he \ n 2 h 2 



2*2 me 4 

k 2 h 2 



(Rydberg Constant) 
fia SeoiS 1.09 X 10 5 -So. Ib.' 1 



(Sommerfield's 



(band) 



(Arnold 



Sommerfield) ^os 11 & 

v^o 

5stf (Elliptical) 



(Fine Structure) 



?6ogpg (Orbital quantum 



number) 



0, 1, 2 












(Precession) 






(Ecentricity) ^pdi^boa. I = 0, 1, 2, 8, 4 
s, p, d, f, g fi5^ ^^cpexin 1 
fritetfyjeo (Sub-shells) 
n = 1, 2, 8 Sex^oSo ^Xe &ox> 1 



129 




1). 



m 



m 



v 



^ 

n 



- He + , 



(Com- 



ponents) 



(anomolous) 

(Stark effect) 



(2) 



fctfon- 



lo 



AS.S'Si" (Uhlen- 
),^S" fc^ff (Goudsmit), tpfc (Pauli), 

(Lande), ^5"^ (Stern), 
(Gerlach) T &o*" (Dirac) co ^S)^ 
#^4 sS^sSreso ?6(ar f6siir>^ (Vector 
atom model). 



(Vector atom model) 



1. 

quantization) 
antization of Direction) 

2. 



(Spatial 
(qu- 



ize and form)] 
^o&o S)C3o^ 

" L^^^ 25 :^ 7 ^ 
(Orientation of the 



orbits In space) 



(Orientation) 



130 



II 



(Projection) 



(Zeeman Eflfect) 



(Space quantization) 



CO 



D 2 (5890 
?6o^^ 
Zeeman Eflfect) 



a (6896 
6 



(Magnetic moment) go*^ AodO)0(3. 



(anoraolous 

. &$& 



(Electron spin) 

. 1925^ ASSSi" 



(i) 
(ii) 



(iii) 



a.g' 



DOO) (quantized vectors) 



.^ (Vector atom 



model) 



(Vectorial 



length) 



a (Vector analysis) 



(a) 



- n 



, 2, 8 .... 3tf3_ 



(b) 



(c) 



s : &R) 



(d) 



(P \ 

(P N o 



j : 






(Vector addition) j e 
jfcoa. J56 I + - L '" 



\ 



^-""p" 



131 



(e) 



(parallel), |]5d ^aSro^d'sSx) (anti-parallel) 



\& 3 



I ^o^ + 




FSs -f 1*1 LSS' 

^^g :m $ gb+|, ^-i 



192 Ss'JSafiS' n 

(g) 



m : 



3*0060 o$>g j 



m. , 



p m 



31. 

5*oS tfe3eo e*S" 

1666 



O 

o 3o<3S cf^efo wStf i 

19 



. q^ SSto 



SoS dig, 



. 

c 



. a) 



3 tf^&o coo&A. 



o o 



08* 



^ ?sS 8000A 

O -*0^ 

7600A 



CO 

' 8 Ibo. Sb,; 






o 



loJOuJ^AoXOO oJOoJ 5*00 *X>Ji JVVT 

V = I , 



t 



|jSs*tfs$oo 



, _ Y ' - *^ -%: 

e L 



* " VXH = f - ...(8) 

E, H 



A&j tt^CJUWt*' k oJU QJJ~V^ ejuu^-'^ix **MW^^^ ^ ~ 

^ - - - . 

a, t 



134 



It 



e A Sin 6 

?! 



= E= 



H...(6) 
; A 



c 5*0^ rt&o; r, 6, CD 
E, H 



COP 



, S)6 






Ze 2 



- ( 



Z e 



; r 2) a 



M v 2 

- 



M 



; v 



> 



M Z' e 4 






& A 



sjodb 



136 



1895 



(Transition) S5o 
3 



S)fl 



x- 



x- 



gi (Range) 



x- 



a- 



Y- 



. Sb. 



X- 



xn-S, 18780* 

J 



1 90 1 e* 



600 



o ^o&, 



(Selenium) 



& eo 



(Mechanical scanning desks) 



<J> 



s^oS StfsSoSooo 3 

-, 



32. 






_ 



Steooo&l. 1928 6* 3tf^4)- fi^ t! 

(Baird), ejo<"^ (Jankins) ^>& fiv^^ (Directional property) 



o 

flf CO , O 



to So 



187 



&J 



&tfoS$e><* 



oL 

sjc3 



esa*tfon estfo 






8,066 



1906 



esQAofi* 



rv 



SS^Sin' 30^)0^ "^O^S'o tfc&P 






1924$ 



*p' 



(Group Velocity) S'ea 



x- 



^tfonc 



isfi 

sr 



a,"! 

oei 



* 



\ 2 " 



[Dynamics of macrosco- 
pic objects]& aa^o 



1. 



, 5*08 



A 

SoflS 

8 



cn. 

w 

.2. 



Q 

^^^c2cpo?6i> 



[1900] 



eadb^tfb, 



= hV 



V 



; h 






hV 



(1923) 



f5<?3?s5o g" 



P ?& ]&jl&rto tfo 

x = A e 



(1927), 3P&&5 1 (1928) 



(1918) 



a c? L- 

SS6[4f S^^ 



SStfeao 



AE ^ SStfeao 

^^g&D 5^ 

V = AE/h 



. 



J. 3. = 



V 

R : 



/ 1 ! \ r 

= R I -r r I |m, n : 
\ m n / L 






146 

er 



&S)oe5 T >&&ri', rS9|jSc3 e d& 

"oP?6c5'8Dfio (1925) 






(1926) 



SCPCT ^&tfdpgQDa. ^[fireaS" "loitf 






estfo 



o5o|j&3d& d&o|jW r>^*^, ooa se/S (^acoDSx) y (^x, 



coo 
tftf a^LoOo<3. 

O 



- . , t 1926 ] 

' r dx ^iicrS x, x + dxo 

^^%W UJ* >-^. 



W, 

W 

55S5 ^S (E) SoD^O^b ^^^ 

d 

' dx' 



HI 



dt " tt n 

Cujo "^if6 o)Qi dSb fi Co c^) 55*000. m 



" Rch , 

E _ (c = s>o 

n n 2 \ 



2m 



2m dx 2 "Si 



r' 
o 



o 

-iEt 

J/- (x, t) = ^ (x) _- r s*S$fco sSo 
6 "h ^ 

- ti 2 d 2 ^ 

__!_ 4- v ^ = 

2m dx 2 

x'^" **C 'x^ j^ > *^*^^ fi S C w C4 " oj S O (O \tO 

\\j fOoJJ5OB3O oj(\JwOCj . *J 

^S^^esofiT* 






. C5" S^^eao 

fn + M ?iV ^ $tfo sSoiofi. -^B , . . S5J7 . g- ^^^ rfnoai 

\ 2 / soraSio. saa^ - fv& M 19^6 1 

<. ,^-.*\V __.. _sf ffs *! C3 O L J 



o 

Kv 
w n V ti Q - 

E = 



E-ifi ^-r, 
at 



E. = j (j 



tf P^-^ V 



[1928] 



x , at . a , 
* y* ' 



142 
4X4 



[0<3 



E = c Vp 2 + m 2 c 2 = c (*J? M + p 
+ flf p + /3m c =c a p+/3m c^ 



E *i 




ot 



-iti V 



iti 



dt 



4X4 



E = c 



E = + me 2 , E me 2 



me 



Irfc 



TI 



. 2mc 2 



Y - 



VI )S^&ocx)o; 



fo^ (1988J 



" S, 



ft-S' 



34. 

(Relativity) 



S$?SOX> 
n 2) _* 



tfdaa 



9 es 8)t3 

Q 



^ a.s 



. (Special 



Theory of Relativity), 

(General Theory of Relativity) 






Q 

186 



3e> a*j ^^^^ go- 8X10* 



(Ether) 



18.5 



1887-1897 



aa S56j 

Q 



144 Ds'jS&Jte II 

v 



S'o'cb 



200 



55 



" 

1905^5 




i. 



sSgJ' SStftf 
1. 



2. 5-0^^ 

rr>, s^oQ 

^oeo^o 



o 

3al 



146 



o co 



o 



I' 



(10) 



m 



m = 



,. 



'+-? 



146 



II 



See&oa. oi& 



2,2 X 10 13 . 



(Absolute) 



(One dimensional) 
(Coordinate) S5 



(Two dimensional). 

x 



(Four dimensional) 



(Four dimensional continuum) 
, y, z, t ^ 



a* 



147 



1916 



rfo 



fo^fi^ Aotoofi; 



tSIb 



^600 

?S ^o 

J (Action at a 



distance) 



o 



BDOO 



m m 
= G._L 



d 2 



ss^tfea 



cSsSo 









148 



ii 



ds 2 = dx^ + d?* + dz 2 + c 2 d 2 



ds 



df 



, dx, dy f dz 



tf&Q^&dSo 






3cx5oa><o 



2)\tfs3tibf&o<3. 



35. 



(Nuclear Structure) 



(Atom) 



(Nucleons) 



*3 *[#$&> (Nucleus) 



(Proton), rS^j|jt^& (Neutron) 



io- 28 



1.67 X ID' 24 JH-.). 

1886 "5 to 



148 

pion) S$e 



[Rho], fiu&n- [Omega], 5 [Phi] 



"loi 



\&> Ci 

Z + N 

( z r 

+ * -v n 

io~ 12 -ao. So. ; 



10 +14 ,n. &. 7)0. Sb. ^o&oofi. SS^oS'^o^ ^^dT^op (Isotopes) 

^oa. qS C- 12; C-18, 

TNuclear forces! sooSoO ^ H . 

L J C 14. 

^ ^^ 6, 7, 8 

2X10" 13 "foo. So. (ird'^^ _* 

a*a as 

C- 12 

m "' LJ" W ' Q 

i.C - 13, C- H.eo^a 



esofioo 



."o?cO><Ci>o (Meson- 



160 



II 



, a- a 



^&o^S sjjodio (discrete quantum) 



b. |S58 
f S, S*rfcC 
momentum). 



(Energy level) 
, (angular 
(Parity), sjtftf 



(magnetic dipole moment), >& 
Cb^S [ip&tfciae (Electric quadruple 
moment) *3 



(Dynamic Electromagnetic moments) 



(Electro magnetic 



transitions) 



(multipoles) 



^n* S)S58ot3oo'&, 
SJoa>&o& (Parameters) 



eSS' 
SraSfoo, 



sSofiS 



fc^a) M (Virtual states) 



. S)a **ci^fo^bex) M (Bound states) 



(Internal conversion Electrons) 
(decay) 



(Radiative lifetime) & c <3 05 



M (Transition 



probalities) 



e$r5sStfafc$a> 

. fla tftf& 



CO fii * 



" (Models) 



161 



cSooofioOcS 



1. 



(Liquid drop Model) : 



tf^ Sf (Volume 

o ~~* 

Cohesive Energy)rto&; tfo^cSj^ (Sur- 
face Tension) 



(Semi-Empirical mass Formula) 

S>d$tfc52Sx> (Nuclear fission) 



(Shell Model) 



28, 50, 82, 126 w 



(Magic Numbers - 



(Realistic potential well) 



5 



(Individual particle levels) 



E>ob [coupling force], 
(orbital 



motions) 



3. 



^Collective Modelj 



(surface vibraiions)rs 



(odd particles) 

(average potential) 

tfD&r* ^odJ'o 
So&asaooS* 



^30^)03 



(delbrmauon) 



(ellipsoidal)^) |jS6Qj& 



" (Rotational Spect- 



(vibrator) 



#" dosje>&, "fo[tfS'&!>c tftfsfo& 1) "Nuclear Physics" [19751 

2) Nuclear Structure Studies 

Angulear Correlations Experiments 
from Ph. D. Thesis [1970] 



36. S5 6 

(NUCLEAR ENERGY) 



i. 

9etJ 
2. 5jtftfS 

^, 8; 



L o - 2. 



E = MC 2 



M &oftv^tf.a?S *" I E 

^0^. (C = 
8 X 10 10 "ao.Sb.a, 



0,0263.<3T*.1#* 3*<?5s&o *3&?5)<3b sStfsSyeso &o : 4H 1 



n 1 + energy 
tf tf<3T* 



3. 



i 



if 



i 



+ Energy. 



200 

e 

- 235 

t^tf^OrS}*" aTO(3f6 (53i>dio J^oSj'db ^ fig 

6.3 X 10 6 S^spdu Ao<be> r_? 

cOD oSj-i3b 50 

(coal) 

f 8 



3. 



O Q ^7 *\^ ^\ ^ >^ ft 

2b.T oJO.oJ ^o v a 

StoSoa iSSiSdieo o-^ L^L 8 ^ 

O)OD c$c5)&oA* 4 



168 



Il 



B. ^pScSrS" iiifio 



20 



(Snap)-27 

" " 0"o 

65 

CO 

- 12 






, TR-1, 

TR-2, TR-5 s$e sSoKef^w), TG-1 
TG-7 



S5*fi> 



& m * s 



155 



10 6 



S 



^ - 

: 3*. T^^na -3>Q*to 



37. 



(COSMIC RAYS) 



975 



. 1911 ^ofi 1914 



6500 &o(3 0,000 



1,30,000 



tf w cx> 167 



, D^Stfra 
o*^do5o 

v/ 

. 1927 <3* 



4. 
1. 



&& 

^tf 1:d3^ a 

rt>aoi3 



1927-1928 SosS^o-oa* 'J* 



. *a -- o 

o 



u 

XS ^ tf\ ^*/ 

1928<sr 



1 . C^H ytr 9)6/0 O A 



^. 

4-^Tia'n*' XAifa 

60,000 



158 



ii 



20 



100 



eS) 



), JpDc^Sio, 



s^Co 









, A 



206 
K 



2. 



, 4. 



S3n*c&ia, 3. tfgtfes 



1. 



300 



2. 



4. 



J>a 

* 

3*s ~s & - *s^ a&^CFojSfo o^So?_oJ S^oJ&OojO . 

. e<?oss co2JoSjj : & u > 



c3 



38. 

(ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) 



169 



1930 sp&S si?6Sb [is ^"E?a a^ s5gd^ ^ra&i (anti- 

05^: 1. ^os* (S", particle) ^otoofi. > 

2. |&*tr>^. 3. fSrci trS", 4, 



(electrically neu- 

<PO__ 

tral) ^E5*o^b oS^So^ 
(strangeness) 

iofi 

c\)a3C ^ -v- ~ ^ 

(material world) *-& ^^^ ES ' S^^e- ap^sa 

ST-CP 



i 



160 



&g' ii 



V3 



Jl 

8 

Vo 

*n 
TO 


<va 
V3 



V2 
b 



TO 
o 



& 
ff 



o 
V2 



A 

8 



t 



60 






o o 



o o 






* 



to 



/fe 



\1SOI 

& *? 






V2 



f 

<D 



X 

03 



I I 



O *-4 



p3j 
V2 



to 



f 



p + 

03 O 



o 4- 



o 
03 



c? 



1 

O 

i-H 

X 

CO 



1 





X 

03 



OQ 
t- 



o o o 



9 i 



M 



to y? 

& A Jfe 

<VQ I 

1 I ^ 

x> 



161 






# 

& 



*0 Vo 

TO 1/2 TO (^ 
6D t fiD P d 



V2 



TO 



Vo 



V2 



63 



IS ^ 

D O 

CxQ O/Q 

Y3 Y3 

IPn I d 



t 

18 



^T & 
^3 ^ 

^ ^o 
V2 V3 

s . 






10 






VO 

1 












o 




o 






i 


o 

Y2 ^ 


1 






o 
1 


1 






1 


O 


X 


00 




X) 2 


X 


X 

CO 




V 


Tl 

X 

CD 


O 


jg 




X 

CO 




03 







T ( 




a 





o 


o 

H~ 





o 


o 


T 





T 



LO 


1 


CD 00 
CO CQ 
CO OO 


GX] 
OO 


CO 
CX] 
(TO 


oa 

CQ 
CO 




CQ 
CM 


XQ 

CD 



CO 

oa 



IW 



111 



(W 



V2 



ftoj 



V2 



182 



n 



(high energetic particle) 



(traBsformation) 
^o& AD 
(cosmic rays). 



(accelerators) 



0*30* I 



magnetic interaction) 
n* 



(Electro- 
(Carrier) 



(Strong Interaction) 



a.g' 



3)<a<" (Pion), 



8) e e> 



(Radio active 



nucleus) 



s'd'o (emit) S^o<3. 
oeJ 



(Laws of Conservation) 



-EPdfo. 1956SS 



(Nuclear 



Reaction) 



Ve 



V jj, 



Srg(jSiS*8 



163 




&JS6& 




1987 



A 



SSco 



+P+ m +M+ 



(Yukawa) 



II 



t)<W 0-30- g-dfr Qj* 



. 630068, 



K 



a^es, 



K S'ESPoi, K 



1. l3go*$&&># ^^^"cy(/mass- 
"bmans.) 

(Leptons) . q; 



(Mesons) : 



(Baryons) .* 



(L L s5e>o 2. 



o* s. 



1. 



5g ef^goa* 



e 



&p>& <3. 



:^ B 



1-04-1+0 
0-Kl + O-l. 



left 



^r grjff 



+ 



"3ao 



P, n; 



ifiS' II 



(multiplet)?T 



(Singlet) : fi, ^S \ 
(doubkts) : K+ K; 

(triplets) : + ^ 



T eS Z 



II 



3 [n + 
2 [.K + 
2 [K. K] 
2 [P, B] 

8 [S, + S. 
o I 01 

* L=- = J 



i 

2 
^ 

2 
1 
2 





l_ 

2 







1 
-1 

1 




.1 

-2 







1 
1 
1 
1 
1 





1 
-1 



.1 
-1 

-2 
-8 



aa 



+1, +L, 



166 Stf'&SiS' It 

3. o##c5j) So^g (Strangeness)-S &*5G ^^2^2 tSa^^So \3s*8o 



(multiplet) 
2 - e (X + 1B + } 

\ 2 2 2 / 



J 
o 
(hypercharge) Y = B -f S 



4. 

*> Q ^ . rrft 

/A 10 S 3 *^' S^ K U 

(Anti-particle Symmetry) 



. .2 

C03* ft)"^5P^ S>Oo55), 

5. ^e^o (Parities) a^g^^o: 7^^^ ,**^ ^^A^r/ iV-l^ll 

.""^l ^J 1 



tftfo/f [SSidoo 

I), 



C. S. 4p, 
6. C. P. 



(even parity) sfcotfa, 

(odd parity) 



Soci 



S'o'fe 



o 

*J 

C. P. 



C. P. 



30 S 



S'ESPCO 



SO 



(Reso- 



nances) 



167 



tftfon-eon- 



Su 



(Special unitary Symmetry 



group 8X3 arrays). 



do So 



T, S, Q, B, Y 



), B, C 



fctf 


B^&i- 


T 


S 


Q 


B 


Y 


o 














10 -io 


A 


i 

2 





2 
3 


i 

3 


1 

3 


K^ 


B 


1 





1 


1 


1 


Jj J 




2 




3 


3 


3 


O O&B 


C 


I 

2 


-1 


1 
3 


1 
3 


2 
"3 



II 



1.067 X 10~ 19 
1.602 X ID' 19 



39. 1s 

( TACHYONS ) 






1. 

rao 3-g>a ; 2. 



cQ. 




_ S'fl 

( Tachyous ) ^Sb^sS ^didfo ^<^ei)o.; 

(Mass] 



9 g'eao 
186,000 
X 10 8 



S-^id* 
; 8. - ' - 



A 0*4^^ B eCo^) ^{fooB. s 
d&o|e ^Q^ 



B ^oS T *o 3a eao A 



Soft. 

t 09 -~ -,.,*. -,, 



A - ^-5vrS. *- S A^A H?l "B fiD^OS^^JS^ A 

jSar^ooTY* 



1 a- &So tf JSON aa^ ^n^ s'o&^^'o A 06^ ^A Bn- &8^to, B 



a-fl 



m 

m 



a-S 

(Reverse) ^S5^^. 



An- 



Sb^s* e*oi edwg. A e>&^ && B 






A &o a,^ ^30 



._ 

tfi 



7 3 53 SCS) 

B 



ito 



it 






e.S' 



tfe^db 



es 



Visible universe } 



41 



65 



(light year)S* 

sod (jSdircso 



9.6 



8 1/2 



171 



5*0. co 

0X0 

8 1/2 
; 1085 
j; 20 ^ 



40. (ti ^g 00 - 

(Matter and Antimatter) 



800 rSoiio rSogx? ^fi JStfSb 103 es? 

[^^o^o^ 8 



ooodxSSofi 



(Matter) 



172 



H 



a."! 



"895", cte< 



spfl 



= 3*085/^0. COCP 

f 



SraTifcS 



, ss 



cca^ 



* "I 



fif 



1956^ 



^ Accelerator) 



178 



if' 



Sp&d& 



1,8 



174 



II 



250 



87^, 



rf e 



(Parity) 



41. "So as S" e>o, 



as 



(Microwave 
Amplification by Stimulated Emission 
of Radiation *f>&>;6<2> ss 



tftfotf Stfo &oci 



(micro waves) 



(radiaton) 



(LASER - Light Amplification by 
Stimulated Emission of Radiation & q<3 



s^oodoo 



O Ci -^ 



.(J) 



(V) 



(E) fipO^oa. E = hV 



1. 



S Bofe 



d9f*o'& 



(excite) 

Sipfibt6o<S. "Srti^^cxoS^ sjfi 



tf o 



2, "30(^0 



(stimulate) 



178 



2ftf (temporal coherence) g'SA 

<& [o$[^d&& drjS^Btf &atf'x) (stimulated 

emission) 



lamp) er* 



fisSsS (Incandescent 



_ 

5*08^* 




so. 









s'od oe 



tf 8 



MH V 



177 




^ex> esh 

OU 

(meta stable state) 



10 



sod 



(12) 



(8b). 



178 



ii 



sSo*tf|?Sj&'coaff B S) 



5*08 



tb) 



OOOO OQ 
00*^^ 

oooooo o 



oo\>O(oo 






ooooooo 
ooooopcf 



OOOg^fr 

oo*t^a 

0000^^ 



oooooo 

OO^CIOOO 

ooooooo 




16) 



0$ 



ja SJTP JS^g (amplify) 



530^5 SeaS" 



4otrox,. 



SoS 



100 



179 



o 
^ 



42a &r & & 5 o rr oo 

<2) 
( MICRO - WAVES ) 



1 S 
t s$a*bea titforFcx), (Propagation of micro-waves) 





100 ^oa 1000 

cJicO 

(electromagnetic waves). 



g 12 _. www ,, (Lecher wires) 

g S acfioSeiv lco 



10 U &o3 10 12 

s 

(radiation) 

1000 

3 ^ 

a e^^on*o loSrStfss^b f6sS*X aS)" (Coaxial 

^'^So^O/a,!! cable) & B.tfB.4. 000 



180 



3000 



Sg)2$dBfapActf33. 
(wave guide) es 



(hollow mtal pipe) 

^ ^ 5" 
rl 5" 



^J&D (cross section) 






x, dtfort-eo 




1. 



(Direction of pro- 



pagation) 0"* 



o ^ 3 Electric Waves) 



(Transverse 
^^ H- 



(b) 



. 2- 



TE 5 TM 



161 
(Modes) 



TEio-, TEn-, TMn-, 






TEio 



. 2 



Magnetic Waves) 
E- 



(Transverse 

IM-3tfon"e G^ 



-Sow 



^ TEM 
(Transverse Electro Magnetic 



1,0 



TEio 
Ox 



Wave) 



^.... __ s 





162 



H 



, Oy 



tfx>rv TEn-, TMn- 



3 d'g^D X c ( Cut off Wavelength ) 



sag 



. f, 



(f c ) 



. f, x 



U ^0^5*^03055*0 



X 



X 'V 



V 



a, & b 



TEio 



3. 



^n 



W, E. 368 A ; G. E. 2 c 40 S 

dxpcff, W. E. 81 6 A S*5& 
e 

3800 



Travelling Wave 



Tube 



o (Time varying) 



tf tf 






micro - wave solid state devices ) 



: 1MPATT (IMpact, Avalanche, 
Transit - Time ) ^jo<f, TRAPATT 
( Trapped, Plasma, Avalanche, Trigg- 
ered Transit ^ &o3&*5,- ^^\S &o$j*S 
(Tunnel diode), ^5^ tf<&5",(Gunn Jiode) 



3 SYGallium Arsenide^oiS 
( Semi -Conduct or ) i 
^R)S p-n aaog^v i 

<A rJ 

1 X 10 9 -a*5" &o) 50 X 10 9 



( RADAR - Radio 



Detection And Ranging 



crtfS" 
"3ex)SS 
( microwave pulse 



(Channels) 



(Antenna) 



&cCP>; 

' 



tftfcrreo 



^^)SS (Microwave Spectroscopy) 



it 



( fine Structure ). 



(absorption 



/Atomic clocks) eci5cpdo 

(Caesium) 



(ammonia maser), 

^6S) 
(Solid State maser) 

^ofi. $)?6^ 

> 
S>?5 ^cS)id65" (noiseless 

ra \ 



am 



plifier) 



( Stellar radiation ) 6* 

sp 1420 



(Thick fogs) 



. 



mic- 



rowave diathermy machines) 



(for drying) 



(linear acelerator) 



1000 



. 5 gtftf rftfea3SSboS*3?S& 



186 



43. 



2. 



; 1. a^cft*^ (^Passive) 

( J/ ( Active S 
1, fiT 8 SiS 





-i 1 






I. 



186 



it 



Stfon* 



sootf^&o (Dielectric) 



$&$$ tftfon-o 



S'co/^ 



( Vacuum Tubes 



SjSci& 



<3 c6 SMOGS, 






n- 






1st 



p-n 



p, n 



p, n 



> 



e e 
*- 






p-n 



SS^fi"c n- 



g'orv i 



53 



/ p/ / 



eo 





e "*" 






~* 

e 



n 



n 




pn 




2. 



188 



II 



p-n j 



&rr> (DC) Sptf^ 



p SPo g n 
n-p Sr'tfo &tfg p 



- 5 



npn 

^ 



miniaturisation 



500-800 
6-9 



(IntegFated circuits - Micro miniaturi 
sation] 



2? I s * 



189 



escxocft. 



(Integra 

u 

ted circuits') ^o^So. suS" Scoi| 

Sod6S> 8 mm X 3mm Ib ea* SD 



20 



. s'ojS' 



Mortar 



p CP n 



(Engrave) 
(Substrata) 



n p n 



(8b) es ijS 



( 8f ) 



( Calculators 



(3c) 



(3d) 



(8g) 
n p n 



190 



fib. 



%?i%^^%^^ 






P 






n 


P 



YJ////////A 



n 



VJ/MW. ', 




3 tfg 



a. 



. "So. 



44, tf 



^ddSptfon-53-4 

), tf^^S 

24 



60 
60 



6 5*0 



43,200 



8S 



&tfo. _ ^ B-aww 

( Balance Wheel ) wo&ptia. -Se 






60 ^P sStf o5-eo3t) A. C. 






192 



II 



3*00 



ws5fc5seo5 8 KS 



&p)otfcpa 



SSofo 



n-fioeo 



3>r5 /fa 




80 



a. fS^tfS'So tfadr>tfo (Quartz 
Clock) 



3<5a|5" 



o 




108 






/ * \ 

EjFAo I - I 

\ 10 7 
jja s&eS 



. 5 



SSiJ 



SSocJfio 



^otoofi. 

tfrS o$Sj*fS 



SiSbgS" 



SSod6*o?i s^a 50 H 



(18) 



100 , -. ... 23> 87Q MH ^ 

23, 870,000,000 

C3 



194 



II 






;3Sje3 



f<X) 




^6 



2. 



cr co 



195 



9,192,000,000 SP ^6- Aotoofl 
9,192 MH 2 - 




196 



II 



B 



fcs$x> 3 b 



(3 v; 



. M , M co 







M 



D 



9,192 



2 

D 



D 



D S 



60 H 



45. os> e^ &l*\K&* g 9 & S' 

(Low Temperature Physics) 

r ^ 



3 



tag 
S 



^Sofl. 



19t 



4. 2k 



SpOdCo 



tftf 



1848^* 0-6" 



[0K] 



[10 



" 6 



TZ3S 



1404 



-1 




,OK 



199 



K 



gfl 



IV 



X- B 



i 2S^ 

L 



e.5'd3 



-i O 

4.12K &o& 2.19 



ES <- CO 



,.fi. [3$ ASSQe^oc^ sS 



He II 



ex. o 



He 3 S 



1911 



8 

8 



46. 






(Electrical conduction in solids) 



iatf&oex> 



i r 5 Si 



"SoAofiS 



. 13*0 



1900 S$ 



tftfeoSO 



2T 



M V fi 



m ex> 



Ne 2 T 



, "T* 



(Relaxation Time). 



SS'j. $8 



1920 



& 



(Inner shell Elctrons\ 



(core elec- 



8 S$ 



^ 1 ^ 6* 



5 wc^tfsio 



ASi r Sa i 

o L 



262 



it 






1. 



(Intrinsic Semiconductors) 



00 



6^ 






(Hole) 



Q Q 

(Impurity Semiconductors) 



0.01 er. 



"^ So* 



, na 



03 




^. cp 



P- 



Conductivity of Semiconductors 



SitfCSb 



*b* mobility 



.'. b =. 



V drifc 



V drift 



b " 

nz 



n , 

6* 



Hall effect 



B 



H = R H- 



R 



w 

/z 



p- 



N- 



P* Si* S" a> CO : 
(Super conductors) 

191 1 S5 



04 



it 



. 4.2K 



. o5c 



g 

Q 3 



(Effect Of Magnetic Fields) 



O 



& H / T ) 



= o. 



H .H fl--l 

c I T 2 \ 

H &Sfi oK sStf ^ 

O 



: (Meissner Effect) 



B 



1985 



^S B =s 



o [o3sS_5o^5S>. 



(Isotope Effects) 



i 



1.996 a.m.u 



Q S3 



1 

oc e oc M 2 

C I> 



(Specific Heat and Energy gap) 



(Exponential) rv 
b T / T 









206 



E = 2 A 



1957 

iO 90 o o^ 

Q EO 



47. 



c T 

xss -- 



S'o'S) 



n*lb, 



TRadio- 



Detection And Ranging 



RADAR). 



1930 



(Sound Navigation 



And Ranging 

^ SONAR) 



1912 



S5|SS?5 



207 



sSdBb 



&pfio&o<2>. 



, 5c&<5"& 



c 



> 




-> 







208 




180 



C 1 - 









09 



(azimiuthal) 



(Plan position Indicator) 



Corves 



rSood 



(Blip) 






2 c). 



CPC^S" 



(14) 



TGround controlled Inter- 
ception Radar), 5"s ^)cCoo|8^ oo^S 
( ship controlled Interception Radar ) 



a-a*5' 



(Meteorites) 






210 



i II 



CD 



83 



^5" 



(Passive) 



). 8 



15KH 



tfo 



n- 5 o 



L Osfio> fijSaofc. 2. 
8. 




211 



1, 



A- 



= 1. 82 



BOS) To 









3. 



fcodatf 

O 



40 



Servo, 



*iS8 



212 



II 



(1798) 




:;$.'/" * 

%*&* * 

**$lk:" -. . 



. 4. 



0,2 



(2, 8, 4 t ) asStfSa 5 



|j 



Sciire9o 



ail 



WS4 \ > 

16 



e& ( 0, 1 2 

V 



e^ofi, 

. 0*0-5" 



tfo 



D-np-6' 



SSoc^o^S, 

D. 0*0*6" 



ii 






IV 




48. 



zr>g?o 



<9* 



, sotfsS 



tfctfr-S, K>dje 

o o o 



49. 



L"f)tfeaSb (Stimulus) ^^>[9d6?6i (Respo- 
nse) 



J '(Scientific Activity) 



(Control)^ 



^- - - ~ - +-r \\JLJ | \wjy(\jj ^. j - f^ij ^y^J g^- - - ^ ^ *! liv** v v>w S3 



(Experi- 

ment ^a a^ootf ssa. ^e atf n ^di 






(Errors of Observation) 



2. 



3. 



efeofi. 



oC 



(Chemistry) 



Si? 



^ijj (Matter^ 
<D \ / 

LSSsSotfsSbo 
ant Energy) 



-Radi- 






x- 



\ o 

oL 
i2SsS, 

*- 

S (Mass) 



(Balance) 



^Analytical Balance) 



a 



(Properties, compositon and structure 
of matter) 

or S) 



^Components) 



cra 



(Graphite), sS^&> (Diamond) 



(Changes That Matter undergoes) 



(Carbohydrates) o 



(Chemical changes) e5odr>o 
8 e.g'a gg' i 
D- Reactants) 



ortance 



Of Chemistry) 



ojOT" 



19 



(Synthetic products), roe3 
0*0 (Natural products)& 



sSc3o*o) 



5*tfes>&o, 



(Distillation) 
(Coal tar) ^o^S 

(Perkin) 



distillation) So, 



(Cracking) 






**& 9 



50. SS^ 



(Physical chemistry) 



2. 



(Inorganic chemistry) 



8. 



(Organic chemistry) 



104 



Aofl. s-tf^S 



100,000 



1000,000 



SScr > D T) e 



& j^ 



ooo. 



fi 



Q O 

(Classification of Matter) 



ff 



1 1 



* (Element) 



tfo 



tioafrti ia*5sS^ (Compound) 



ai ( 
L. 



(Elements) 



104 






( Periodic Table of Elements 



(1800) 



(Simple whole number ratio of their 
atoms) &* 



(Laws of chemical combination) & 



SSo 



^o 1 (Nucleus) 



(Protons) ^^ 
electric charge) 
(Neutrons) e^S 



(Positive 



1 (Atomic mass unit) 



t positive charge) 



222 



(Atomic number) esodptfb. & & 



(Shells)^ 3e sjS", (Electrons)ex) ef> 

(Negative Electric Charge) 



(Unit negative charge)n 



So 



(Spin) 31b tftf^o ^zr 8 drofl. -^e 
r6s5go (Clock -wise) r? nS $ 
(Anti clock-wise) r?6 &odx>o<3 



tum numbers 
rvfc ^ K. L. M. ...... 3 



\e oi 

e; o c L 

^So 



(Corresponding to each shell) 

[iS^ofi^ <3o5So& S'^)^ ( y^ 
(Probability or chance^ 



* (Orbital! 



s, p, d, f, 



(^Geometrical 

^Angular momentum) 



' s ' 



(Spherical) 
(Dumb-bell) 



. d, f 



ai os* 



atoms 



Electronic configuration of 

] [_o5 



i. 



2n 2 



. n 






. 2 X 2 2 =8, 



(Energy levels) 



, n = 1 



2. 



f f 



'p* 



223 



Degenerate orbitals 



T 



i 

U 

tf tfo 



v 

J 



S&o&rv 



8. 



. 69 



(Half-filled) g_ 



4. 



S3. 



^ 1) 



Is 1 
(Coeffi- 



cient) 
Q^^d'o 
perscript) 



oSoapg 



= 6} 



Is 2 2 s 2 2p 



2 2 



(Compounds) 



(chemical bond) 



c6sSCPcX&-^ 
(Molecule) 



valence shell 



^05 



(valence electrons^ 



. 3 



(Diatomic molecules^ 



224 



(Helium), ftd&'S' (Neon), 
(Argon), (SsS" (Krypton), 



* (Noble gases) 



(monatomic moecules), S^sSc 



1 (Octet rule) 



= 11) 



1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 S s 1 

8s 1 ^o|>^ 
(Positive charge) 



(Is 2 2s 2 2 p 6 ) 

sStfsapfiao ?6o^g = 17) <^f 
Is 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 . 



(negatively charged) 



Cl, 



p 6 ) 



(Is 2 2s 2 2p 5 3s 2 



static force) 



00 '(Electro- 
^3^aosSfi3<5, 
BS" fNaCl) rr 

,^ ^ ) 



(Ionic compounds) 



(Ionic bond\ 

' 

asSA^ tf^i^ [goQ S)#on 
Na Na + + e~ 
Cl + e- > Cl- 

Na+ Cl > Na+ Cl" 



226 



e n 



is 



. r s r 



(Spheri- 



cal ^OA Aotoofi. 's' 



2, 



Is 



"Soifo 



' (overlap) S$o 



' (Covalent bond) 



a.S' 



0^0 n-fe 



H* + 'H H : H 3tf H - H 



B30&) 



(Hydrogen molecule) TT . 



f (Single 



' (Multiple bonds) 



bonds), 



, a^^oQ'a) (Double 
(Triple bonds) 



^50^0 



(15) 



226 



II 



:Na: :C1: 



:Br : 



H : H 3$ H - H 



H:N:H H-N-H 

I 
H H 



H : Cl : & H - CJ: 



H 

? I 

H:C:H tf H-C-H 

H j, 



TT TT H H 

H . H 11 

H:C:C:H ** H-C-C-H 
H H 



H H 

.... 

c : : c 
H H 



H:C:::C:H 




H 



v 

\ 



H 



227 



(Coulombic attrac- 



tions) io oo$oS)i!fc?rcxo. 

CO 



2. 

8, 

4. 
6. 

8. 



(Isomerism) 



2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 

6. esesi 



(Exception) 



51. 



( Metals & Alloys) 
I 



) (non-metals) S Scr*^' "Soifo 



O A 

(Metals) 



228 



II 



lustre) 



(Tensile strength), 



(metallic 
(brightness) 



(Ma- 



(Ductitity-eo'ft 

S) SS 



(Alloy) 



, sjoa 



sQ-tfS5A 



S$tfo) 



(ore) 



(Method of Extraction) sp^ea 



<Gor'S'tfe90 Sft 



(Haematite, Fe.O 

2 3 



S (Blast furnace) 



Iron), &&fr. (steel), 
(Wrought iron) 



8.6 &o& 4.3 
0.5 &o<3 1.5 *tfo 



a* ft 



(fine- 
ness) VBS"' ( Carat ) <9* 

24 



A o v ^ e- iwujy\c> cjo* \cjjcoj luiuac packed arrange- 

.(Jd yOO 5*0^^ *J J 

ment) T fi Ao6rcx. 



(Body centred cubic), 
(face centred cubic), 

(hexagonal close packing) 



(Electron donors) n 

ci LjSsS^d 

eootf rS S'tfa ^cs*^ex> (Bonding 






Electrons^ 

( 

\ 



^fc^^sSn^ ( Delocalised 






j' (Conduction 

Electrons) o4j6b. ( 



1 (Met- 



allic banding) 



90 



#o^ (potential 



difference) 



ration) 



(Mobile 



Electrons ) s*o&> 



(oscillation) 
( Emit ) 



Vib- 2S^*25 tf?So (Reflect) 






II 



r?) 



, oorv^o, 

CD CO 



530*3 



g'Cfi 



e |J$SStiaS$o0* 



sex> 



2. &;$ 
9. 



(Intermetallic) 



^o-^eso, 



^Sa-sj^a (Brass), S'oxib (Bronze). 

70-80 ^^o oA, 80.20 



3 Sffi, Q^ 
tfo f con-fib Stfol tfA, 

8 V, G3 / A 



* 76-90 v^o o*A, 25-10 



60-60 ^^o of*A, 80- 



20 



, 20 



fiaa 



(Resistance coils) t3d& 



(Duralumin) :- 



96 



0.5 



, 0.6 



(Magualiumj: ao&tf* 90 
, 10 T 

S'o' 



fcf (Stainless steel) ; 

ied 
12.1 B 



38*6 S'rf (Resistance to corro- 



sion 



a>jTfl iS i e 



52 - 

(Clay) :- 



53<S<3* 



6Sio 2 . 



esjos* 



r 



Sag, sotfS" (III) 
(III) 



sjtoS'eo, 



J6^[tfrf (Porosity) 



70 



CaO. 



o 
) 



1000 
Ca C0 3 *- CaO f CO 2 



t^ <3?$^ (Affinity) 
& st<a sp^i^eJo 
dbtfcofi. ^fl Jtfg 
(Exothermic reaction) 



CaO + H0 2 - ?- Ca (OH) 2 



tfcft 



284 



n 



Stofc 



(Mortar) 



S&tf 



(Slaked lime) 



na 



(Plastering) 



Ca(OH) 2 + C0 2 



(Cement): si<3 

, ? 

o L 



(Calcuim sulphate CaSO 4 , 2H 2 O 



(CaCO 3 ), 
1 2 3 . 2 SiO 2 , 2 H 3 O), 

8:1 afi^jg^ ^Sg- 4^ L ^tf (1400 l)o.) 



merut) 






a*o e5tf ^g (Treat- 



S'DJb 
(fire kilns) ^ ^^ (Roast) 



(Slurry) 



8) BO /T&J*. Q 26 
O O 3 C 3 

70 Jbtjg 3*tf&& l 2 2^6i ^oo) 8 

a9&o-a^ ^) 

O O Q oL A 



286 



"*>& 



, 10 &oS 16 



1400 "So. 



(clinkers) 



O CO O 



tftfg 



(3CaO, SiO 2 ) 
SiO 2 ) ^ 



RjDlto (2Cao, 



. 



5CaO. 8ALO.FT- 



STfl 



!2CaO, 7 A1 2 3 



CaO. 



(8CaO. A1 2 3 ,6H 2 0) 



. (Hydrolysis) 
(hydrated) 



4|jSaorp 



ii 






2 (8CaO.SiO 2 ) + 
3CaO. 



3CaO.Al 2 3 + 8H 2 



Ca (OH) 2 +2A1 (OH) 3 



0*^0 



(Inteiv. 



slices)^ 

e S) 
03 (Impervious^ "^fl 






/Concreted : 



(Mixers) 



Reinforced cement concrete 






(Cement Asbestos): 



0*0*0} 



Glass) : 



, CaO. 5SiO 2 . 



d&o 

<S^ 

t>fl 



2500 



o. 



C0 3 + Ca 



/Annealing') 



1. 
2. 

8. 
4. 



ass 



Na 2 CO 3 , Ca CO,, SiO 2 
Na 2 CO 3 . CaCO 3 ,SiO 2 , 



K 2 C0 3 , Ca C0 3> Si0 2 , 

PbO 
Na 2 C0 3 ,K 2 C0 3 ,SiO a) 



288 



II 



rT*e3 (Coloured glass. \: 



Sogg'tf* nej> 



1. 

2. 
8. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



&$. 



53. cD 5o 

( Fertilisers ) 



S>oA;Sn0 % oh 



e^ Siro5*eo 



*fod&o ^2.^2fo ( K 2) 
0.01 



1.25 



239 
(Manures) : 



sicS 

E>CF*OB. SJGO QcO*o)R> i)C _ 

8T 



[S^ 03-30* 



5*00 



Ci 



240 



(a) 



Nto aceao So^dfo io 



(Acidity) 



OH 



2 ^ Ca(OH) 2 



Ca(OH) 2 



(Nitrifying bacteria) 



2NH 3 +H 2 S0 4 ^ (NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 



"o>o^?5 [5c& (Destructive distillation of 
coal) 



(Liquor ammonia) 
ASsics-^o (By probuct)r? oO^ 

IT 



NH 



NH 4 C1 + Ca(OH) 2 



+ 2H 2 



60 



99 



24! 



c&o 



(Precipitate) 



(Filtrate) 



(b) B^Cd&o 



&otoo<3. 



ts Boifo 



NH 3 + CaC0 3 



(Haber's process) 



CO (NH 2 ) 2 



3 



200 



200 



>- NH 2 COONH 4 



$ NH 2 COONH 4 -*H 2 N-CO~NH 2 +H 2 



(a) 



47 



1o 

CO 



1:8 



(16) 



242 Ste'SfiaS' II 



* 
18 &od 20 

A ) ' d 2 5 n 






fctfs* 



(Pf) \ J OfJ <s!fN I -^TJ" - _, v 
, 4 ' 2 24^2 $*&>" ^S" (Phosphatic Slag) 

Ca E Po ^ , H ' *" ^ ~ 

\ 2 4;2 2 



__ Oi- 



(Phos- 
phate rock^ J6oS) SCP<^ #cii*& ^cXi)S5t5b-\. 






(Dens) S3^| 
24 ^o<bex> 



53*00:. S5S 

c? 



63 



(Absorption towers) 



L c3SS* Kr '"' 







co 

& 

t) 



3. 



. tfoSTtf, 



ex> 



243 



&;$a3aKS:fcc5*oGo 



Potato), 



, 5-5) 



KC1, MgCl 2 , 6H 2 o. 



50 &o) 56 



20 



. SiJOS 



SSoioO 



. PdJ"&o&o 



(Mother Liquor)^ 



90-95 



48 &o 62 StfSo <&odx>o<3. 



2 SO 4 , MgSO 4 ,6H 2 O oS^ 



Aa 



K 2 S0 4 .MgS0 4l 6H 2 



MgGl 2 , 6H 2 o 



44 v$o S^fcrftcSfco, 13 

si(3 
(EfBorescent) 



R> OTP 



244 



1 1 



'2. 
8. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 

9. 

10, 
11. 



F. C. L 



D. C. M. 
GSFC 



5)5". 



AtfcSo 



500 



68,600 

1,78,920 
1,00,000 



1CO-120 



300 



SIS 



"ifis 



18. 



14. 
IB. 
18. 



I. C. I 
F.C.I 



Son 6" 



54. 



(Coal & Petroleum) 



o 



Compounds) SOS 



0001 (Solvents), 

(Medicines) 



rials) 



(Organic 



bfi 



(Dyes), 



it3-oe (Raw mates- 



246 



(Cellulose) 



8 



" (Peat), CjT^ff (Lignite), 
2>_tfa #*rtb, (Bituminous or soft 

(Anthra- 



Coal), 

cite or Hard coal) $ 



itf^ci fiT 
8-^5 



(Carbonization) 

80-82 



) t 8-6 



(Polymeric molecutes) 



(Destructive distillation) 



(Volatile products) 

*" (Coke) 
(Impure carbon) 



rra 



/Non -condensed) 
(Coal gas) 



(High temperature Carbonization), 
600^600 C sStf e^QS^ ^^g. tftf^fo 
(Low temperature Carbonization) 



. SootfdS 



pounds) 

ffins) 

(Hydroaromatic compounds') 



(Aromatic com. 
^D* "itfftsSb (Para- 



,5-6 (Dehydrogenation) 



l 

_ L 



semi-coke) 



(Soft 



o 



(SmokeJess fuel) rs* 2S6jf 



(Compo- 



(Coal gas) : 



sition) "ftjjtf^sSbo 836*0) 



SCPCT* ^6" 



247 



Son- 



(Straw oil) 
&o& tfStf "oSjjS^^cfioo 5?tfx> (High boil- 
ing petrolem fraction b.p. 280-350C ; 
TT&& fibes (Scrubbing). >S 

?s ^P 

(Extraction) 



(Low density) 
(Light oil) ft?^ ^g 
So^S", 



B 



(Saturation) 



SSo 



(Light oil) 

, 

(Coal tar) : 



1. 6% 
(Light oil).fia I titib 



. 2, 



200 C 
Q3o^6T(Middle oil)- 



(Carbolic oil) 
200-250C o 



17 

(^Heavy oil) - <&3) "Dead oil*' eft 

"Creosote oil' f w S^c 

Q6 2fcO-300Co ^ig 7% 
6>o6. 4. SojjSfcS" saottS" (Anthracene 
oil) - <&^^) L/\S (Green oil) 
ej6 9% 



i5" (Pitch) 



6 (Neutral) 



ii. 0*Cb ^^PCO (far acids)- 



(Tar bases) - 



6" 650^5", *" 

<S^ "^tfSo SftS^jflfo 90% 
( benzol - &3<3* 90 vio 
80-100C o sSD^g 3ooS&Aoa.^ 90 v*$o 
- (Toluol) (100-120C) I 



248 



It 



a^ LO-&8(Solvent naphtha 1 30- 1 60C), 
fr (Heavy -naptha, 160-210C) 



(Impurities) 



10% 



d&o 



(xylenes) 



(Initial crystallization 



stage) 



(Tar bases) 



(Extraction) tJS>, 



Benzoftirans ), 



(Indenes), 



M (Coumar or 



Coumarone resin). 



(Cresols) 



(Quinolines) 



(Large tanks) 



(Liquid impurities) 



S (Phenanthrene), 
(Pyridine) 
(Carbazole) 



(Sublimation) Stj 



85-90 



II 



249 



I 

-^ 



1 

2 
3 
4 



20 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



0.1) 



0.1 
0.2 
1.0 
10.9 
2.5 



3.4 

1.4 
1.6 
4.0 
1-1 
1-1 
2-0 
2-5 
0.2) 



1. 

2, 
8. 

4r. 



(Indene) 
(Diphenyle) 



(Pyrene) 
^Chrysene) 



(a -Pico line) 



(T-picoIine) 
(Quinoline) 



o- 



p- 



o-Cresol^ 
(m-Cresol) 

(p-Cresol) 
(Xylenols) 



_ 
(Diphenylene Oxide) 



(Iso-Quinoline) 

-Quinaldine) 
(Indole) 



-^<5~ (o-Naphthal) 



(^Carbazole) 



260 



II 



(Petroleum) : 



(Oleum) 



(Synthetic routes) 



, $9*0^1 



(Natural gas) 



fo 6otDo5. 



5PCXio4)X) 



. S)fid* 



90 99 



CO 63 CD 



(Extraction 



methods)^ SfoS 



(Fractional- distillation) 

Siospgon* ^ 



. 



, n- 



iv. a fctf^S S^T)^:(Natural gas 



CD 



261 



2 



i. 



2. 



6. 



6. 



7. 



8. 



9. 



10. 



(Ligroin) 
(Petrol) 



(Lubricating 
oil) 



escxaff 



(Vaseline) 



(Paraffin 

wax) 



<20 
20 -60 
60- 100 
70 -200 

200- 275 
>275 



M.P 

40- 60c 

M.P 
6. - 66c 



c,-c 4 



(Cyclics) 



15 



(Aromatics) 



C 15 - 



C f 

So So 



2 
2 

32 

18 
20 



(Fuels). 
(Solvents). 



tfeco, 



(Cooking gas) n 



2B2 



it 



(Knocking) 



04) 



(Branched chains) 

p 2:4: i- 



^Octane number - 



100 



, S5" 

^6" (Lead tetra ethyl) sSo 
oe*e>&(Antiknock additives), 



tfg&c&g 



ing) ScSSbgiio 
cracking) &* & 
(Lower alkenes)& 



a^o (Crack- 
(CJil 



(Higher alkenes) 



(Thermal cracking) $ 
/Catalytic cracking) o 



1. 



2- 



(Alkylation) . S> 
S^rfo (Fischer 
Tropsch synthetic process) 0*^0* 



^ (Cobalt) 



55. 



" sw (Polymers) 



o*gs5?So<o& 



(Monomers), 



(Polymers) 
^o&. -^B 
( Polymerisation ) 



288 



(Fibres), tfa^fcos, (Rubbers), a 
(Plastics) & 



a^g# (Viscosity), , 
(Osmatic pressure), s^cd 

(Light scattering), x- ^es> 3S5_ 

(x-ray diffraction) 



3, 



(Hydrogen bonds) 

(Vander Wai's forces), 3 %* ~ B 

(Dipole-dipole attractions) 



. fcS &g tf J (Elasticity) 



(Moulding) 



(Thermoplastics) 



SbeofThermosettiDg plastics) 






(Plasti- 



(Vulcani- 



sation process) 



polymers), 
etic polymers) 



(Natural 
r>&S"oD (Synth- 



1 : 9 



(1,4 bands) 



pectin) 



a-D 



(Amylo- 
. i^to 
(Coiled 



264 



II 



straight chains of a-D glucose units) (Acetate-Rayon) $3 g^^SisSix) (Artificial 

silk) 0*0*0 



SPSS 



^5057^5,000-2,00,00:) 
(bran- 



ched-chain) 

1:6 



10,00,000-60,00,000 



3,00,000-10,00,000 

/3-D rtr 
^ 



1:4 



tftftf 






1 53-ob 
L 



(Explosive^ n* SMS^c 
(Gun Cotton) *9odj&, 

(^Pyroxylin) <i9^ 
ft^b^o (Celluloid 



plastics 



(Cellulose xanthate) 



(Regenerated Cellulose) 



*1)5 (Cellophane) 



tito (Wcol and Silk) 



(Natural Rubber) 
(Hevea) 

eb&eo 



5 (C.D. Harries) 

Sar^o ^poon 
[5)5" (Polyisoprene) 



5" e 



266 



H a C 



o"f (Shellac) 
S S$as5 
Depsidcs) 




(Unsaturated monomer) 
(Addition) 



(Addition polymers) esop&. 



H 2 0, CH 3 OH, HC1, NH 3 



sation polymers^ 



(Copolymers) 



rgi^a 



- CH 2 - CH 2 



20,000 



286 ;a&JMf II 



\^ a 

(<*. Methyl methacrylate) 



*)*3 >" "3e9S*o> (Acrylic resins) SDtfoea^ ^ J 30 ^ 

^ V > ^O ^-fi ^*OoJDO , ^Ao 

(Colourless), ^tftf^S" (transparent) 



(Polyesters) : 



fl 
'<^dinary glass sheets ) & < ^ ^ 



(Lucite or 
Phlexi glass) ^ ^CoS* so-efc^fi^Cfi. ^^5- ^oskS" K> Scr^ 




HOOC ^ V-COOH + n HO - CH 2 - CH 2 - OH 



HOOC-^ y CO - O I- CH ~ CH 2 - *CO 




n-4 



CI Js o 
n CH 2 =C-C-O-CH 3 - 



COOCH 3 



257 



n - HOOC - (CH 2 ) 4 - COOH + nH^N - (CH 2 ) g - NH 2 

-oio (8 s^^oo S'ofi) l^s^aiS&S 1 S^SbS 1 (6 S'tf^eo 
HOOC_(CH 2 ) 4 -C0 [NH-(CH 2 ) 6 -NH_CO_(CH 2 ) 4 -NH - 



CP. 1. 



56. 



(Dyes and Pigments') 



(Electroma- 
gnetic spectrum) * 4000 A ^o& 
8000 A oStfScp tftforf 3 o* o ^ (Wave 
length) S'^ s^od S5J-n- 
' f (^Visible-region) 



, 4000^4250 Ao 



6500Ao 



^Ultroviolet 
(Absocb 

\ / 



groups) 



*oto*ooo. 



^^ (Functional 



(ultraviolet light) cSoS'^ 3fj3 
ido^ s^o (S^S'^p * J 



(Saturated 



tf so 4000Ao Carbon Compounds)^ 2% 



(Covalent feoads) f 



268 



II 



6o<3. 



4000A o 



rftforf 



S^ tf ?o w (Wavelength of maximnm 
absorption) wotpS). A^ "^ mfae " *& 
. 2600-10000 A o 



(Mobility) tf 



)** (Chromophores- \ 
Chromo = tfofb. phoro = 

1 f 



^o^oeo 



X 



jSSadHo 
Stfo 

A 


|_SS3oc& So^ S'SS 4c36^ea'^S' 
^%^^^o 


X a* 

(?A) , 


C = C 


i>$&5 (Ethylene) 


1930 ' 


CHC 


efoeS&S' (Acetylene) 


1780 


C=N 


wSjfcp^S (Acetoxime) 


.. 1900 


c=o 


<a&S*5 (Acetone) 


2706 


C H O 


esSftrS^.S" (Acetaldehyde) 


2984 . 


C 00 H 


e&3 s'&Sio (Acetic acid) 


2040 


CO N H 2 


wSjdj^S (Acetamide) 


2080 


N = N 


3 ^^*Sb^^ (Diazomethane) 


4100 


N = O 


3_ia*&* KS'g'feS' (Nitroso butane) 


3000.&660 


NO 2 


^[_<S* io^S" (Nitro methane) 


2710 ' 


O N O 


M J. ^ 2 S 1 ^ (Octylnitrite) , , , 


2.00,aTQO 


O N O 2 


& J" J "fi^" (Ethylnitrate) . 


,>oo.-^, 



l^otfc^ 8 
<- 



3 tf ' 



3 tf g 



269 



(Greenish yellow) <9* && fi*tf a&ofi. 






[Sotfo s*o$ **^oSSa>a<3 



aeo 



4000 
4250 

4600 
4900 

6100 
5800 

5600 
5900 
6400 
7800 



(Indigo Blue) 

&00 

fooo S"OS) 

(Bluish Green) 



(Yellowish Green) 



(Purple) 



= eo 



(Isolated) 



s-a eifl 



"Bathocfc^mic .shift* 
(Witt) ^irar^ 1867 



(Electron-donating) 



NH 2 , 



(Halogens), OH, OCJjJ 3 , 
^*S' f e (Aukochromesff 



260 



II 



(Diphenyl Polyenes): C 6 H 5 - (CH = CH)n - C 6 H 5 



n o)ODo3 


* 


- - ^ ^ ass 


i 


S$tf tfr^&o 


3190 


S060 


2940 


2 


n i 


8520 


'8840 


8 160 


3 


3tf && 


3770 


3580 


8430 


4 


^S^OoSl^'N Qdu> sD^cbc^ 


4040 


3840 


3630 


5 


cOrOOe^) 

65"3o& 


4240 


4080 


8870 


6 


^&SS^ ^cl" 


4450 


4200 


4000 


7 


"o> 6^0^) (Bronze) 


4650 


4350 


4130 


11 


aecr-Sex^ 


5300 


4930 


4620 


15 


?5SbcS^rv^r6ooo5) . 


700 


5320 






2. Cbidp &3ff &&&&:- 

I- a C3 

(Tetraphenyi Cumulenes) 



n ojcrooj 


, 


* ma * ( A ) 


i 


*&$ 


4200 


2 


<B3cI\-aea>53) 


4890 


3 


ao- 


5570 



3. 





OH 



Cellitou Fast Pin K. 




NH - CH 3 



HO 




O NHCH 8 , * 
Celliton Fast Blue B. 

NH 2 O OH 
OH 



COO 



Fluorescein 



Br + 



Br 




(Yellowish red) 
Eosin A (X 5160, 4S35 A) 



(Mobifrty) 



(High 



ighest unsatura- 



tion) ^0 



(Raw materials) 3o^& 




S0 3 H 



JOO 



Alizarin SaphirpoleB 



3 



(Intermediates) 



(Naphthionic 



acid), Soi 
(Sulpbanilic acid), 
(Anthranilic acid) 



1869 ^ 
root) e 



(Madder- 



(ladigo fere) es 



; (Indigo) 



282 



it 



1869 



cSodawW , 



ASS 



(Classification of dyes) 



. 

^Triphenyl methane dyesj 

NMe, 



2. 





=\ + 

C =( >=NMe z ct 




Crystal voilet (&*a > \ 
( X ,<* 5910,6405A) 
OH 





^ 

Aurin 

5346.S 4195A) 

(Phthaleins) 



(Cyanine dyes) 



5520*0 
o 



i) 



phy) 6* 



^unstable) 

pAotfcSb. e^ 

(Colourj photogra. 



- N 




Cyanine blpe (fcecA 
(\ max 6922, 5537 A) , 





CH=< N- 



Ethyl red (bluish red) 



J (Anthraquinone dyes) 



Na 



O a S-/ > V-N=N 



B. 




Orange II 



(Indigo derivatives) 



CH 3 9 



(Direct dyingj 




7* 



/^Phthalo cyanine Dyes^ 

, ^eft^daj* i 
(Paints\ 59jcr\ S)o (print. 



ing Ink) oSp, 



dyes) 



(Structural formulae) 




Ailine yellow 



5*55" 

<& 

(Copper phthalocyanine) 




N=N 



SO S H 

Benzo azurin G. (violet blue) 




OCH 3 



OCH 8 



S0 3 H 



264 



It 



f" "^Carbazole dyes) 



/ 2 G (Indanthrene kaki 2 G,) 
\ $pS i'o^b cSA^tfSo. SJ& SCPCP ?yer 



9. 



(Heterocycles Containing fused 
anthra quinone system) 

(Flavanthuone) - si^ 
(ultramarine blue) 



[&S 1 Bff R K (Indian 
threne Red RK) 

10; otftf 

I .^ (Sulphur dyes) 

A CPU Immediate pure blue 



^Aplication of dyes to Fabrics) tforibcS^ 



So (Nature), C3*^i sS^o (Type) Jj 
tfSo 



ric) 



f ?5 (Amphote- 



Formation) 



(Salt- 



edoeSo 






(Neutral cellulose) 






(Adsorption) 
(Substa^tive clyes) 
Benzo 



azurin 



(Cellulose Acetate) 

(Synthesized) CPCPO io 



si<3 



Sfo 



(Hydroxy) 



(Dispersed)* 



(Batting) 3^ s&^oflofi" ^Mordanting) 
3^ BD<b S^S^ tfort>& *^J_ Sd 
(Formation of dye on the fibre) 



phite) 



"^L^^&O^ ( Sodiu P hyposul- 



(Leuco compound) 



diSb tfo^b Stfyfo&ofl, 



asptf 



K 3 



(Binding Agent) 
(Mordent) eodj 
oil) 5^ w&xtiaS* ^S 



BD&& 



(Complex) 

S^ofi. 



SCPCP 



(Brown) 



(Linseed 
^Lime) 



csG 



OL 



266 
eio^ (Amine) 



(Diazotisation) 3fc 



(Printing on fabrics) 



^ 
('Diazotised amine) S* 

V ' 



ego 



St. 






(JExplosives\ 



s, chf 



0*0x1 



^ Sgfig (system)^ 
(very high pressure) 



(Gaseous products) 



(Thermodynamically) fctfa 



tfod* 'WgS" 1 ' (Booster W3 sSc^tf 
(Detonator) 



(shock) 



(Low volumejdJ* 
(Combustion) 



(Density) 



(Low detonation rate) ^S 
a' sS:o&^o<^ (Charge) 
(Diameter) pSoS" 80 



g'ea 



(Large 



particle size) >A dSboo"& 
^_ on * (Irregular) 



?T 



&c> 



(Structural Features Necessary for 
an Explosive) 






(suddenly) 

(Design) 



60 



^o (Heat of formation) esctpCb. i 

Sib. s^tfeso 



(3* 



(Electronega- 

C-N, C^N, CHN" EDoo-o6* 



81* 



Scrtfo^ 



). S'tfeao, 

"3 esl^S" efe Sj^l^fi" (Carbon 
dioxide or Carbon monoxide), 



cuS" 
66" (Nitrate 

_ * C3 V 

ester), ^_ L ^2DS^ (Nitramino)s5o(S >&c& 

. t&o SSo 



?3cti)o?5o ^oxygen balance) 



a*S" Sr^" (Mole) a* 



'a*? 



(Resonance) 



II 



:- fBlack Powder) 

\ / 



3 L "&S", 1 2 



5 8 



rv 



2, 



(Propellent) 
(Nitro glycerine) 



(Glycerl binitrate ester) 



oj^efes(Mild friction) " 



^?6^<6" (Dynamite) 
f^ifo. ^.[dy 8 
(Kiesel ghurj & 



(Violent Explosive nature) 



269 



C H 3 



CO 



Sid 



(Cellulose) 
(Esterifecation) 
t) "K5" s*fc>5" (Gun Cotton) 



A ?S8^, 8% 



(Shatter) 



(Propellent) 



(Cardite)T 30% ^L^S ?38< ^' 65% 
, 5% ^fcfceJ A-otpaa, s;S 
ra (Smokeless _ Powder) 

8. "oioij* d\&&& g_i"S(S" 
(Penta erythritol nitrate-PETN) 



Cord 



Prima 
(Detonating fuse)o 



(T.N.T.) -^5^ 



1920 



^o (Melting Point) 



(Nitration) 



6. 

(Other aromatic nitro compounds) 

d3.dSoS.<S ir S, 85" 52i^o (Picric 

L_ CO > 

acid - 2:4:6:- Trinitrophenol), 
8>^ff (Tetryl - N, 2, 4, 6-tetrantro 
Phenyl - N - methyl nitramine) 

i 

L 



6. 5|"3ff (cyclonite) 
(Hexamine)^ 

N 3 - 3 ^- 1, 3, 5- 5^ 
ar^S (N 3 - Nitro - 1:8:5- 
triazocyclo hexane) i)tf^efc 



7. 



(Guanidine Group of Explosives) 



(Senstivie) (S 
(Detonation rate) 

(Tetracene) 



58. 



9 



(FOODS) 






^oi* tftfg ^o.?652)ifc, fcfib 

(Amide bond) 
"03 S" ^Peptide) 



10,000*' 



(Insulin) 



osin), 



(Haemoglobin) 



(Heridity) 



CO CO 



mary structure) ffc'O& 



- S ooo- 3* 



d&-a 



tf&o**, 



structure) 



(Secondary 




(Tertiary) 



Aotoofi. 



-go 



alography) ET-CP Seo^ 
24 a 



Chrom - 



&; (Natural amino acids) 



271 



(Essential amino 



acids) wo3{6 

8 



X- 



(Denaturation) 



xp. 






(Tissue) 



o, *>*>, 



CH 2 OH R COOH 
CHOH+ R'-C+OOH 
CH 2 OH R"-C + OOH 



CH - O - C 



O 



C H. - O - C - R" 

II 
O 



O 



272 



(Oils and fats) 



CO 63 

fication reaction) 



(Esteri- 



(Triglycerides) 
(Lipids) 



(Simple 



fats) *&, 



(Mixed fats) 



CH 2 - O - CO ~ C n H 3J 



CH - O - CO - C 17 H 3J 



CH 2 - O - CO . C 1? H 35 



CH 2 - O - CO , C 17 H J3 

I 

CH - O _ CO - C. H 



CH 2 - O - CO - C 17 H 35 



(Fats) wfc f 



(oil) 
itf i 

^oeg'o*g) 



( Free acids ) 
(Unsaturatation) 

2)s5 (Acid value), 

( Saponification value ), 
_ J6o)g ( Reichert-Meisel 

number ), 25*3^^. ?6opg ( Polenski 
number), ^tS^aS" Sovj (Iodine cumber) 



Sc SS 



9500 



(Combustion) 



4400 



(Kidney), 



(Nitrogenous base) 



278 



(Catbohydrates) 






^eso 



C H O 

7i zm 



C (H O^ 

tl \ 2 /in 



4fi8 



, SboA 



3 "&S (Diastase), 

* 



(Amylase) SS 






SB 



(Glycogen) 



, ^53^ So 



(Vitamins) 






(water soluble), 
(fat-soluble) &S 
. A, D, E f K 

Tfo. B - 

, C - 

(Ascorbic acid) & 
B - StfsSxxiJ 8 

B , B , B , B , 



|S a 



(18) 



274 



A. 



B 



B 



12 



D, 



D- 



(Alfalfa) 



59. S" si 

(DRUGS) 



, tfctf 



53-$. 



^ 






7 



co 



2T6 



13_tfS (Virus) 



( Protozoa ), 
(Bacteria), 



(Parasites) 



(Anti-malarials), 
(Sulpha drugs) f 5ofi 
(Anti-biotics) sSxspg^ 



(Anophiles) 



dio 



( Plasmodium vivax ) 



(Life cycle) a* 



(Quinine) 



(Alkaloid) So 



H 3 CQ 




anti-malarials) 



CH=CH, 



(Synthetic 



276 



II 



I Et 

HN-CH-(CH 2 ) a _ N^ 

,OCH Et 




MH CH-(CH 2 ) N 




.Et 




Cl 




NH 



' 



NH 


NH 


CH 3 


11 


II 


i 


C 


t r ^ m.f T 


CM 
/ > 



'CH, 



SIB 



s-Sootf, 



iflsae* 5*3^. 

(G. Domagk) 



27T 



; 

_ ^* 



(Plrontosil) 



if 





H 2 N 




SO, NH 

i 



(Sulphanilamide) 





oSo"^Os*ex) 



NH 



H 2 N 




SO, NH 



NBwis 



SOs 



o 




Vs0 2 NH-^ 



CL 



,N 

<. 




H 2 N 



SO 2 NH 2 




so a 




NH, 



(Meniagitis), 3& 
(Blood-Poisoning) 



278 



II 



(Scarlet fever), &pS^3_fl5 (Tonsilitis), 
&eo. (Sinus Infections) 



(Bacterio-static); 
(not bactericidal). 




(Wonder drug) n* 



^- CH-(OH) CH CH 2 OH 



(Trachoma) 



fib. 



V 

60. JStfS-ctfoS 



"3o&> 

o 



tfo, 



, 

CX CO 

9^ wtfo. 



(Vitalism).teo'& 
/Vital force\ 



LSS^dSr>o 



280 



ii 



axS 



con* 



RNA 



DNA 



RNA 



DNA, 



DNA 1600^88^0 



DNA 



. DNA 

^o'^EsSSx. (The Watson- 
Crick double helical structure of DNAV 

>2 DNA 






'gene) 

siS) 



So* 



ojol" 









61. 



f orgnanism) 

S. / 



281 



. "S. flsSo'&y^ 0^^(30 S, 



oL CD 



. "3. 



(unicellular) 

(Living forms) -.^ ^ 

(Reproduction Cycles) cr^o*, tf& _3 *^ ^^ 

o*^^h ^Go<^ff*oAj*ooo. &'\ ^eaoCJf6c]of Ri- 3e6oo <9r8oj*e^Jf rSpeculative)^c5o 

cid Rules \ sSj*o* 2bd'&Or$:c), f6o0f\3^.9 oS^oii 

) 

s-S* 



282 



It 



(Cell mass) 3s_tfc3* 60-70 



n 



lecules), ^tfiy chafes dS"As*o> (Sim- 
ple moBomeric compounds'. &&&>&& 
e}(M ociomlecular components) 



i Nucleicacids). 



u 



sides' ecr? (building blocks) n- 



tf (activity) 



(Cell envelops) n* 
^Cell membranes) 



n- 



(C), ^^S" (T), 



(RNA) ^ A, G, U, C 



A,G 



T. C. 



ai6 ea3fi3" ^5" (genetic code) 









S 



A 



(metabolism) 



&osj*oox 



Structural 



elements) 7? 



fll 



ffco 



(Contractile Proteins) 



(High Chemical Specificity) 



(Essential Compounds)n 



(Oxidation) 
mical bonds) 



000-0 (Che- 



work) I, 
thesis) 



3*0^3 [mechanical 
(Biosyn- 



i 

(Conjugated Proteins) <s3 ^^ 



(Chelate) 



rf (Conj-t 



ugate) 
16,'OtiO) 



fCo-enzymes) 



(Catalysis) 



(Cdfactor) 5* 
(Reaction Rate) 
Sd^tfto-SS 



ACT 



& (Enzyme) ^fiS' . (Protein) 
o&&<f (AbscorWc acid) 



(reaction) o 



(neutral 
intracellular envkonment), obsSjfib 30 



(p 



rocesses 



r (metabolism) $*$ 



234 



tt 



(Genctie Information] ^a 
DNA 6* SSaOfitfo (Encode) 

DNA 

(M. W. o> 
1C 9 



(bases) 64 
DNA 5 1 



a,5 






I 

o-*-P~o~ 
o 

CH Z 




O 

o-ep-o" 

I 
o^ 



(cell macht- 
^i l 
RNA 



RNA c3 
(cell') 



RNA 
DNA 



SB 



286 



(cytoplasm) ff 1 [j3fif3fSo*a 



G 5 C 
A-T, G-C, esofeo 



B 



(chemical interaction) 



(genetic material). 



a.S' 



(essential force) rr &ocl& fij3. 

tftfg A^So OOP& CPO 
& (guiding force) 
RNA 



p 



Aotoofi. so&a* A G, U, C 
RNA SipSa'g5" 



53* d3 



(A, G, C, T) 8 1 



A-U 




MEW SYNTHESIS 



286 



II 



DNA 



(sequence) 
code of life); 



(attactive forces] e$<3, 



^^ (Propagation of li 
Sd (mode) 




287 



(replicate) 



rt 

a L 



cfibfc [^Sr>oasSa.fi5joi&& OS^orp 



(r*casg^ 



gGo (Cell walls) 
S" 



(Starch) 
(Linear chain) 
(branched) 






(glyeogen) 



(constituent) 

tf&sptf sj 
series of 



turn) 
n- 



sio^J^o (fuel) 



(algae) 



8). 



(Lipids) 
v 

(Compounds)^ 



(fatty acids). A^So-S' (Glycerol) 
. ^e T^ 
(Acidic function)^OA 






&aa^c (Spatial -orientations) 



(migration pattern) & ^d&o[8o 



288 



permebiality) 
titvity) 



(Semi- 
(Selec~ 



063 



(Sphingomyelins) 



f Ruminants) 



srs^ 

(cellular metabo 



lism j^ 4 



^ 

12 



It 

(organism) 



(Higher organisms) 



70 



e.g' 53-^0. 



^3*0 



ues 



(organs) 



289 



6rS>&o*rfert>&oa. 






(organism) oSboS'j. 



( Cells) 



(cvCn>o5oCi;S") 
DNA 




VACUOLF 

GOL61 BODIES 
MITOCHONDRIA 

NUCLFOLUS 
NUCLEUS 



(FNDOPLASMtC RETICULUM 
WITH ATTACHED 
KIBOSOMES 

LYSOSOMES 
CELL MEMBRANE 
CELL WALL 



. S'eso 



(19) 



290 



II 



4. 



Stf^ci 



(E. R] i 



6. 



(Concentrate^ ^6Si^) 



. 

C9 CO 

^06. ^ 



(Combustion)^r 8 



A, 



(ATP) 



rv 



shock), 



(Electric 



ATP 



ATP 



A- 



Qto55o(fi 



ATP a ArfN 

CO %J 



\ 
. safio 






ATP 



S es^ao, 



Bo^fo 
CP Co ifc o <3. 
(Breakdown) 



.(Coupled Reaction)^ 



(Cellular 



ATP 



DNA (cellular DNA)S* 



Ao&aotfS 



a)fil) RNA" (Trans- 



fer RNA) 
RNA 



20 



RNA 



i 



tfo-; 



RNA 8* 

(Bases)?So'35rG: (Code) 



ox. 



291 
(bases) liSoQl) RNA 



, mRNA 

, t RNA 



^?S SSyifc dfrofiS 
A __ T, G C co 



g_^ (enzyme) 



(Genes) 

. DNA 



bases) 



DNA 



(function) rS 
, DNA 



e&ofl, ^caiJ^ DNA 
(mutation) 



tffS 



DNA 



(cells) 



). wdg 



292 



ii 



0*30* sfc&rftf 



(E, Coli) 



cp<? 
e ol 



DNA ^ ^j 

3otf5So8)S 



83 Co 



(cells) tf& 
(Metabolic Mechanism) 



87>|acJipSSo(S 



(complexity) 



fe&&oe!>, 



iaa 



er^cr 



, 



DNA 



63 






293 






Sfc, 33 8& )c&o[ee3o *3&^ d&ojeporpfi^ scxao ejj&g^o (Genes) 

ScJi)^ 
(Genetic Engineering)** 



"3* 



62. 



(Photo Synthesis) 

9 

8357? 



87C 3 

oL O 



294 



n 



(Alcohol etc) 



(Yeast) 



0(3. 



(cell) 



(Fruits, fresh Salad?, Jams, Vegetables 
etc.) oOf&ft 



(Carbohydrates) 
(Oxidation) 



n-fo 



(Dehy dration Method). 



(Freeze drying) 



(canning] 



(Stenlazation) . 



296 



S&otoofi. 



icides) 






&G So* 



(Radiation) 



^fumigation) 



(Fruit juices and Beverages 1 



(cloudy) r? 



. 2. 



S 



(Enzyme) 



(wine) 
^Fermentation) 



(winej 



g) (Malt) 



1)6" 



^^ooo ^Enzymes) 
(cell) 



, sjoui) 
37C 



296 



II 



(Renin) 



(cheese) 



(Pepsin), 



(pancreatin) 



(Trypsin) 



(Papaya and Latese\ 



CJ L 



(Detergents) o 
feCo S^^oox)? 
(clarification) *&, 



g (Asplergillus ory z ae\ 



[Glucose Oxidase] 

[Pack] 



S5o 

CO 



3 (Algae), 



o (Like 
petroleum waste products) ^ cfcS^&n 1 






(Dry yeast) 
(Vitamin B group) 



297 



Suboxydans) 

slbtf tD^S) (Euzyme) 



(Scheme) gi 



ceto bacter 



(Riboflavin or -Vitamin - B 2 ) 



-a^ (Vitamin 
ptomyscs), 



(Eremothecium ash. 



(Stre- 
(Corync 



Q 



Reduction 



D - 



tf&cX&$ 



Acetobactor Suboxydans 

5) & 



(Microcaccus glutamicM5^ 



(Enterobactor aerogenes) 



&;$& 



micus 



298 



II 



1. 



(Solvents) 



2. 



3 



4. 



n 



(Antibiotics] 



1929 
' 1 & S' 



J2 



O CO/ 



chrysogenum) 



- 

(Streptomyccs griseus) 



(Virus) o 



(Vaccines) 



gS" oMSnpjca B c5 p " (biochemical Immu- 
nology) " 



co 

' ^o^ 8 e^K^^dScp^g, s 

G3 CO 



(report) 



(cancef)&, cf^ 
(athrescelerosis) 



asE^c (inborn errors) 



A C3* SP eJ ea 
(insulin) 



iS 



299 



(pesticides) 



800 a*cS&ite II 

(compost) 



A. A. fl (D.D.T) 



T 8 esc6b| 
(mutations) 



(chemical mutations) 

(x-rays) rvfc, 
(u-v) 



^9 



s5gS5^cSb 

fi3 ea iSScStf'&o ^' * 

(iron) 



(seedless fruits) 



ioJJ^ 



AS 



801 



]bfi^ (herbicides) < 



(Naphthoxy acetic acid), 2, 4 
2,4 -D 



3 S cooS'^S'^S"^ (insecticides) 



o (resistant strains) 



(cattle 



feeds) 



^aog'Si 



Sofl, 



$8*855^8 



63 






802 Serais' II 

ar 



(^80^ '' 



(optics) )e*?a^, n!0 s$j (viscosity) 



^S' ** fi " 6 



9 





&Qtfti& 



(phase contrast) 

Q-ffj -^ -~ ' V^/-V ' 



dJ^oS 4 [iSrf^gff 8 &o$jfo S?39?S S)"S^oSo "tf'xbdSi Stffis'* 



$oS5s*s&, 



(bioluminisence) 



19 

S 

gg 



(ultrasonics) 



(characterstic impedance), 

(absorption coefficient) 



o co 

a 



808 



425 






T3sS, 600 3*00 



804 SteptfAW II 



3?56oCi?Sii. 



X- 



do 



(genetic 
machinery) 5 



i. 1920 s5 

~ - - - 

57*000 



*&g r^s5x" ^Radiation gene- 
tics) 3(3 V ?N5<^^2< "- SX>AA SPfitf'S cS^CPO ft) SC^PESO E^08X>eX> 

X ~ 



Siofl 



805 



(isotopes) 



OSrfSb 






Sr-5 



(20) 



VI 



i^KSS &S$on" 

^- CO 

). ^8 oD' 



[Sofl 



t esoefe 



64. i S 



2. 



4 a fo a. SOT 

3. 






(Franceso Redi) <& 
4. 



eo 



17 

836ft 



(Spermato^a^) 



1860 ;S SSon |J^o#:i,c$ eu'Ciar 1 

;>. S3*5"s5<" (F, Pourchet) o 

"" tS^KN^ri x^.j 

17 S 



- * : 19 
ar " 

S^otStf id^a^dSboacSa. ^ eSS^Sta / 

17 l 



(William Havery) ^^Stfe^ M S^)S $o*g^3n a^. a$5ac&5 (S. Arihenius) 



308 



H 



(Panspermia) 



(Huxley), 






(John Tyndall) 



(Interstellar -medi- 



um) 



s$xres'x>o 



*-** 


-** 


eli J$\X &o&* 




oJ B |<Saiix> 
oJ*)cfiDobO 


87 
12 


16 



3 



5Q\^ 


0.03 


21 


0.1 


<3 I (ST^fiJc^ 


0.008 


3 


0.0001 


S^w5 


0.06 


69 


49 


ac&*" (neon) 


0.02 








&MC&O 


0.0001 


0.01 


O.T 


aA^d&S) 


0.0008 


0.04. 


8 


^opg^a<oS 


0.0002 


0.001 


2 


S>s^ 


0.008 


0.1 


H 


rSo^S" 


0.002 


00.2 


0.7 


S^tfS 


0.00008 


0.03 


0.07 


&*tpS)c6o 


0.000007 


0.1 


0.1 


^0*5" (argon) 


0.0004 








5*C^O 


0.0001 


0.1 


2 


^5 


0.0007 


01006 


16, 



S09 



(Jupiter),^ (Saturn), 
(Uranus), S^^ (Neptune 



(Meath-ane), 

&Doa 
(Neon), 



a.S' 



SjSSS (Inter-solar system) oSooii 



3 wl^ff (C0 2 ) 3 



. a. 

(J. B. S. Haldane) v& \&b& 
i.e. L^Qc&S (A. I. Oparian) 



(Micro-organisms) tf SoS'S^sSaodtfS^ 



1968S 
(H. C, Urey) 

\ ^ J 

(S. Miller)^ 



35. 



810 



it 



*s&s5oo& 



(C. Sagan) 



(Aldehydes) 



(Formaldehyde)- 



g" ^3&^o /Nucleic acid') 
aS 3*^5" &/^5 (Carbon sugar V rti 
(Glucose), [i|*f (Fructose) 
(Sugar) 



"^35 (Hydrogen cynide) 



a. ^ei* (J 

g_S (Nucleotide base ade 



(C, Ponnam peruma) cfib 
(L. Orgel) ^o 5^6 



S (Nucleotide 
(Porphyrin) 



, 1980 



(Carbohydrates) ?STg " 
acid) - 



(Nuclic 



(sugar 



fAmino acidV 

\ / 

(3i3^(S" (Nucleotide) e 
(Protein), v5*S:*\1k 
(Carbohydrate) 3$ *to\iS&&% (Nucle- 
ic acid) 



(Dehydration) 

rftfg aCb^S^efo fcfi s 

*a^ agfetftfEw (Dehy 
drating agent) o& 53^^3 ea 
(Aqueous solution) tfodb ^ 
(Dehydration) cSp^O^&orv* 

dabs, ^i"^ (s. FOX) a aaa* 

(Amino acid) eeao$og'tfGaa, 
(Protein) 



gl 



811 



(Poly amino acids) SCPIP 



(Geophyical generality) 



(Liquid 






3^5 (hydrogen cyanide), 
(Anhydrons) 
Ammonia), o 
(Amino acid) 
SeSE^SD. w!bo e*^5 SS^Sixj (Ultra 
Violet irradiation) o3 Sr-'grjfi' (Phos- 
phate) 3$ tfc&^5 (Cyanide) c6sSDJC^L?5 
r^5 S5 (Nucleotide base) & 
(Sugar) 



sing agents), ]b;6K><5", (Cynamide) 



S>o3fl 



acids) 



(Condensing Agents) GO 

&^) (Amino 
(Sugars) 
(Nucleotides) 



(J. D. Bernal), 

brf 



. a. 
(clay) 



(Molecular intermidiates)?rtf 



t3j6" (Phosphate) 



(Biological Concentration machanisms) 
'^ffex) (Phosphates) 3 



SoSS 



EPS). 



(J.B.S 

N 

Haldane) A^^Q ntf^ J^as 
KSaao ^*SigS5aD (Hot dilute soup) 



(Coa- 



cervates") eofl 
(Collodial aggregates)o 



SO&foflSb. 



(Nucleic acid) 



>6^ (A. KornbergV ^)S. 
(S. Ochoa), ^5. fejflff&S, (S. Spiegel- 

man) ^o^^o 53^6 



^S* ^"Sy^ff (Nucleoside Phosphate) 
, cy^i ^bcfl S* &*3 dap'SS'e? (Poly 



, ^8 



CO 

n* 



co 







Nucteitide), 



FURTHER READING 

/ 

1. Calvin, Melvin. Chemical Evolu- 
tion; Oxford University Presi, 
New York. 1969. 

2. Fox S. W. Ed. The Origins of Pre- 
biological systems, Academic Press 
Inc., New York. 1956. 

3. Kenyon, D. H. and G. Stetimnan. 
Bio^Chemical Predestination; Me 
Grew Hill, Inc-, New York 1969. 

Sb. 



65. "Soo 



Soo 






1894 sSosStf^Js&S 1 tplfr-ff (Haeckel) 



:*- 1, SX>^CP (Monera) 

2. L^S^ (Protista) 

8. l)o[5?t3o (Fungi) 

4. aag^co (Plants) 



818 



o<fr 8 3 sScoD. -^s a^aod* 



a*e2g 
ra^ 



d 
3. 

1. ISMciS* (Monera^ : 



CO 8 

2. J^S^ (Pcotista) 



5* 



II 

s*oS rSjcfiooS^sfca Scptf&a (Photo 
autotropism) &!$ 



Aofl. 3a> o 



4. 'S^5'2 r ^Plants) : ^5^0^ ^^^g^ ^Sgitftfea (Str- 

aa^oo. uctural Specialization), 



S'es S'SStJo^^bocr' A 0^*000. 



GSb 



0*23^0 



o & fl, 
3o<3 



otfdao SSo 

Q 



o*exi ( Lines of Evolution) 




Tb 



O 

a 

r 



va 



o 
V2 



816 



n 

__'o< 
"o 

63 

.. 4 .__.. __ .._ S6. 



Sotftfo, 



CO 

SS 



g' ^SO^ 



i)tfjtfr& 8 znf c :'Srp& > 






- "3 



317 



[aaJp>4e>&ofl 



system], 



^Vascular 



0*0 



sl 

CO O 



"SQA 



(Megaphyllons), 






Sorters' 



$06* 



(Seed Plants^ 
tter-oo (Naked Seeds) 



tiixr* 



fce^eo, 



81 ft Ser^fiS^ II 

V 1 \J M 



8T 



3>ofcoo<3. 



cSoSS^speo /Closed); 

I ^VjrlCLLl I wfNJJ faiw ^ ^ 

(Open); 



^sr 



a-a** _ .. , ^ 

0^0*000 . 



f 8^5 tfcSfr^^fffe, 3oO 

Si. 



co a 
FURTHER READING 

1. Ramdss V.S.(1973). Understanding 
Plant Diversity. Journal AP. Aka- 
demi of Sciences; VOL IX; Part III. 

2. H.Bold (1972); The Plant kingdom, 
3rd Ed; Prentice Hall of India, 

(Over - lapping) n- 3. T. Delevoryas (1966); Plant Diver- 

So6?$ S^g'^o sification ; Holt Rine hart; Winston 

and Winston; Winston, 



66. as 

DIVERSITY IN ANIMALS 



(Ant Li 

o), 
S^fib^co, 3^5 1 



16 QO^O "isoA oo) LT* cO t 



&^OGO. ifl* 

(Stimulus) So ?5 



(Paired Fins) n-fc, 



esio<53 o2p^^a*a SToi^co (Ectodermal Sca- 

les) rrfo, idjE 



is* *otf ,;3<?tf. asstf S'GA bdD^.aa s'oa g~&soOT 



320 a^cSaa^ n 



"* ("feel - Canidae) 



. fib^cflf* 
d 

s atf| 



(Dane) ^asb^^r, ^^^5" (Airedale) 
&&&gfr. t \ft Sj^oS" ^QSbS'^. (Grey 
Hound), e^zr/r (Bull Dog) 
(Pekingese) 

io-flf* 



eu"! 1*0^0) 



(Geological time-scale) &oF*g 



450 



321 



20 



(Placoderm) 



15 



History) 



^(Fossil 



a,"! 



f 2.6 . 



^s 3 



sjof 



1. 



2. 



3. 



4. 



(Evolution^ 



"High School Biology Biological 

Science Curriculum Study; Green 

version; Rand McNally and Com- 

pany, Chicago. 1968. 

"Molecules to Man" - Biological 

Science Curriculum Study; Blue 

version. Houghton Mifflin Com- 

pany - Boston. 1963. 

"Patterns in the Living World" 

Biological Science Curriculum Study; 

John Murray - Albemarle Street, 

London. 1971. 

"Animal Diversity** - by E. D. 

Hanson. Prentice Hall, Englewood, 

London. 1961. 

Sb. 



(21) 



6T. "3 3 &> 00 

Q i / 



tozoa) e&, 



(Pro- 



jflotf 



(Molecular Level 



00 



Sboo Sfra 



S'CA 



99 



eo 



eS$a&ex> 
t,^ 
DNA w 



o 



^8 DNA 

(Self -duplication) 



DNA 



DNA 3* Scr><3?5 



oo>. 



628 



A. T. P. 



(Cellular Level) 

Saflpg^rS ^S5 ^cs'^sio (Pro- 
toplasm, "The Physical Basis of Life") 



830*6^)0 



so"5)i"^ 1 

& O oJ 



s^ftdfo. 

CD 00* 



(Centrioles) 



oi_ 



c6o)g&0(S 



esS) 



a* "I 



(Mitosis), 



(Meiosis) 



(Organ Level) 

So^wSSoooS* 



(Homologos) 



SodT'cxa. ft 



(Vertcbrata) 



824 



II 



'Biceps) 



(Triceps) 



(Inverte- 



brata) 



(Endo^ 



crine 



(Thyroid gland) 
(Thyroxin 



Harmone) 



0*0 



gD*aa<5" fo aj'n 



(Extract) 



"3. S. 



FURTHER READING 

1. Me ELROY, W.D., CXP. SWAN- 
SON, N. D. BUFFALLOE, A. W. GAL- 
STON AND R, I. MACEY^FOUNDA- 
TIONS OF BIOLOOY, PRENTICE- 
HALL, INC ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS. 
N, J. 1968. 

2. MOODY P. A. INTRO DUCTION 
TO E VOLUTION i A HARPER IN- 
TERNATIONAL STUDENT REPRINT. 
JOINTLY PUBLISHED BY HARPER 
& ROW, NEWYORK. AND JOHN 
WEATHER HILL, INC, TOKYO 1964. 



68. 



ea&A 



(^Mutation) 2 
(Natural Selection j 8 
(Genetic drift)<9& 



g*6 



A. 

1. 

2. 



B. 

3. 



4. 

5. 



1909 S 

. Morgan) 



Oft O 



20 



326 



1. 

2. floa tfoi*o 



4. S*J)rto Aoa 

6. oJrCDt^) jStf) Aoes 

E9 

6. SioOoiiigb 
T. 3i^S| AOM 



ftoa 



492 

106 

11 

24 

22 

12 





. 2. 



5^(3 



8. 



3 



. 4. 



5. DNA 



DNA 



6. 



(Polyploids") 



, 0^006* SSr-ficrjSSorS 



^^ ea&g 



$6 



327 



&>?5o -^8^3*^0 



co a 



CO C3 L_ 

ofi 6% ^SSxr^co ^^ 

CO O 7 O 



, ssaso-o &tf>i _ 

1928 tfonS* 6>^S" tig (^Sukatchew) 



^oS^yccSao<S 

(Taraxacum officianale) 



Sootfo, 



828 



11 



, ^a?6a*oSb tfotootfo 



n-6 



(Sea- 

t| \17 * l \ s 

wan wngnt^ e3f3*55*e>5o coo8oo<5ou)c6 s?S)? 



-^e Bofiofl 



f _ft n- SS^fc&frydfe, 3 Stfg 



Further Reading 

1. Savage J. M. (1969) Evolu'ion, 
Reinhart and Winston Holt, Inc. 
New York. 



2. Dodson E. O. (i960). Evolution, 
Process and Product; Reinhart 
publishing Corporation. New 
York. 

3. Sastry R. L. N. (1972). Evolution 
(Telugu); Andhra Pradesh Telugu 
Akademi; Hyderabad, 



-5 

63o 



^Magnoliaecae'j, 
i^ofi^A (Ranun- 

culaceae^ ; 2?^"^J"^J^ (Menispermaceae), 

EffjdcfS* (Berburidaceae), 

(Nympheaceae'j 



son) 
SSfig' 
fipR 
(Ranales) 



^TakhationysSofl 

o, ^9 SbtoDo 
('Magnoliales) 



(Magnoliaeeae) 
& (Drimys) ^So 
(Illiaceam) 



(Schizandra), 



/Species) 



(Linnaehes) 



(Bateson) 



re rife, 



r Speciation) 
(Mayer, 1960) ^ 



(Gold- 



Schmith) 



2bdS 



(Atriplex) 



2) 



co 



(Demc) 



AS> o-a 



(genetic exchange) 
S S 



(open systems), 
systems') e^^) 



&ofcoo<a. 



00 (closed 



(alloptric populations) 



& OS) 



(sympatrire populations) 



ran- 



^SS): (A) 

dom variation); (BJ 

^- random variation A 3 

3o?5 52D^g (ecological variation) 



(races), " Syco (chines) 



Sag' 



83^-53*0^ 



3 



(Races) ofc, 



, (2) 

(4 , 



(8) 







. s-3 






fi'tfco 



(internal 



barriers) S 



od3j*rt 



70. 



FURTHER READING 

1. Eaton, T, H (1970). Evolution; 
Thomas Nelson's & Sons; London, 

2. Sastry, R. L. N. (1972). Evolution, 
(Glacial age)* <3B_?S gssp^eo, e*<6 Andhra Pradesh Telugu Akademi; 

Hyderabad. 

3. Solbrig, O. T. (1970); Principles 
and Methods of Plant Bio-syste- 
matics: Mcmillan & co, London. 



CO 



tals). 

C&DO& 



r JS 
(^Somatic cells) oSb 

a 



, e3 oft^ 

. * Sss 



A ss w a 



888 



(Cuttings N ;l eeoj)e (Bulbs) 



oA 



A fee 
^sy 



(Sex Organs) 



&B3^^^ (Ovary), 



(ovary), 



&eo (Anthers) 



a, 3 



e3 L 1e9(Germ 



(Soma line 3oeiacxo. -^a 

co (Discontinaos) 



^65*00 



*jSf (Meiosis) 



ferf fee 



mother cells] 



(Microspore 



(Ova) o&, 
e*^_d ^cab?& 

t)ej^Sxi, eutf A 

'cy 



(differentiation) 



884 

BrSfc BJrSSoo 



IT 



(Replication) 



c&otf 



^od^cxo. ej&g 
DNA (Deoxy ribo nucleic acid) 






DNA 



DNA 



. DNA 



\ 




886 



RNA (Ribo Nucleic acid) 




II 



(Specialisation) 



brata) 



(cleavage)^ 
(Blastula) 



5)czarS^ 



(Gastrula) w 
^6"^ (Ectoderm), &>&*<i6^ (Mesoderm), 
(Endoderm), 



j38> 5 
(Life cycle) 



(Embryo plant) ^ 



f* &r& /Germination} 

(Vere- 
') 



&SS fctf 



(Sporophyte) 



(Gameto phyte) 



DNA 



CPU "B. a. 



FURTHER READING 

1. KOPPELMAN, R. THE NEW 
BIOLOGY ; Addison ^ Wesley 
Publishing Company, Inc.Reading, 
Massachusttes. 1 96 1 . 

3. SIMPSON, G,G. AND W.S. BECK; 
LIFE: AN INTRODUCTION TO 
BIOLOGY. HARCOURT, BRACE 
& WORLD, Inc. New YORK, 1985. 



71. 



(Chromosomes and Life) 



lio^g'o 



S&o4s)o&. 



Sbeo 



o*o. 



(Stain) 
(Chromatin) e^ 



(genes) 



(fibres) 



Bitosis ) 



(22) 



(Anaphasej fir 8 



tion) 



3 
(arms) 



(Centromere) 
(primary constric- 



(matrix) 
(pelliole) 



*33 



(Idiogram) 
(Meiosis) S)#e3?5 
I (Prop- 



(Metaphase) hase l 



883 



ii 



(Zygote) 



fca 



(diploid) 



tfon* 



Sodb&ofl 



(fertilisation) 



Sofl 



*?>?>&*& 



1. 
2. 



4, J^oCDo 




6. 



(*) 
7. 



4 
23 

2 
8 

10 

12 

316 



8 
46 

4 

16 

20 

24 

680 



889 



1MI 











6 7 



8 9 10 







13 14 15 



sa 




H 




19 10 



11 12 



X Y 



1. 



L & (Idiogram) 
r 1 Aofl 22 



>&, X. Y 



240 Ss'Sa&S' II 

8 



SOOwEJw oiOtfOrOSb &) 7QOG &ScS05 E5"*62O^rgO 22 

_t 

28 



29 


643 " ^ ' s--^ 1 *) Li^aj^iao' 5 '* 44 

'X X' sJ 
. $Co 
44 

. 'X Y' 



1/1000 i 

* t$ 22 



(Turner*s Syndrome) 
54 



i 46 
23 " "'"'" ^ " K * ~^"- 



3 

J i 5"ao5'8)o^5*a (Klinfelter's syn- 
drome) 



44, 
X X Y 



47 AO&POSD. 



44, 
23 



41 



B 



(Polytene or giant chromosomes) 

I^^^CP ao^r^SS" (Drosophila, 
melanogastenw^ ^e^^j^ ^6^5" g'E^ofir 8 3 



1024 
croco 
4"5>o (Diptera) 



(Lampbrush Chromosomes) 

"2? <&/*#" o3<?4J^>rC&j (Titurus Virides 
cens) <9c3 KS^"fib^sS (Vertebrate) a 




(Heredity) * 
-i oS*o(8S'S (Mechanism) 



idS>o> 



(Genetic factors) ad6ojjfc& tJ^g3j 



842 



tl 



(genes) t> 



QXP 



3otf&cor 01 S'Sbi^cco. 



0*00. 



s 



(Mutation) 







IB &ofi 80,00} 



DNA 



DNA 
DNA 



5<5" (Poly nucleotide) 



DNA 



(Chemical constituents) a, 



DNA 



. 1950 



8*8 
bolic disorders') 



dfoc^ DNA 

^ BIBLIOGRAPHY 

i. DNA " " 



RNA (Messenger 1) Brown W V and E Bertke 

RNA1 iSM&o Ro-iB-S, w&fce* Text book of Cytology; 

^^L A <,<,<. .^<^ ^^ C. V^. Moshly &co, 1969 



2) Cohu N. S. - Elements of Cyto- 

logy, Harcourt, Brace and World. 
1969. 

3) Loewy A, G. and Sickewitz - Cell 
s^fiS eo#o ti c&o otfd3j* ajci^ Structure and Foundation; Holt, 

(Meta- Rinehart and Winston 1968. 



72. 

(Mehanics of Inheritance) 

(Develop- 



mental Biology), 
[Nuclear Cytology) 

o, 20 



(Gregor Johann Mendel) 



1900 SS (6oS^S5* a [SSowS (De 
Vries), "L?^ (Correns), 



(Genetics) &Z i^^Sae 4 a*^ S^^i-o^ (Pisum, Satiyum) 



11 



ra, 



1 . ftose 

2. 

3. 

4. 

6. 



7. 



I^0fl30 



eu* 



, SOd&o Sb^S (W. Bateson) 
esfi". 2> SS^ff (R. P. Purnett) 60 



(Interaction of Genes ^ sSo 



1903 



. Sutton), 



a. 



1911 3S 
(T. H. Morgan) 






a (Purity of Gametes) 



(Linkage) 



a, 3 



r> > 



(Crossing- over) e 

tr^s^^g^ (Frequency) 



(A. H. Sturtivant) \$ 



Sioo (Autosoires) - (g_ 



(Drosophila) 



(Homogametic) 



846 

(X X) 



(Heterogametic) 



(X Y) 
~do&> 



(Sex - linked genes) 



3)0 ar 

^ 



(Wilson), 

(Montgomery), 'sb^ofi continuous 

(Meclung), ^<b<5, fc3& (Stevens), 



S^ (Dis- 



i;<5?5 Aoea 



( Continuous variability ) ^> 
65^ ^10^^ bff (Nilsson 
Ehle - 1908), ^| (East - 1916) 



(Quantitative traits) ft9 

^ea^ex) c*o> es^n* 10^. 
100, ea^^o ^fio^)^ 8 S$)o6r xa. 



846 



(Polygenes) 



Beadle , Z 



Tatum) I960 



(George W. 
(Edward L. 



e-f&g i 
e&g 



(Oswald T Avery - 1941), 
tJ6^?6 w^L^jff 5. &^ (Alfred D. 
Hershey) , &PQ> ^S (Martha Chase) 
(1952) <B&57>tfoD ^^b^fin- f^X^^o^ 4 
Sas^tfSw ^^, DNA (Deoxynbc nucleic 

acid) 
/ 



RNA (Ribo nucleic aci 



(Erwin Chargaff) 1960 



H. F- 

Wilkins) 1953 S Sosfctyfod* 3ft^ X^ 
6^0 aatf^Rs- (Xray diffraction) ia 
^i^o&, tffltftf Sa^SoSa eso-tf^rr 
S^S ^S)^ a. 53-iyjS flames D. Wat- 
son), ^S^S ?s*5. &. L 5 ^ (Francis 



it 

H. C. Crick) 
^c 
DNA 



196S 



. 1 DNA 



(Deoxyribose sugar) esEso^exi a.S' 
a,^ S*t)^6" (Phosphate) o 3 

&*/"oo) 

(Nitrogen bases) f6 
(Adenine) |_^S (^Thymine) 
(Guanine) = ^<ff*S)^ (^Cytosine) 

(A = T,G =C) 



DNA 



rig5o"3rfsSoa (Genetic code) 
wo&Kfc. ex)^^sSxScS DNA o> 



LNA 



o3 



(Self Replication) 



. e 



(Mem- 

brance) rr, ^o^exi (Spindles) tf, ^.fl* 
(Ribosomes)^, 



(Biological replicaticn), 

?^ aa^g jjS^^D (gene- 
replication) &0er>Q*tf^. fiaft 



47 



spies', [Si", 1958 
DNA ijS8^8 &<fofff 
conservative manner 1 ) n* 

DNA ^ 
AS5*Q2) 5 8,8^-^ 55* 

(Template)n- S& <3, cS 
(Complementary chains) 



35" (Arthur-korenberg, 1966) 

^Isolated] 
(Polymerase] DNA 



DNA 



fife, eu 



, DNA ef>eso& 



DNA 



(A, T t G, C,) 



(Nucleotides) 



CQCO *- 

& 



(Triplet) 



64 



o o 



^cr*^-Codons) esc&flo. 



(Marshall W. Nirenber^), 

(HarGobind Khorana) 



DNA 



a 
So 



(RNA)o 



o>o 



1. e^oS)^ (Alanine) 

2. 6^)^ (Arginine) 

3. ^rS^tffig^ (Asparagine) 

4. w5^65" fts&^xi (Aspartic acidj 
6, S)fe<^ (Cysteine) 



6. 



(Glutamic acid) 



GCU, GCC, GCG, GCA 

CGU, CGC, CGG, CGA, AGG,AGA 

AAU AAG 

GAU 9 GAG 

UGU> UGC 

GAG, GAA 



sis 



7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
18. 
14. 
15. 
16 
17. 
18. 
19. 






20. 31)5 (Valine) 



(Glutamine) 
(Glycine) 
(Histidine) 
>5 > (Isoleucine) 
(Leucine) 
(Lysine) 

(Methionine) 
^o^cS" (Phenyl alanine) 

(Proline) 
[Serine) 

(Threonine) 
(Tryptophan) 
(Tyrosice) 



CAG, CAA 

GGU, GGC T GGG, GGA 

CAU, CAC 

AUU, AUC, AUA 

CUU,CUC f CUG, CUA, UUG, UUA, 

AAG, AAA 

AUG 

UUU,-UUC 

CCU, CCC, CCG, CCA 

UCU, UCC, UCG, UCA, AGU, AGC 

ACU, ACC ACG, ACA 

UGG 

UAU, UAC 

GUU, GUC, GUG, GUA 



UAA, UAG, UGA 



(Nonsense codons . 

\ / 



(Transcription^ 
f 
S_S 3 DNA 




RNh 



t> PROTEIN 



(Translation) 



RNA (tRNA) 



(RNA)DNA 



tRNA fo 
Synthetase) 
tRNASb a,5T 



Amino acyl tRNA 



(Anticodon) 



349 



M GGA" 



mRNA So- 

M CCU ff n- 

tRNA 



:, RNA 



(Elongation process) So 
UAA, UAG, 



UGA 



^Termination process), UGA 



o3 ^Initiation process) 



DNA rfSfif* 



DNA 



( Cistron 
S|6" (S. Benzer), 1955 S5 



(Recon) 



f> (Mutant phenotype)& 



(Recombination) 



a.S'ese* 



SJCP 



ej?6:g 



ixjo (Genetic ele- 



(Formyl Methionine) ments) 



(Extrachromo 



somal inheritance) * 
(Plasma geoe) 



fPlasman'i 



(Cytoplasm) 



rv 



(Centrioles) 
(Basal granules), ~& 
(Plastids)- 



360 



II 



DNA 



DNA, 

cjss>& (Protein synthesis)^ 
So|^.s3 S^sio?6i(Raie of Protein 
synthesis) o*cr', 05 A esA 
and off) d&-o|jte'&D S5^ 
^s fSc1sie8SaJ&, "Induction", ^ 



(F. Jacob) 
Monod) e& 

(Operon concept) 



^Polytene chromosomes") 
iSe (Puffs), o*S^ log 
(Lampbrush chromosomes) 
(Loops) es 



3*0 



(Gene expression) 



RNA 



(Genotype - 



FURTHER READING 

Barish. N. The Gene Concept. Rein- 
Hold Publishing Corporation: Niw 
York. 1965. 

Srb A. M, R. O. Owea and Robert 
S. Edgar; (Selected & Introduced) 
Facts of Genetics] Readings From 
Scientific American; W, H. Free 
man and Company, San Francisco 
1970, 

Stahl. F. W. The Mechanics of Inheri 
tance; Prentice-Hall, Englewood 
Cliffs. N. J. 1984 

Watson. J. D;, Molecular Biology of 
the Gene; W. A. Benjamin Inc, 
New York. 1965. 

0*11 "3. 2. 



73. 



e; 



(Division of Labour in Living Cells) 



S'OA 



S'DA cJ&ofi 



plasm) 



^Nucleus), S'ss [^^^00 (Cyto- 



plasmic reticulum), rj) 
apparatus] && 



(Endo- 
(Golgi 



(Chloroplasts) ,^ 
chondrians), 



(Living unit) 



M (Procaryotic) 



o (Fungi) So, 



(Eucaryotic) 



862 



0*0 



100A Si)c 



(Semi permeable membrane 



r Amoeba") 



cytosis)3 



t3- 



S > fPeno- 

\ 

^ (Phagocytosis) 



goS) (E.R.) 
tfo) 
"Cisternae 



e) 
. E. R. 



250A 
(RNA) 



E.R. 



(Sebaceous glands or Steroid hormones) 



E R, 



rv 



E R. 



Cytoskeleton 



(Golgi apparatus) 



830^0 



(Vesicles) n* 



^sSsScptf&Bso (Secretory materials) 



E.R, 



cles) 



n-fc 



fc^ (Vesi- 
pfl 
food* 



, rvl) 



o (Components) 



(Chlorplasts\ ^ 






863 



(Photosynthesis) 



(Lamellae) 
arp "i 
(Grana) 



(strama) 



NADPdfo 



CO 



JS S'eaSSa, 



0.2 &oA ^sSj-ii 6.0 



(Matrix) 

Sref oo 

(Cristae) 



364 



-">;& 3 f", 



A.T.P., O 2 o?$ 

rfd&^ff, fcfio, 



(ATP), 



eS$r3o*o&E353 



ATP 



(Lysosomes) 



(Nucleic acids) &, 
(Poly saccha^ 



rides v ,&, 

J 



(acid phosphatase) 



J^o: (Vacuoles'^es[CfsSgSSi^ 



3', 



fCentrioles] 



(Flagellae^, 



|_0s*o (Celia) 



(Cytoplasm) 



(Karyo lymph), 
(Nucleolus), 
(Chromatin) 



(fluid) 



856 






rs-fc. 



, S5octeo"e> 



(Phospholipids) 



(Polyploidy) 
DNA, 
. DNA 



, DNA 



RNA 



S'OAAoA. 



fi (Reproduction), 
(Metabolism), o-^Sd&t) (Repair), 
(Irritability), ^o^&> (Motion) 



(Growth), 




see 



. *&*&& t 



^ 



II. 



12. 



FURTHER READING 

BOURNE, G. H. : DIVISION OF 
LABOUR IN CELLS. ACADEMIC 
PRESS; NEWYORK, 1970. 

KENNEDY, D. (INTRODUCTIONS) 
THF LIVING CELL', READINGS FROM 
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN; W. BL 
FREEMAN AND COMPANY; SAN 
FRANCISCO. 1965. 

MERCER, E. H. CELLS AND 
CELL STRUCTURE. HUTCBINSON 
EDUCATIONAL, 1961. 

MORRISON, J. H. FUNCTIONAL 
ORGANELLS; REINHOLD PUBLISH- 
ING CORPORATION; NEW YORK, 
1966. 

SWANSON, C. P. THE CELL, 
PRENTICE - HALL INC. ENGLE- 
WOOD CLIFFS N. J. 1964. 



. 2, 



74. 







n- 



867 



sStf 0*000. 



ATP 



65 S^ 



NADH 2t 



NADPH 



ADP, ip QC&, ATP 






I ATP 



fi 



8 a, 



S , 



j, 



n- 



n- 



n- 



$68 d^iSA&r it 






L ip^S ^exSg) S 1,8 



J *__ Q o * * l_ fti ' 



*5 1, 8- 3_S*"fc 



fc 1,3- "3 



ADP weso^S* ^o^> 8^ 
ATPJ) 
8- 



ADPa 

., t e, wea ^ M ^^ 

*}\}f w \cO \ oJQ oJl ^9UO CJ 
O 



ADP 



ATP Atf^3ofibtoi&% Sod 1.8. 

r. 1.8. 



_ tf 



NADH 



2 o 



5> 



NADHco, 



NADP H 2 , 



FADH 



2 

wesoS^co 



SSfi 



ATP 



> An* 






NADH 2f 



FADH 



?6[gcxi> 0*0 o 



NADH 2 , 



NADPH, FADH e f 

2 2 



NADPH 2f FADH 2 ), 



a, 



ADP a 



ATPa 



II 



frdrr 

a *fs 

40 ^EsoS^o ATP0 



ADPcCoo, 



5 t 



FURTHER READING 
Topics in the Study of Life. Tie 
Bio Source Book. 1971. Harper & 
Row, Publishers, Inc. 

Davies D.D. Giovanelli, J. and 
T. Ap Rees. Plant Biochemistry; 
1964. F. A. Davies Company; 
Philadelphia. 



. a. 



T5. 



S)S<SpAotii r *o4pcxo. 



* -8*8jg 



co, 



. 8)3 



wi^Sftf 



rao 



0*} E 



ATP 



ATP 



if 



9 



ATP 



*T 5 a ^d&Ib^ sSififf 1 8367^ 

O 

& atfo2j*otJa 
zr- ^Sn- tf^c&asf f8rp- 
. ^'cs'o^ es 
ATP 



ATP 



if 



ATP 



f 8 



f , ADP a 



ATP 



, ATP 



40 



ATP 



. ATP 



. ATP 



GTP 



Acd^tf. ATP,GTP, UTP 



ATP 



ATP 



B62 



ii 



ATP 




Ad R _ ((p)) w ((p)) 

(ADP) 



* J 6 03 



ADP, 



ATP 



f AMPrr> 



c&tfo, 



), ADP&oA 



K cal 
AMP 






PH 7.0 



APT 



S^" 3-^0$), ATP 

^ 



ATP 



(AF L = -2.2 Kcal/ 



8^ Stfg 



7 Kcal / 
ATP ecs>3> 
ADPn- 3-1 
5, ADP 



. 3*3* 



ATP^ 

cBjAg*e> ^CPJ 





li 



FURTHER READING 

1. BURKE J. D. 1970 : Cell Biology; 
Scientific Book Agency; Calcutta. 

2. LEVITT. J. 1969; Introduction to 
Plant Physiology : C. V. mosby 
Company, Japan* 



3. DAVIES D. D., GLOVANELLl J M 
AP REES. T. 1984, Plant Bio- 
chemistry. Blackwell Scientific 
publications. 



T6, 



1. fefib, 



enzymes), 



2. 



S&tf 



95 



<Dog_^oex (Protein 
(Nucleic acids), 



ea (Hydrolysis) 
(Condensation) 



H 2 



& 



8. ^tf 2S^o* 
tftfjeo 



4. 



6. 3oatf .e>5* fcfib, tfspwi j^^ (Trans- 
port system) n- SS^3^o6. 



306 



, Sjtftf 



6. 



^xylem) 6* 



(phloem) 



/mobile gametes) 



(spores), 2>cFeo (frutisY S_^^7co (seeds) 



7. foa 



(Heat of vapourisation) 



). fcflSAo 



SStfofto 



(Radiant energy) 

o-a 



8. 



iv^ froce) 



(tensile strength) oo 



9, 






(filaments) sSS 



foJO (Cuticle) 



(Ranimcuhis 



agualis). sS^ 
^.o A 
(cavities) 



fcfl^) 



n 



(Hygrophytes) 
(Mass 



(Ferns) 



(Liverworts), 



foes 



(Mesophytes) 



(Xerophytes) : 



( 



available 



watery 



(Succulent or 



fleshy), 

AoA 



(Aloe), "ft 



(Opuntia), 
(Svaeda) 



(Optentia), oS^^&efc (Casuarina) 



S'OA 

(palisade tissue) 



(Physio- 



logical Xerophytes) 



(Salicornia SP), ^e^ 
(Arthoquemum), Dfc^dfior (Aviccnia), 
(Brugera), 



(Transpiration) 



Toef 



867 



CO * O 



98 

_ _ _ _ ~ cSrT*jn*QjOo_ _ 

o 



foas 



- PMA r 



- ABA 



30-40% 



s'Soocr 



fofli 



^. (Soil - plant), 

(Soil^atmosphere), 

(Plant-atmosphere), 



(Soil - Plant - Atmosphere 



Continuum) 



- fefi 



SPAC 
f Soil - plant - Atmosphere continuum) 



FURTHER READING 

1. Knight, R.O (1966) -The Plant in 
relation to WaterjDover Pubicatkm, 
New York. 

2. Slaytor, R O, (1967) - Plant - Water 
relationships; Academic press, New 
York. 

3. Sutcliffe, J. (1968) - Plants and 
Water; St. Martins press. New York, 



i. 



77. 



s'ocr'Sii, 
, 2. es&ex 



SCPCT 



(Long dist- 



ance transport) & 



(Tran- 



sport of Minerals) 



(1676), fc 



(1727), 



(42K) 



(32 P) 



(passively) 



(Habit) 



(24) 



^Limiting) 



Sbs- 



Sbo-, 



8 



$70 Sartf&iS' II 





G9 <D 



(Sieve tube 

elements^ 
/ 



(slime - bodies or P 
protein) 



^eso 



(Transverse end walls) - 

6353*^05* 



(32?) .._ 

x *^ * -*~ (sieve plate) 

-5 



a," 



(callose) 



/companion cells) Arodjco>, 



-o " ^ 



(14CO 2 ) 
( 3H 2 ) ^^ ^So-^fc, 



Sifra 



oo (Radio 
Autogram) S$ 



asfio^i 



o o o 



^Estf ?6&>, roei idCStf 



1 ^o^ 25 



(tracers) & bZafr tf {ofl*&sS;v , SSQ-S^S io-^ 



o 



872 



AoO S 



SCPCP 



200 



U'o^ ^)&> 



100 



(3H 2 O) 



, 14C 



S. 



82Po 



O*o^ 



Sotftfo 



i _ directional 



movemect). 



878 



1960) ^ 



(Biddulph and Cory 

a, "3 



(Technique) 



3 tfSeo 



SSc3*C3*eX) 



eon* 



STDO. 



(Functional connect- 



ing system) 



, 0*0^^3*^0 



. (i6^o 1.) 



8T4 




Passive 



physical process)^* ajfibfc&ofi, 



876 



OS 

(60(5. 



<c3t><^(R Tbiane) 



(Strands) ^ 
(Protcn filaments) 



^Fennem) "fcjS^S" TSpanner) 



(H 4 ) S_ 
(HCO 3 )oSb tpofo^og' ^ef^^ 

^differentially permeable) n* A oaf 60 



FURTHER READING 

1. Ray P. M. (1972) The Living 
plant. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 
New York. 

2. Richardson, M. (1963.) Traas- 
location in Plant St. Martins press; New 
York. 

3. Zimmermann M. H. ( 1969 ). 
Translocation of Nutrients in Physio- 
logy or Growth and Development. M.B. 
Wlkins (Ed). Me Graw Hill, New York- 






rs- 

(Growth of Plants) 



67? 



CTO* 



* 



*>$& 

aor? " " " "* 






3 flr*e?^. &a e ti 
*_ c ? 



1367? 



iSG Sxwj 



on* 



iee> I 

L L 



40 



Fuither Reading 

1- LEVITT, J. (1969). Introduction 
to Plant Physiology, C. V. Mosby 
Company, Japan. 

2. BLACK. M & EDELMAN, J. 
(1970). Plant Growth, Heincmann 
Educational Books. 

8, SALISBURY, F- B. and Ross 
(1969). Plant Physiology. Wadsworth 
Publishing Co. California. 



. a. 



79. 



con* 



^a. 3o 



on 1 

3. 



Sbtf 
Aotoofi. Soo^o 

3d&0|j&oi3 



79 






d& 0^65*0 riP, 









IAA 
IAA 



IAA 

a 

JAA 



I Q& t5*A*3feO S^ouOrOcO IAA 

o u . - - - .L 

Ao dtipcS^o^ S5udo^ ^)^b)_gSn* IAA 



fiaf) 5>s is fSo5)S' II 

W J V , 



IAA 

a-^o'B wS^on- IAA 



, od&eo 

S3 



881 



a- 

38) wo&SV JS 



bfl ASS 



^ fco^sS SSo 



40 



1 fib. sjS Sa*cr> S^OCPO 



Sstf on- 



S'sa 



882 



oorr 



coir 



"5)67? 



on*o 



h eso as* 

oL fc ~~ 









S83 



FURTHER READING 



of plant Growth dnd DeteZapment ; 
Me Graw-Hill Publishing Company 
Ltd. New York. 

2. Leopold, A. C. (1984)- Plant 
Growth and Development ; Me Graw 
Hill Publishing Company, New York. 

3 Black, M. & Edelman J, (1970) 
Plant Growth. Hineman Educational 
Books -London. 



80. 



19200* 



2, &!S 






eo 



*>\ 

-^ - oL 



3. 






. 



5. 



A 






886 









asFo SijXs'oS 4 



fi oS'oiS 

A 






P FR 

wdoes 



P R 



(P R ) 






(25) 



^& & 

J "Sx>oaO 5*OGF*& 



886 Seats' II 



o3 ic 



wS^ si* 3^ [jj|9dieori B 



(A) 



A 

O 

B 

^O Zi~ ~ oJLUW ^U3U w OBoJUUOU)OWtO B 



A, B, 

C c&' 



. sjfl 

CO 

tJ " to 






Aotoofi. 



387 






'"SjaSbS (3 AO , 



sSxapgorv, 



430 ~~* _o 

~~ ~~ ' ~" T> 30 



* n FURTHER READING 

1. LEOPOLD, A. C. (1964). PUmf 
Growth- and Development. Mc-Graw 
Hill Publishing Company. New York. 

2. WILKINS, M, B. (1969)-PK^5ioZog^ 
o/-PUnt-grou;th and Development. 
Mc^Graw Hill pub. com. New York, 

8. -tollman, W 4 . S. (1962XThe Physio- 
logy of Flowering. Holt Rinehart & 
" <***. 3^3445 ^aorfto>rf Winston. New 



(EXCRETION) 



era 



Do S 

fcfio 
tf&5 (Excretion) 



(Elimination) 



. sicr- 



assess 



aoofif* SSoO'di^ tffi esooS* 

swa>i>8 



o 

(Osmosis) 0*30* [35otf&. sa ^^ tf:S\&. S'&g' ga fcdb 



0^0* 

foas 



es 



Fl & t a<5tf?S ^?6or*aS'r6^ fea fSotfiorfsSa (Water 

worms \ 6* & 



Balance) 



0*0 



a. eaorto^r 1 ^^Actioo (Nephre- 

dium) -^e sS^ cSrSjofi. S[S)fld3bot tf tfo ^g t3o*\) 

~~* * tj 






di) ^Excre- 
tory units) 3o 



Si>)c$ Sc3*D T> Ofi) oTifcrva af66^r5 siCcS sScpO'eo SJpcr 1 

Q m Q 



:$n* 

jS 



acid). 



(Ureia), 



mmonia), 

(Uric 



Ammoniotelic 



(Ureotelic) 

2p 

(Uricotelic) 



dcrai" 



(Recapitulate)^ 



Sjfi 



nfo,(s5JS>ofiT') 



dD^o (Deamination) 



SOI 



(Static) 



rr^^S' (Guanine^n 9 S)^56^coD. 
OD^" (AllontoinV 5ejotpcx)o" 
(Allontoic acid) Sp^eS" e5S5D^ fHippuric 
acid), JrtS^ ^Pterinesj, 
^Creatinine) 



1. "Physiological Approach to lower 
Animals" ~ by J. A Ramsay. Cam- 
bridge university press. London, 
1968. 

2. "An Introduction to Comparative 
Biochemistry" -by E. Baldwin. 
Cambridge university press. 1964. 

8. * 'Animal Physiology" -by Knut 
Schmidt Nielsen. Prentice Hall of 
India Private Limited. New Delhi. 
1978. 

4. "High School Biology'* - Biological 
Science Curriculum Study. Green 
Version- Rand Me Nally and Com- 
pany. Chicago. 1963. 

5. "Molecules to Man" - Biological 
Science Curriculum Study. Blue 
Version. Houghton Mifflin Com 
pany. Boston. 1963. 



82. 




(Nervoui Coordination) 



/Irrita- 



bility) 



e.S'&sfc rfjfi 



tftfgeo 
& 

cpM 

( Nervous CoordiBation 



& 



*a S'e^co 



Cell Bodies) 



(Nerve 



( Electrical Impulses ) fior*SSofif* 



(Segment j 



Taxis 



a^fifc 

SjcS8>tf [SisS^ (Insti- 
nctive behaviour) 



&&& s*tfeaSis. cvF&fSoftfiT* 9^^ &tfo*a?&o& ASifi^S 

[Worms^fiT 8 






it 



;o) (Effectors^ 



. Siae* 



(Learning) 



&oiso<3. 



^Association Neurons)cr$o*.. 



ivJ-4 



, ojd3a*oap 



0*0 



, IPO fijt^d s- 



Excitation) [_S^ 



(Reflex 

^ 

(^Flow of 



^cS eofl, s*Son 



s-tf, 



^Posture) 

f Cerebellum) 
\ / 



(Optic lobes) 

(Neocortex) 



896 



57^0* 

o<5oS^ c6Sr-a B o 11 ^ 
ofifc 



(Columns) Ao^tp^ 3 



(Chimpanze) 



(Thinking) 



(Migration) 



Sotf ci. 

sSoiS*. 

ation\ 



GO (Imprinting) 
(Habitutioning) 
( Condi 



a (Trial and Error) 



S 



h "Physiological Approach to Lower 
Animals" - by J. A. RAMSAY; 
Cambridge University - 1988. 

2. "Animal Physiology" by KNUT ^ 
SCHMID - NIELSEN; Prentice 
Hall of India Private Limited; New 
Delhi. 1973. 

3. 4C Animal Behaviour- Its Evolution. 
ary and Neurological Basis- by.V G, 
DETHIER and L, STELLAR; Pren- 
tice Hall of India Private Limted, 
New Delhi. 1963. 

4. "The Electrical Activity of the 
Nervous System" by M,A.B. Brazi- 
er* Macmillan company. New York. 
1960. 

6. "The Brain" byD. PATERSON; 
British Broadcasting Corporation. 
London. 1969, 

6. "Learning and Instinct in Animals" 
By W. H. THORPE. Harvard Univer- 
sity Press. 1956. 

Sb. 



83. CS & S 00 

(MOTlLlTY) 

(iii) 



SSQrfeSo&Sifry 



(Cytoplasmic streaming) 

X^E^o^*^ 

baa ^^aoasefi 

"3s*^ l ^SoSiCJ' ?6o 

o. 2. 



a^TPOb3 _ 
O 



. Qfi 

M^TO *3U'_ 

9 



Aodooofi. 
) d 
tfKtf Soootf&aSjtfsScpaS Bao-o-x. $^ To^^ Ao^ofi. (vi) 



(Culture) 






(Amoeba) 

^\<i6DOo$o ^*c6Je?So ajfib^Aofl. 5> do sio fGel) (O 
J ^0 d> v / 

fii^ ^9^^ *)& & $$&> &> -SoSf ^cs*odi r6o. ^*o ( SoF) o 

V k ,/ o \ / O 



O 

(Cilia) &&* woAriJS^ ^E9intf 

V * w ^ 

(Flagella) 



898 OsSfi!>tf II 



CO 



ba L^J 9 

o 

(Impulse) 



. bflfl 



'liiest^' (Myogenic) 


^d^ (Involuattry) 
5 
(RhythmicW 



(Peristaltic) 

esfibftsycoo. 



(Twitch time) 



(Refractory Period) 3*0 *&;_. aS> 
(Spcrmosin") fto ^ N ^'-wxv, .&.KN *^ 3^^^ J e \ ' 



o5* ^Propeller) 



i- o \ - / DfiSSb^ oc 

co q 00. 



tf (Autonomic) 

&tfo (Accelerate) 
slrtc6 (vagus) 



(Skeletal muscles). 



(flexor) wfc 
(extensor) ^fe 



(Adductor) wfo 

(Abductor) 



(antagonis f ic)n 
sS^o (syner- 



gistic) 



rp 



&S" (Myosin), 



fo^ (Actomyosin) 



ssium chloride) [D-^esoS^^^, 



( Adenosine Tri - Phosphate ) 



*^ 



, t 



a 



TTcb, 



1. t{ The Living ceil,"- Readings from 
Scientific American; W. H. Free 
man and Company; San FrantXsco. 

1965. 

2. " Animal Physiology" -, by KNTJT- 
SpHMIDT^NIELSEN. Prentice Hall 
of India Private Limited; New 
EtelfaL 1973. , , : * 

3. "Cell Physiology" ~ by A,*C 
GIESE* W. B. Saunders , 



400 

4. "Human Body - Its Anatomy and 
Physiology " - by C. H, BEST and 



II 



N. B TAYLOR. Henry Holt anc 
Company. New York. 1956. 



. 



[AGING] 



(May^Fly) firf5*a_S f 
ite) 26- 
(SUurus Glanis) 



(Life Span) 

fi & 

lfcs'33 
(term- 



60 



t So 6 



601? So. 



ieSoi 



&C&&0, 






ation) 



&otitoo 



(Rad 



3d8b3-Sb. 



401 
(Isolated) Sft 



(Adapt) I 

&5 (Collagen) 



(Calcium), ^ego" (Choles- 
terol) t 3$>arajL Stficyo-es 






(Glu 

\ oPOo? S*O3On* oJj*Co*\CO 

otD&(3*. So) s^ow r6s$3ic6^ o5ii?T* (Promi- 
nent) nfc, ^^^S ^T^ orjo (Significant) 



, aS) 



(Weis- 
mann) 



___ _ SS'ea 

" <?' " 

(26) 



402 

(cell cultures) <*> 



StfriS Botfrf^o A^S 



cium) 



(Parame- 



SPCFGO 



k. 



, 5*0 



(Cell differentiation) oSb 



II 



r&*u)otfBDcr o aao. 



1. ''Problems of Aging 11 - by N. W, 
SHOCK - Transactions of the 16th 
Conference, Josiah Macy Jr. Foun- 
dation, New York. 1954. 

2. "Aging. Some Social and Biologi- 
cal aspects" _ by N, W. SHOCK; 
Publication No. 65 of the American 
Association for the advancement of 
Science; Washington D. C. 1960. 

3. "Tissues, Cells and Aging 1 ' -byB.L, 
STREHLER. Academic Press, 1982. 

4. "Problems of Aging" ^ by H. J, 
LOETHER. Dickenson publishing 
Company; Belmont. 1967. 



85. 



(Aging in Plants) 






(Monocarpic) iaS'j-otf* S7<23 



tf tfioS-rk a.S' 



5?/^ix>ex> 



- Annual loss) 



SaaS'j- ^^06. SP 



S'oo^o 



Q O 



. sjfl 



404 



II 






n> 



(Light intensity), 
s-gS (Disease) 

siaG rt>6o8 



(Day light), 



(Natural Selection) 



eon- 






405 



0-30* 



(Xamthophyllsj 
(Carotinoids) 



^Grana) 



mic reticulum 



(Protein content^ 



RNA 



(Soluble protein) 5 



(Carbon fixing) 



40ft 



tt 



tfs&o (Nu 



trientsj 



SS L ^sSbcce7OotS)t5br5^2). 



C 14 ap^ 



C 14 



C 14 

RNA 



( Incorporation ) 



(Peraxidas6), 
( Ribonuclease ) 



an- 



3*060^) 






407 



IAA 

(Sinks) 



. IAA 



^Nutrients) S) tf 



Q 

_d&3fcoo> ^tf2&3&r&fcSjtf . 

, ~ )^ ASocSj* IT- . * * U 

-r /Spinacm 



_ _ _ _ 

ooj wwww t vejuju\oju. tvj^w ' ^ 

^OOJ WW^CUCVCUUAJNA^J. tVJ^w 



Xanthium pensylvanium) 



RNA 



RNA 



RNAo 



403 



A^SoOScs- SS" 



RNA 



" 



(Kinetin) 



. "in- 



Q t> 



i^ 11 (Ririodendran, Lulipiy 
hna ) ^oooer>o^S e$))?S5~ ( Ailanth- 
us allissiner) . 






mantW 



d'^o (Dor- 
S'^e 
&o&cS3. wofib^ 



2, 4- 



?S:o3, 



RNA 
2 4- D 



o ajrf^|Sxjc5odSb f j 






wo&tS osSbco 



fereen) 



0*0 



FURTHER READING 

1- WAREING, P F. and I,D.J. Phillips. 
1970 - The Control of Growth and 
Differentiation in Plants 

2* WOOLHOUSE, H W. 1974 - 
Longivity and Senescence in Plants; 
Science Progress, VOL. 61. 



2>. 



86- 



: Sbo 



(Plant Embryology) 



( Life-cycle ) 



(Angiosperms) fir 8 ^d&^foS (di- 



ploid) 

3>ofcoo<3; 
feaatftf' 



(Haploid) 



f Microsporangium 

( ovule ) 
(Megasporangium) 



f Endosperm), 2)o<^^) (Embryo) 



(Embryology) 



o (Stamen Primor 



( Pollen mother cells ) Sctf 0*000. ^e 

(\ieiosis) 



(Microspores) 



(Pollen grains) n* 



(Exine) 
(Intine) 



410 



it 



furrows), 
pores) 



t)aj 



(Germinal 
(Germ 



("Male gametophytel 



g'rao (Pollen grain) 



(Generative cell) 



fl 



fcs*oSh ofi 



(Ovule) 



0*0 



^Ovuleprimordium) 



ii ('Nucellus'), 



ments") 

/ 



(Sporogenous cells) 

^5j <5^oS5n e*S" s*^ 
S^otf (Funiculus) 



(Embryo sac) 



^ (Primary Archesporium) 



(Megaspore mother cells) r? 






(Megaspores) 






on- a, 



]&<s&*o&o (Functional Magaspore) 



(Polygonum Divarlcatum^ 



(Strasburgar) 



(Polygoaum type) 
(Normal type) 

fce-c^ 1 



Q3J* 






(Egg apparatus) 



nucleus) 



(Antipodals) rv 

(Secondary 

c<^a*^^o ^^) 
(Upper pole), 



(Egg 



(Syncr- 



(2) 



-"3. 

oL 



16 



(Feitilisation) : 



(Syngamy), 



Q-o 



iple fusion) 



So 
(Triple 



fusion nucleus ) 



(Endospeiin) : 



II 



( Non-endo- 
spermic or exalbuminous) 



(Endospermic or albuminousj 



/Embryo) 



AowrY i & 1 



(Cell wall) 



(Embryo axis), ~dc& 
donsj Sfcodr'aao. bS' 

^>odJ*ooD 



(Cotyle- 



e-S" Aoee^" 8 
T*^h 
^o3 

"D 



(Polyembryony) 



Soo^fi^ 

CO 



(Partheno- 



carpic fruits) 



-(Integuments), 
(Seed coats) n 



(Testa) 



413 



, Jbo^^o 



(Gibberellins), ^ Sflff (Kinetin) 
(Auxin?) 




2. 




-C 



(Malegametophyte). 



fFcmale gametophyte] . 



3. 



35ertf3 ; 
o; E : 

B. 
C. j 

M. ^o^o i j6'^f*^ (Micropylar end) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Maheswari, P. - An Introduction to 
the Embryology of Angiosperms. 
Me. Graw Hill Book Co. Inc. 1950. 



87 



(Tissue Culture) 






20 



CT-O<" (Gottlieb Haberlandt-1902) 

(Lamium Purpurium) 



(Meriste- 



matic Activity) 



White) 



^fioo 



t -3 (" ( p. R. 



20 



(Went and Thima^ 



415 



es&so 

(Sterile) 



,3 db ex So* 



or* 



s*ocr 



too 



1. 



. 2. 



8. 



DdS 



r, bo5~tt> (Skoog and Miller 



-1967) 



SD. S. i) M 0.2 Sb, [TV. ^ 
o S^ 

tf/^lj CO .02 Sb in-. 

co n V L 



6 Sb. 



55* S) 5" (Tyrosine) 



Ibfib^tfo SS^fi 
5^33$ 3K 



o oL 



(F. C. Steward) saaSS fe'eae^o 



s3c3"Oex), tJ^ytf, D^SbS'eo, 



160 Sb. 



(Totipotency) Al 



416 



II 



& 



(Crepis Tecto^um^, 
(Antirhinum Majus) 
) X #6d&S> ^^5 (Hordeum 
bolbosam X Hordeum VulgareY 

(OeDothera Scabra) 
Sera- 19655 



(Kostaff) 19295^ 



(Datura In noxia], 
{&*3>^cS)S (Datura StromoBium) 



E l Nitsch's) 
(Hellers) 



n-lb, 
r?!b 



19G4 



(iAA), 2.4. as 

: (2.4,D), ^^>fi^ (Kinetin), 
fcifi, L^Sas^tfsSbo (Yeast Extract), 



&ofi 



(Larue - 1942) 
(Jensen & Bonner-1949) 
(J. P. Nitsch 1949, 1951), 



(Santalaceae), 



(Loranthaceae) 



417 



Sr^tf 
n 



eo 

eT 
o 



(27) 



-TT t . t v ^ && (Triploid) tfo 

Haberlandt ) a*pc)?S v r 



1970 S5 KSo^^^dr 8 so^ (Cock- 
ing) 



^_ o 



FURTHER READING 

Steward; F. C. (1968). Growth and 
Organisation in plants. Addison-Wesley, 

Reading, Mass, 

'w *" 

^-~- , L?^ Q 8)SS>^ o&tftf^ Wareing , P. F. & Phillips I. D. J. 

(1970). The Control of Growth and 
differentiation in Plants. 'Pergamon 
Press Ltd. 

John, B. M. (1971). Differentiation 
in Plants, tissues, cultures. Presidential 
address - 68th Session of the Indian 
Science Congress. 

a. 



o 



(Interacting Systems in Development) 



S>o 



CJ-53-0? 
^)oi&^ 
Acting) 



CD 

? 



(Inter 

l J)fl 



(Interactions) 



idy) 



(Activation) 



(Excep^ 



tions) 



^ofi^tfe 



estf^o (Parthenogenesis) 



?6odSi3 g' 



(Zygote) 



(Ooplasm) 



5p$?3o$>&> tfgdSb&d (Diplo ^^ (Qeavage) 



( Blastomeres ) 



foes 



(Identical) 



5"iC- 



(Genes) ^ 



419 



So 



(Chemo Different!. 



ation) 



(Determination) 



ments) 



ar0& 
( Morphogenetic 

, roSjv sS^g^epoS 

(Axial Mesoderm) 



. ajo 



"i^ ( Induction ) 



(Competence) 



^ In Res P nse to ) 

&ocy>. 






co 

x> Sd^^oSS, 

CO 

_ 



~~ 1. C. R. AUSTIN - "Fertilization" - 

(Transcribe) pfentice ^ ^ Englewood 

Cliffs. New Jersey. 1965. 

2. M. SUSSMAN-" Growth and Deve. 
lopment"- Prentice Hall of India 
Private Limited. New Delhi. 1963. 

3. CHR. P. RAVEN-" An Outline 
of Developmental Physiology"- Per 
gamon Press. London- 1959. 

4. N. T. SPRATT*- "Introduction to 
Cell Differentiation* - Chapman 
and Hall Limited. London. 1966. 

5. F. J. GOTTLIEB- "Developmental 
*67? *tf g&tto^ wtfZZ Genetics 1 ' - Chapman and Hall Limi 

ted. London. 1966. 

6. J.D. EBERT- "Interacting Systems 
in Development** - Holt Rinehart 
and Winston Inc. 1965. 



200 



cSgojcn 8 



250 



10-20 



6o-iJ*CCD. 



80-125 



422 v 



it 



5 &o& 10 



Si ^) 



SJ*otfdj*> ^tft&n- S^SS) 5*0 






\^& 
^oa wtft) SS 



an* 



150 ^). b>. 



60. "Sjo.S 



428 



x)ar*doco 



oii^, S'oS'tf 



. ^8 



Aotj-00. 



cSfij L ^a3, 



SoS 



fife 3 , 

CD * 



6000 



Aotoofi. SS:)S?o 



2000 &c<3 4000 



Coo 



424 Serais' II 



. 

. 2. 



, SS 



, f^rp, 05} 



S5^3?oa 



&ooL_cpeo Sb^ d 
S SS6 



, 3 



5000 



FURTHER READING 

1. ODUM. E. P. 1963. Ecology; Holt 
Rinehart and Winston. New York. 

2. DAUBENMIRE, R. F - 1968. 
> SJtfeon, Plant Communities; Harper & Row. 

si5f_a 3. BILLINGS. W. D- 1964 -Plants and 

the Ecosystem. Mac Millan. London. 

3. a. 






90. 



a? *;>_)*' cry 3 
u * 



, ejfl 



^055*0 



63*- W 



o^ ^A 



Stfon* 



426 SsprSfiW II 

\ 4-00 *& r? tfjjc 



^odxofi. 



S&OT? 



en a 

e> 

a, 



ei o 



i 



)^0*4 



, C5 

&a 



427 

FURTHER READING 

1. DAU8ENM1RE, R.F. 1969. Plants 
and Environment; Second Ed. Wiley 
Eastern Private Ltd; Publishers. 
New Delhi. 

^l&& S$o*rt So&f^oSr* 2> ODUM, E.P. 1978, Fundamentals 

of Ecology: 3rd ed. W.B, Saunders 
Company. Philadelphia. 

3. SAGREIYA,K.P. 1967. Forests and 
Forestry. National Book Trust, 
India. New Delhi. 



ii "i. 



91. 

DjS^ climatology) 



(Meteorology) ^ e 

(Biometeorology) 



>,A ^oS" 8 . 
e) L 



(Architectural 
Meteorology) 



428 



atf n 



transfer \ es^tf, r?0 



6"^^ (Heat 



transfer) 



?5 ^ 



S =s 
Radiation) 

L =r fitf 
Radiation) 

H = 



E 

M 



o = 



: (S. + S o ) + (L. + L o ) 



(Short wave 



(Long 



wave 



(Latent heat of canopy) 



(Nature 
(Humidity) 



429 



V 3fo ^ 



ive Humidity), 



O(S 120^0 V 



Ibo^^o. 



ii.sn 8 e 

u v 

^% (Drought) 



480 



n 



x- 



;. 

CO 2J 



"Sefi 



( 



56" esea 



(Solar Radiation) 
J (Heat energy) & 
tf&d&f6"_5 (^Chemical energy) 



19 X 1 O 10 



Ccrac6*, SJO 
fi^a* 90 



10 ^doS^ 7 
, 3 



431 



iSofi 



\ 
&C&PCXD. 

2. #30^3 

StfSfc^ s*o&, a 
("Canopy)"^ 

3. ^^^c&>|_^S" irtftf 
i ^Sj-?6|_ci&s5Q?6 



to 

L 



foflSbtf 



/Micro Climate) 



r 

CO CO 






eu 



flu "I 



(Homothermic) 



(Poikilothermic^ 



42 3zsp>saas II 



FURTHER READING 

1. Lowry, W. P. (1969). Weather 
and Life. Academic press. New York. 

2. Salisbury, F. B. and Ross, C. 
(1969). Plant physiology. Wards^ 
worth Publishing Co. Californina. 

(antenna^) ssr&j ^^oifid&oSDa U. S. A. 



92. 



(Radar) 



:r. ~oL 
)\ ^ojcajn'o^o,\) o^roos'n^n-uo. &.s U "L^S ^""^ 



(Acrtic Turn) 
86,000 



488 



(Scolopax Rusticola) 

1500 



20PO-SOOO 



7000-9000 



1EOOO 



20,000 

28,000 t^^e ^^ s'^o?^, 27,000 
(Choughs) ^ ito 



&c& 200 



( 28 ) 



So& 



g^i (^Harmonal Balance^ 



aicr-ofi S 



6230-43 



44 Os*f5&S>tf II 



drr fSspSSfei 



(Glide) 

&S$ 



gx-.A,^^^ 1. "Bird behaviour'' -by John 



Sparks. Paul Hamlyn, London. 1969. 

2. "fundamentals of Ornithology "- 
by J. Van Tyne and A, J. Berger John 
(Instinctive behaviour') ^0<Jr?), ^d'g Wiley and sons, Inc. 1959. 



4S5 



3 "The book of Indian Birds", by 6. "Bird Navigation'' _ by G. V. T. 

3l X Matthews Cambridge University press. 

Salim Ali. 1955 

4. The world of Birds" - J. by Fisher 

and R. T. Peterson. Macdonald. 7. Re. Birds. 

London. 1968. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental 

"Bird flight" - by K. Simkiss. Reaserch Insistitute. Vol. XLI1I. parts 

Hutchison Educational Limited. London. (i_iv) P. 59; Vol XLV parts (Uv) P- 105. 

1963. 1964. 



93. 

(The Life of Microbes) 



, J^dfi, S"S)cto6 ( 

$5* 



sp<?S>o> 



Scrtf&ooJbtf 



to* ii 



53* I 



^2*0} 



0,1-0.5 



ey^QSeo 2 &cA 50 36 [p So 
0.5 



c^) 

CJ 69 



S'esS'^D'.OS 



to 



DNA ^eso$) 606x06. 



1. Sjd&oSJ*^ E^SddtSbSex*. 



487 



. 

. 2, 



o 



8) A 



53cx5:xi^$)ex>ri 
sjS) 



&S55JYT s eo 



o i 



SSsfc. 



Aaft 2)ffir^Qo3^ II 

Ji tJ\J n 



"lo 



Aotocaa. 6 



Ve5* 



"lo^s^eo 



RNA 

jo a^) 
RNA 



DNA, 

"ol> " ~^ - - - ^ 

Sbocr 



"3 



4S9 



TMV 



TMV 3 



TMV 

1985 



. TMV 



fe TMV 






i&^to 



25-250 



DNA nS) RNA 



e$E3oS&n* Aod^^bofi. ^ 



fi ^cn 8 RNA ^e 



tf^eo 



Oft) 



tfofS 



SCPCP 



440 Ss^o!^ II 

FURTHER READING 3. Smith. K. M. 1965. The Biology 

1. Sistrom, W. R. 1962. Microbial of Viruses. Oxford University Press. 
Life, Holt Rinehart aod Winston 

2. Frobisher, M. 1958. Fundament. 

als of Microbiology. W.B. Sounders Co. CJ*ii "^. 2. 



94. 

fMarx & Microbes! 



.$. 435). 



o 



db. -^e 



&tf 

&0&CF 1)0 



o a 

>. siD <K<3 SODS' )_c?a)Q2i ssSS'o^ i^^^xpS^cD ^o s^oef", SuboooA, 



SSri)0(S. 



6rcdrccD. 



441 



4> > J~ Q 

aS 



rs-fo, 



3*5 



. 

a oi. 



iO& &0&TOOO. 

^ L 

<P CO 



e> s^ 

L g 5p C 

l)ooo:c<S. & i 



8,3^0 



442 



^^-3 sS^ff, 
*so_sS6" 



$0&5*OX> 

r6j*3?*> 



oo 

^ 



500. 



448 



c&JO 



FURTHER READING 

1. W HESTER, 1970. Introductions to 
Fungi. Cambridge University Press. 

2. JOHNSON, W. H. and STEERE, 
W. C. 1962 This is Life- Holt 
Rinehart and Winston 

3. S, 



95 



?5&?Sao>, 






^i 



444 



n* 



SS 6, 



. ^8 



S) a 



SSodoo biJ, ?3ea, 



fc fifes' tfoS 



445 



53^ Si^O^^COO. 5*^15 



GN 



00" , | 



446 



or, 



G 



35) , 



GN, fctf 



GN 



s 



S>, 



96. 




447 



S " 9$ sSgSS^S^Co. ssifT S3*6o&S> 

"^ * ^ eo 

x_ctb<Z5 g'eao&eo 



. 1% 



FURTHER READING 
1. SINGH, R. S. ( 1988 ). Plant 
Diseases. Oxford & I. B. H. 
Publishing Co. New Delhi, 

2 ALEXO POULOS, C. J. ( 1962 ). 
Introductory Mycology; 2nd ed. 
Wiley Eastern Press Ltd. 
New Delhi. 



3. S. 






(Inborn Errors and Theii Paihologys 



^3 EO , 



CSi 3 



448 



II 



(Phocomelia) 



foS (Nephrosis) S^ 5*^ 



(Down's Syndrome) 



(Hemophilia) 



5)65 



Ck CO 



(Metabolic Pathways) 



ctosemia) 
(Galactose) 



(Gala- 



(Phenyl Ketonuria) 

fi^^o^ J>3 6" 



3 S" (Phenyl 



oci&do 

(Adreono 

genital Syndrome^ ?6^ 
s^a^d" ^Cortisol) ?6oc53j*e5^ 



7? 



449 



cxa. 



S'Sftotftf^efi. 



, 226?? 



phogenetic Movements)^ 



(Mor- 



28 



(29) 



^DActf 



(Thalidomide) 



(Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid) 



. rfg 






(Diabetic) e^c^ 



(Radiation) 



450 



II 



toe. 

O CO 



(Isotopes) 



^Viruses) 






i K oo'3e3EX)^ 



53-8 
, 53*6 



1. Genes. Enzymes and Inherited 
diseases - by H. E. SUTTON, Rine- 
hart and Winston, New York. 1966. 

2. Developmental Genetics, -by 
F. J. GOTLIEB, Chapman and Hall 
Limited, London. 1966. 

3. Congenital defects -by L. SAX- 
EN and J. RAPOLA, Holt, Rinehart 
and Winston, Newyork. 1969, 

4. "Human Biochemical genetics' * 
by H. HARRIS, Cambridge Univer- 
city Press. 1959. 



o 
l)rf& * 

tf 

CO 



(Zoo) 

Lo 
300 



9T. S 

(Conservation of Wild Life) 



SSSeo, 



50 



! 65-70 
40 000 $)coo> &\yfo 4000 

^J830 tf^ 



(Rodonessa caryopby- 
llacea) escS^ s^db 4^5 



0* 



^0^ 



SJCP *3o* 



4B2 Ss'Sfi&S' II 

ar 



1 

L 

n-S' ^? 



1915 



1952 



Hi 
3 



. 1931-62 



fecx 

3 



381% 
18% 



SSCOD 

CO 



^ J2SOD 



466 a^^Si^ II 



&, ^ 
n o 



Aodooofi. s}etf is 

ifeoB. s a^orr 

SPCT- 

D. si<3 



1952 



|jSespff3 



3 



1. Indian Lion-5 

2. Tiger- ^tf^D 

3. White tiger-So ^)C 

4. Cheetah or Hunting] 



6. Clouded leopard^sSi^o 

6. Snow leopard or 

7. Caracal-^T^^CS'sio 

Q 

8. Spotted Linsang or Ti 

a a 

CD 



458 



(Wild 

life management 



3 5) 



464 



H 



9. Golden 

10. Marbled cat-tfoSSO 

o 

11. Rusty spotted 

12. Golden Langoor-sS 

13. Lesser Panda- aS^ 

14. Swamp deer or Barasingha-gpcp&cr? 

15. Brow -antlered deer-SPsSx^&S^ 

16. FourJiorned antelope (Chausingha) 



35. Peacock-a&O 

36. 
37. 



17. Black buck - 

18. Indian gazelle (Chinkara) 
19: Kashmir stag 

20. Muck deer-g'cSpa&jtfo 

21. One horned Rhinoceros-a,ofllPiS 



22. Indian elephant-^tftf^sfc 

23. Wild 

24. Pigmy 

25. Markh 

26. Shapu or urial-^s 

27. Wild ass~&tf > 

28. Takin-^spe^ 

29. Crocodile-S?6) 
30 Indian 

81. Indian 

32. Great Indian 

33. White-winged 

34. Pink-headed 



J. 'Preserve 4 Wild. life - Nature's 
price. less gift to India' V Designed and 
produced by the Directorate of Adverti- 
sing and visual Publicity, Ministry of 
Information and Broadcasting, for the 
Directorate of Pubiic Relations, Ministry 
of Agriculture, Government of India. 
July, 1971. 

2. "Proceedings of the meetings of 
the Indian Board for Wild-life'* .Ministry 
of Food and Agriculture, Department of 
Agriculture, Government of India. 

3. * 'Forests and Forestry "-by K, P. 
SAGRE1YA, National Book Trust, 
India. 1971. 

4 "The Wildlife of India"-by E.P. 
GEE Collins, London. 1965. 

5. "The Twilight of India's wild life" 
by BALAKRISHANA SESHADRI, 
Oxford University Press, Bombay. 

"International WildJife Encyclope- 
dia"_ Edited by M. BURTON and 
R. BURTON; New Caxton Library 
service Limited^ London. 1969. 

>, 



98. 



(Preservation of Rare Plants in India) 



a.S'fl. 



3 



80-85 



'-i9e53*&x>$5, 



, GT l fi^5 t aj a & 



456 ifi^A&S' II 



0*0 *3$cawtetfa>f5 SSa&d, 



n co 



_^ 3d*> 

^P tf >^_ ^^ *-. t5. *^* */* > *r -* X -V V * ^j* 

SPSS' 

' 



u u co 



B-*- - -v. ao-jJ&ra 



> ^ ~Q g 

S>5 rO Oo ^Sq3 

e) <o 



1952 



joSco 4E7 

FURTHER READING 

1. Puri, G,S. (1967). Indian Forest 
Ecology. Oxford Book Stationery 
Co, Ne\v Delhi. 

a^o*"^*^ sS 5 < -oa 2 - Sa ^ a > K - p - ( 1971 )- Forests and 

a A an^fr-ejo a <& ^8^ As^as. Forestry, National Book Trust, 

India. 



co 3 



99. 

(Space Biology) 



aSfio!S) 

&;Sa-&e 



So- 



(Oparin) S0-os^x> eo-g ags^^^wo^. ^^^ ^^ o BdtA&oa . 



*o#f 



rf* 
Biology) i)^ n-a 



458 



II 



55 



&ScSootf IfcS 



n 

5o 



. s-S 



1. Sba^i^s- esozrtf&tfb =3 Mars. 

2. A6^^ : Jupiter* 



a-fl 



6"S 



20 30 



h 

CX* 



, ^83 



^6^^ ^[dsSoors- S^oSSSa 
^o^^o&i "Ssotf A'^db. 
25 C, o' a?rftf 20 C 



. 



60 



469 



x:^ 8 s3n i s5j)aS"oa 



feiSb 



3o 



eo 



. 



VII 



(GENETICS) 
100. SS 



fig 



^ ?3oc3pe3?6sio (Combination) 



(Reproduc- 
tive process^ c^^o* coo* 



^)<5 



o (Gametes) 



(Mold), 

sr-8 



461 



laws i 



methods^ sS5S 
(Application) 






(Germ cells) 



(Gametes) 

a 



(Sperm) 

/ 



a, 



"! 



(Natural 



(Scientific 



e^S' 



cor* 



(Egg) 



fGenetic material 1 ^ 
\ / 






550^0^0^ 



cao* Bo&^fl 



462 



, 8. 

|3$eo (genes) ecocJ 5o, 4 

rScpQ SSxr^oorr- 



(Oak) sS^apoo, 



o^ . & ^S s" 00 

^cS^o^Sh &T&r&G<5) 



i 
20j5 



. . 463 

t< 

17 



4J (William Harvey) 

oj 

(1578-1657) v 



.), ODJ 



o 



yQ **-> ^j 8 , ~- ^^ a ^^ ^diff-a-L^U (Regnier 

De Graaf 1641-1673) 



(Anton Van Leeuwenhock 



D. 

L. 



(acacia) 



(Jan Swammerdam) 



464 

(Preformation theory) 



Sotftf^o 



(^Charles Bonnet) 



; ^ 
i 

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^ - 

7 ^ 
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(1834-1914) 
(Germplasm theory) 



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1822 



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(1822 
-1884) 






tfSf I oSoF'.^PoSs * Q 

L. if. "sa. 



101. 

(1822.1884.) 



/Monastery) 

(80) 



486 



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(1866) 



^Origin of Species) &CT>O#;$, 



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4 



^Breeding) 



836Aoc3, 



(Hypothesis) 



* ^ #5*0 



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3eo&ff i sS&) 



(Deploid) 



5s3 (Haploid) 8* 



rSocJia 



(Homoz^gote) 
D D 



^Heterozygote) 
D d 



type) 



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BSSjcpaS w?S>ge5p^o (Genotype) 



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n*^) 



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D d 



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1084 



787 



277 



468 



II 



$808* 



DD 
Dd 

dd 



1 
2 
1 



X dd 




Dd 




p 



Dd x 







F. x F, 






DD 



Dd 




aa 



- 2. 



469 



2001 



(Monohybrid cross) 



. Ftftf o0* 



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6022 



3 : 1 



. 519 



314 



8 : 



1 ; 166 



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d 



wo^tfrfon- (Recessive) n 



(Dominance) 



470 2'>;Si3!>' II 

f? 

3. 



(Dd) 

( dd) 

^9-X'*N*Sv 

OXP 



a. D 

d * 



a 
3:1 )Sv\ dST* 5. F tftfofiT 8 

o^eso, S6A F. ff 1 



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o^es^co (d), F^ 



(Segregation) So^^ox). 7. ; 



4 83 

1 



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(Cells and Heredity) 



D 



. s-a 



9 ^* *< *4 *<?^ JT^ y* < ^wrf wv? *** v^ cv , QG* 



471 



(Living processes) 



1866-1900 ff 8 



(Mitotic division) 



^Complex) 

4^3o 

Stage) 



a,"^ 



(Adult 






(Endoplasmic reticu- 
lam), B^fi^^S)^ (Ribosomes), ^ 
c&e (Mitochondria), rr 
(Golgi bodies), Ibo|j3dfc*<5~ (Centriole) 

eajSsSjsSca (Cytoplasm) 



(Nuclear fluid) 
(Nucleolus) 
(Nucleus) e 



(Metabolic functions) ^c^^ 



(Control). 



(Cell reproduction) 



(Multicellular organism) 
(Cell division) 



(Daughter cells) 



(Tissue) 

(Size) 



"3 



ijS[8dSb (Growth process) 



(ygote) 



4T2 



1915) 



036 sprfoflf 8 Doflr"qiSbo/S" (1843- 



. Sag' ^KI&D cto&S^T, 



0- 



-30- 



2B 



2n 



(Chromatid) 

2^5^ L^ap 
stfe3^x. ^i 

^Equational) 



B oAS" tf BT 
(sperm) 



(Egg), 



car* 



II 



3 



(Mate) 
?6Doa 
(Uterus) 



(Somatic cells) 



cop 



(2n) 



(2n) 



(Meiotic division)cr2a 



Stf esS cya" ocoS) 



478 



(Replicates) 



(Genetic material) 



. A, 

^ * 



/Chromoteome Complement) 



/Formation of genetes in animals) 



Dfi^oco, 

. aorfSbo, 



(Flagellum) & 

: /Spermato genesis\ 



(Spermotogonia) 



cyte) 



stage) 



(Primary Spermato 



(Spermatids) 



fcS (Haplcid 



oocyte) 



(^Primary 



474 



ri 




DX?VO<S>. (t&: sS4osSx)-4j) i- ^^ (Polar body) 




I 




I 




s 




"x, 



i 




1 





/ \ 







- 4. 



476 



3o3 



II 



(Secondary oocyte) 

('Mammals) 



2. 

i ^77 ffi n A fta O/TI 

I 



(Sn) 
3. 



4. 



. 



103. 

^^ 

(Sex chromosomes & Sex determination) 



1. a 

(2n) ^^3^ ?6^^ (n) 



f Nuclear structure) 



1891 ; 

(Spennatogenesis) ^sSfSff 8 a.^ ^8^S>S X - 5^^ ('Body 1 ) 

/ *> OO' V ' 



(Sperms) 



477 



. 1902 

(grassy-hoppers) t3* 
(Somatic cells) Sbtf 



X - 
(oogenesis) 



atfdt&al 

* 



, cccr X - 

S&otfS 
X - 



, X - 



1905 tfo&^tfotf* sj.S). 



/"germ cells) 



13 



(Protenor) 



(Eggs) 



(Fertilization) 

6 



X - 



atfooO f 0*^)5 X 

3 



X ^ 



Y - 



(Influen 



ce) 



X, Y, ex) 
Sort 



(Zygote) 



. 1900 



somal theory) 

xo s5 



somes 



(Grosshopper) o 

22 ^dS^^Sbea (Auto 
X 



(XX) 



x 

^36 oO^fib. 



ftfi (Xo) a* 



478 



II 



(Meiotic division) 3o<3 
i^Sp^Sb '$fl 
(HA + X) 



(HA + X) 

(11A+O) 
(A) 




- 6. 



479 



X 



X Y 

x o 



(1905) 5* X Y 



X, a,tf Y 



(3A+XY). 



(XX) 




- 6, 



480 
Y 



atf ii 



3o<5?6 



(X Y) & 
>3* Sofi 
(X X) rs 



X Y ^"ap^Sa Cotf 

(The Sexual functions of X Y 

Chromosomes). 



X,Y 



(Sex Linkage), 
X 



} Y 



. 1916 ?3o d* 
. Y 



(Sterile) 2W5D. 



Y 

(XXY) 



(Fertile) 



ofl 



. Y 

(Neutral) a 



^Gynandromorphs) 



1919 



(X X) 

. -^8 



X 



worm 



eus 



X 



5PC03. 



(X O) 



(Silk 



(Nucl 



(lutersexes and Supersexes 
Drosophila) 

(1922) 



in 



481 



3. Bo& X 



[^cfiofo (Triploid) 6* 



L 



(Sets)& 



2. "aoefo X 



2o 

cj 





XXY 

4. "3o& X 




&$ ^ 




6. "So^ X 



8. &, X 



7. SS^<& X 
&T' 

8 . ^ X 





(81) 



482 



asf n 



(intermediatejr? 

^a 

62 S) 



X 



X 



X 



X 



ea&g^eo 



3 



'-a 
ceo* 



(Chromosome complement) 



,^ooo. K 



Y 

X 



D. 63 
D. X 
2X : 2 A 



S)tf JSbSSa- ( GeniC Balance and 

3 \ 

Detc-rn.ination of 






(Carriers) 
X 



X 



(Factor). 

J)3 ^^ 
. ^, 488) 



& <o rt-\ & 483 

S--2 






0.5 

1.0 

1.0, O.B 



104- 

(Sex Linkage) 



X 



1910 
(Fruit Fly) 



( A ) 

( x / A) 

8 X - 3 1.00 

2 X - 2 l.CO 

sg'&> XXY 2 X Y 2 1.00 

X X te&> 2 X - 3 0.67 

XXY tfS 2 X Y 3 0.67 

X Y 2 0.60 

8 X - 2 1.60 

BSa^Aifa X Y 3 0.83 



a 
CGJ* &S$\ 9 1.6. ssoeb, 



a 



484 



. sj 



(Spotaneous) n* 
(Mutation) cr'^o' 



X 



3: 1 



stays 

w 



. F 

co oL 2 



(So ^tf^o)) sSj JS'tf esaSfl. 
B 83?6: X 



* Y 




- 8, 



485 



W. 



, W 






W 



i o 



w 



w 



(W) 



w 



Y 

S 
estf 



. "3o^S5 
W 



(W w) 



X 



W 



W W 



X 



w 



? 00 x 0tf * 

^3^ a ^^^a 







T^own^Au 

(w| ^ 




QH BIT 



- 9, 



486 



ii 



. 2b<SS 



X 



X 



X 



Y 

Sg)odJoco. 



X 



^Sex-Linked Lethal genes) 



$3 



Mutationsj 




. 10 



o 



487 



f?ex Linkage in man^j 



X 



X 



Carrier) 



X 



Sj*otf&> s&S', 




- 11 



Y (Y Chiomosome Linkage in 



(Non-bomologous] 



sr it 



&,. JF. "3ft 



105- 



a ss 



(Mutations) 



(Spontaneous Mutations] 



. A 



CparentSj 
(size) ^o 

9"*$^ 



mals) 



(mam- 



(mutant) 






^s^co (Mutants) 
rnal) 3$ wotftf /Internal) 
(Physiology) 
(Bio-chemical) 



(Exte- 



sS (Trans 



form) 3o^b6ofi. 



489 



/Antennae) 

fSS.aexSSS&tf^ 
Neurospora) 



(Somatic mutation ) 



li&ilsS ^e^o^ Antibiotics'^ 



(Ecabryo) 



^Stages at which mutations occur): 



(Mature gamete) * 



SraSxxEf* 



sperm) 



(Spermatogonia) 



^ss> (Control) 3$ 



65 a 



^Culture) 



( 

\ 



Bacterio- 



gj*S$c3 D tf 



(Medium) 



490 JteFlSaiS' II 



(Back or reverse mutation') 



(Colon) ^ 



S6\rf 



(Frequency) 

(Point) 



(Pedigrees) 
sootf 

oO^ 

e 

(Iris) & 

I! 



_n , D^cS^K tFQU* CCJ* 

. 49ox3 ^A."\ d&?\5o$tf "* 

o"3>. 



Sospg 



(deficiency or 
tfg'&o deletion"), fco^eS^ea^ ('duplication) 



491 



version), loSSf^sS&io (TranslocationW?6u, 




V* i 



3 HI 



* _ H i 



4- a HI 



- 12 



f r g 



, a."^ Dtf ^ 



f g. 



a, b s c. d, e, f,g, 



180 



g. h. i- ]- k.l- S 



g h i d e f 



(Induced Mutations \ 



x - 

1928^ 



1946 S 



[JP 
D, 

a b c d e f 
S'OA^vtfn*. 
a b c J k 1 



X-StfESCJ, 

(Ionizing radiations) 



8 



oR)< 5 



[-SsSpi 



492 



(Electro - magnetic radiation), 
gfo (Wave length)SA?6 



. Ac? ii 



X- 



('Ultra violet radiation). 

S (Participate 



radiation) 

^^Dg Ai 
cles) fr 



(Sub - atomic parti- 



x- 



i 



x - 



1448 



(Sex-linked lethals), 
( Semi lethals ) 
(Visible) 

, 154 



as S (Visible) 



3o[G* 1 98 











x-tfE3*eo ( t \ 676 


49 


4 


1 


x_tfE5ex (t ~] 772 


89 


12 


8 



(Directly propor. 



(Induced) 



R 



c6oo^o 



-IBS' 1 



498 



x- Stfe^o 



zj*ao. 



^SourcejS tfrt 



roe 1000 3000 



- 18 



I) (1986) 
(Target theory) [_ 



(hit) 



(Aspergillus) er 8 3 



CO, 






o i 'e3o (Compounds) 



^07 

fE.M.SV 
\ j 



(M. M.S.) 



, A. 



(D. N. A.) 



(Radioisotopes and Mutations) 



(Strantium-90) 

\ / 



494 



n 



\ fib. 



COP 



). 



106, 



("Physical Nature of gene) 



iOO ) 



li'LO 



Gooes' 



osoS- 



/Chemical Nature of gene) 



(Feulgen) &6ox$ ^c^Bg ZtfQ (Stain- 
ning technique" CTQCP 2 tf^dtfi^S' ^^ 



(^Deoxyribose Nuclic Acid 



495 



D. N. A ) 



s$rotf^&cp, Ssf D. N. A. 



/Properties of Nucleus) 



S (Pneu- 



mococcus^ ^D^SS ?S 

/ <a 

iS 6"?6 /Transformation) 

, D. N. A, 



(Radia-active Tracers) & ^e5S (Virus) 
S* 



(1952) ex> D. N. A, 



D. N. A 



E>fi 



. N. A. 



ro PO co 



/Nucleic acids^i 
v / 



(D. N. A.) ^i 

\ / * 

(R. N. A. ) a 3 ^o 

\ / 

1 . D N A 



^&ff-jo (Chloraplastids) 
(Mitocbondria 



(Nucleolu^) 



. N. A. 



es S (Synthesis^ a^ R. N, A 



D. N. A, 



R. N. A. 



, N. A, 



D. N. A o 

5 



(Nitro- 

gen bases) D. N. A. * ^S. R, N, A. 

D. R A. & 



(Adenine V rr^S 5 (Guanine) 

^^" (Cytosine), St 
(Thymine) c&>o&c" (Uracil) ^2) ifl 
(Pyrimidines), D.N. A,, R.N A 
a) (Molecular weight) 



. D. N.A. wsDStfs$ R.N. A. 



^5 (Nucleotide) 



-"o D. N. A. 



( Molecule ) 



DMA 

^ ZoS& DNA 



496 




. U 



DNA 



. 19535^ 
DNA 

063^- 

(Model) 



x* Stfe^o 



(Diffraction) 




DNA 
^fi" (Phosphate), & 



, D N,A. 



bond)e> 
DNA 



tiodfrtf 

(Hydrogen 
-l 6 ") 
(helical) 3* 



- 14), 



"&-|^T B flc5' 



497 






(Fundamental Genetic Functions) g^s 
_ . rro e- ,,/ isSdSSB (Replication) 8, 

O Ci vd* 1 1 C& 83 ^ 80 O w 'j^OO O L w \ ^ 

^mutation) ^CP 






10T. 

(Genetics and Its Aplications) 



(Animal Breeding) 



(Animal Breeders)& 

(Plant Breeders) So, 



^ ifi 
o 



5.osS (Apply) 
^S^k sSi^f6b. 
(82) 



498 SsptfAW II 






Sb STofiotfi^odxi^;, Co. 



ox.fi 08* 

(Plant Breeding) 
(^Food Crops) 



S^>?Tj (Pests) &. &P^ ^^o (Parasites) 



(Spores), 

SS-(5o& 



(Traits) &"^ 

[V SW-\^IV IW >VJ 

c/ o 

D. Si)0t) 83^$ 

e 
(.Genetic Qualities) tfo 



\ 

$;<& - a&gSP 

g&eo sSoS's^tfoSStf gon 



(Hemophilea), sS'tf 
(Colour Blindness), ^sfiAdft* (Aniridia) 
53*^*^ (Retino Blastema) 

oo 

(Pedigree 



o 



499 



B,Sf 

ccofi 

lAft&Ci 



i. &>$ 

(Hypothyroidism) <3 



D' (Euge- 
(Eetodermal Dyspla8ia)e5^ftB&s6c^ 53g<5 nics") &~i 



600 a**A&f ii 



(Application) 



vm 

&xj (Medicine) 

**^ 

108. 



2, 

8. 

fc^^ 6 SA 

, S'Stf 



o ETC* ^s^pr^coRJ ^ o. 



01*5. 

2. *~ 



602 Semis' II 

r 



2 

(i) 

(ii) 

8. 

4. 

5, 



* n / oL V 

wounds). 

b), SbjcS)!Pa ArcS^ rrc&*ex (Purely 
closed injuries) 



8, SSoA S 6 ^^ 65^)do, r 

^o^^to v/ -" " --.__- -^^ ^ 



( ji ) 

4. 



(iii) |_tjee 
5. 



o A 



I. 



508 



6" Jfos*a 

5*5r&&r ! '> antiseptic n*S ase- 
ptic FVS dressing ^CP ; antibiotic 
>, Analgesic 



(Splints) 38> 

( immobilise ) 3^j 

Ssr^oSk &_d 



. Crammer 



, 03 



eo& 



w eo to 

o 



cr-7?, S 



63 CO 

n0 



J, Sofi _ 

' w 

80 



S04 



(i) 



(iii) 






4. 
06 



ii. fo 
iii. 

iv. ^06" 
v. 

\i. ^0x5" sSStftfoS* 5*^, 



1. 
2. 
8. 



4. 

6. tftfo tJ<3S3*;5tfo, 






2. 

c?6 

csr,n Sr^tfoS 



109. 



o <D 



. sjfi 



Rays) 



(Ultra - Violet 



Stfotftfsfci 



Q5A 



tfg^&SSB 



(Enamel), 



, &&> 



32:. g'o'e)^^ (claricle), 
(Scapula), tfotf ^i^ (Humerus) 



506 



fe (Radius), 
ffc (ulna), ^SoS i^eS 

- Ci <D 

(carpals), 

14 ^tfworib^g&exi (Phalanges), 
86:&*Soe(Shoulder) ( 3r3a So>(Elbow), 
&E5fc> (Wrist). 

s>6 Bodoto, a.* S' a"c&o&o<& 3&oSeo 

CO -w-tr- 

81 raffias' [5o o-rtsio^ |8s*fc (Sacrum) 
a tfofi [8*69 $os^fe (Hip bone), 
(Femur^ a3or> (Tibia), 
ptfo^pS) (Fibula\ 
'jfc (Patella), 7 
(Tarsals),6 ^<5^s^^ (Metatarsals),, 14 
^ef^o^ygKbo) (Phalanges), sSxi^g^sS 
ig: ^otfSoi ^ J5&^o (Hip joint), 
Sj'S' ?6oS SS' crS)cSofi (Knee), 
?3oe 5^ &o&o^ (Ankle), 

ii. 



(Endocrine Glands-Ductless Qlands 
and physiology of Endocrines) 



(Ductless 
glands or endocrine glands), b 

(Harmones ^ 3_ 



(Pituitary - 



coj* 



gland of the body) 



(Master 



(Thyroid and Parathyoids), 
1> ?&i)^ou)?6 ( Suprarenal ) 
(Cortex and Medulla), <? &S (Thynws), 
^S) ^?&^ S^dJc&So dJ^ 
(Pineal body). 



(Ovary), 



(Pcncreas), 
(Testis), 



i^o^bo 

I 



a. 



/Growth hormone) 



507 



b. 3 

(Thyrotrophic hormone) 




2. 

1. -a>tf& 2. S^itfoa 8, 4. 
6. ^tf^&V&s 6, efo(jtf&a*oS5cD 7. 

8. 



9. 



10. 



c. i>. fc. a. -2pff.(A.C. T. H.) 



( cortex ) * 



d. 



^?5sie.(GonadotropJiic) 



F S H, 



(Ovum) 



(Graffian follicle) &, 

(Spermatozoa) 



LH or ICSH - 



LoTai"&8f*i5'(Oestrogen and Progestrone) 

^d6fi'2)S&, 


(Testosterone) 

o t& 

(si) 
(Leutotrophin or Prolactin) : 



; (i) ADH, (2) 
sp^^ft^S" - wS^a^feS" (Vasopressin & 
Oxytocin), 

ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) 



(Diabetes Insipidus), sa 
(Diabetes mellitus) 



08 Sa-sfiW II 

8T 



(Thyroid) 



/cretin\ 

\ / 



S^ox. 



"5)fio)&. 



sjos 
(Pancreas) 






i. 



/Muscles') 

(Protoplasm) 



509 



(r>orS) 



oca* 



(Voluntary) 



(Striped) 



(2) Erd'ex^S (^Plain) 

KoO. qS 5S^^o[j? (Involuntary) 



(Cardiac) 



(8) 



^To^^ ^52) 



pulses) 



Scs-rS-irn 8 
S'CA |jSS_aofi?So. 



im- 



(Sphinctres). aja 



e.g' 



(Tone)So 



So 



FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING 

1 . Anatomy and Physiolgy for Nurses. 
by Evelyn Pearte. 

2. Functional Human Anatomy. 

by James E. Crouch. 

3. Whillis's Elementary Anatomy and 
Physiology. 

by Roger Warwick, 

a. 



110. 



(2 







5*r?i\ 



511 



es&^rfg 



n-CJO 



.6 



612 



II 



fctfa^oastfo 





CO 



ftSS S6A 




oS^ofll 



(8 SS 



618 



0-30* 



"S. 



111. 




(88) 



614 



II 



(Full and Sectional diagram) 



(Renal artery) 
(Renal vein) 
(Kedney) 
(Ureter) 

(Urinary bladder ) 
eo (Urethra begins) 



1. 
2. 
8. 
4. 

B. 
8. 
7. 8. sSoj-oSaCCortex), tf ^(Medulla), 



(Location of renal mut) 



9. 



(Pelvis-reeeptacle for 



urine) 



Sxi' (Nephron - micro - 
scopic view) 

1. 3^^ tf&S &c6 (Branch of re n al 
artery) 

2> ^^fr- &< ^ ^^ (Branch of renal 
vein) 

3, w8D2p, &&sSs32p ^. ^siJO^exi 
(Afferent and efferent arterioles) 

4. 6 tf 



(4) fces' 3$ (5) Blood 
Capillaries - arterial and venous 
sides) 

6. $J)^- ^e3S5 r Renal corpuscle) 



7. 



(Convoluted renal 
tuble encircled by blood capillary net) 

8. SojrfSj'ss ^2r K5 ^' 
(Collecting renal tubule) 



SSAi /Renal corpuscle - micro- 
scopic view - high power) 



- (I) 



fGlomerulus) 



I. 2. 
3. 



(Funnel - like area - orrows indi- 
cate filtration process) 
5. 



1. 



(Reabsorption through epithelial 
layer) 

2. ^^cpSctfr*, &tfwS ( Hydrogen) 



ecretion] 



3. 
4. 



516 



^. BIOS' 



a, 



8a 



0*30, 



__ CO 



616 



II 



6. 



- 2 




- wotftf ^tf 

. (Reticulor-endothelial system - 
microscopic view) 



1. 
2. 

3. 
ssel). 

4. tf jfS3> 

usoid), ootftf jStf 
cells). "* 

6. *%3'**?eS 
6oo> (Lymphatic net, Lymph, Lympho^ 
cytes) 



(Reticular cell). 
(Reticulum). 

( Fine blood ve- 



(Blood sin- 
(Endothelial 



(Lymph capillaries and their valves) 



e 



(1) 



(2) 



3oa 



e^oS'S'ea&ow 



tf&Sjjtf Se. 



617 



(2) 



(7*0^^0 



Ill, 

/Lymphatic System^ 




1. %*(&$$ <x (Lymph vessels) 

2. 9^^ S'eso^eo (^Tc^bex)) (Lymph 
nodes or glands) 

3. Ad's &$ptf ?*$&&>$ (Thoracic 
duct) 

4. S^Si6^^e5 <B$j- t SD^esS'sSM 
c^^^. r*^^^eo (Lymphatics of 
lungs and diaphragm) 



(Microscope view) 

1. tf&a (Artery) (2) fccj (vein) 

3. S^sica-W (Lymph vessel) 

4. ^oS'sSs) (Reticulum) 

sj: 1. Atftf bsJ^s^ (Abdominal cavity) 

2. &tfs SbSptfs^) (Thoracic cavity) 

8. 6tfs y*i 5^2r>^ i^^o^o. 

(Thoracic duct begins) 
4 
6. 



6. 



(Lymph nodes, Lymphatics) 



( Lymph node-microscopic sectional 
view) 



(Lymphatic System) 



(Afferent lymphatics and their 
valves) 

2. S^&tf&foorfo ^oSSso, o^sS^. 
(Lymph space and reticulum) 



618 )s rc ?S<Jb' II 

3. 



(Lymphoid tissued 

4. e$S$3*2p KJ^QD, 5P<3 

(Efferent Lymphatics and their 
valves) 



SSg&S 



O'&Sg) 



Sicex. 



(Inflammation) 
3o 



o 

CO 

asa, 



619 



8 t 

^ 



112. 




520 

e=T 

*i ( 6 ) 



2. 



S. 

4. 



(1) 



(6) 

(7) 

f &*cboS &e3<5".) 

^81 0(3 
L_ 



( 2 ) 

<5oao<5oCrSS s&c&<&>, 

( 8 ) 
(4) 



10 SS 6^8 Sfl&S'&D &00& ^53*83^ 

*a8 c 

o. fia 



2. 

Q 

1.6. 



( 4 ) 



&0 



621 




2. . 



682 Jte^aM II 



3 



4, 



1. 
2, 

8. 



8. sja Sto&S B J2 



(Casein]^ 



20 o&rtbe 



ifi 



sa (3) 

2. sa 



So* 



A. 

ea 69 







528 



tf 
C. 



Q 



2. ^8 
3. 

4. 



6. 



(1) 
(2) 

> ' 



(Ano-rectal Junction) 



aaora** (4) 

B. g& & 



(I) 



, j ^ *^ a ^ ^ (Liver) 

D, &?5;N it)^c^^ ffl^i_cxjo f 65(S &\ \ / 

^ U ^^ <J A*,^^ ^^ ^ JgQQ 



(i) 

^.; 

(2) ^oro S'^a), ftoS, 



(4) 

oot) 

(6) 



7.5 IbcdJJbfcfib - 10 



O 



(Fat) 



(Spleen) 



II 






( J ) 

9u I r^gS^TO,, S& 3J ^5S*6^CO /'i \ 

\ ) 
^ XWr.tfX 1 AXX 1 c^X'oK^^ 

(4) [jS^S'sSDa (Urethra) 
\ * \ / 



cfiwSS. 



g<a OJ^-BS o^cjtixo L_SCO jafio ^Ss fHenJe") 

^fl. sjiS OoS ^ese^osSxicS 1 *?^, 



C 1 ) 

(1) &^^^r ^nA ^".1 .^x;,u / 



\ / "^ "~ 13**"' > >l ""'*' ivwu tij t*U> ^UO^JajCO r>\ 

(3) tffd&- - 



^4J ^uuw-ty awjuuNf O_^33iO3Oc\C ON 



626 



1 1/2 



a 



250 



260 



fia 



lifio. 



e) o 



. a. S 



113. 



. &c&* 21 



(Mandible) 



(Sutures) 



cavities) - 



(Orbital 



Sbtf, 



n 

32) 



canal ) S* 



(vertebral 



Aoa. 



oS*g 



(Capacity) J8BO 



o n 

1. Brochy Cephalic 

2. Dolicho Cephalic ( 

^. ?3cp, 

3. Mesati Cephalic 

75 



80 



75 

& 
80 



(Vertebral Canal) 



2/8 



(Cell body), 



(Processes). 



(Central Canal) 



527 



g'o'fe 



31 






^Spiral nerves) Baa&^oco. "3o& 



&^ (dorsal)So S'ex 



fmotor IB function^ 



(sansory in function) 



12 



, 6 



. 5 



(fibres)^T 8 



(efferent) ; 
^afferent). 'S^sr'& 
f Ventral root of spiral nerve ) &* 



(dorsal root) 8* 



(diagnosis) 
^o 
100-SOO 



disorders) 



o (neurological 



nervous system) 



(Peripheral 



oS (Vertebral 



Canal)!, 



e^od^db. 
aoo (Spinal nerves) 
fo 

12 



tftf (Sympathetic) 



jte (Parasympathc. 



tic) 



c^&OD, 



(gangloinated) 



623 



II 



(balance)rv 604^000. 



(Intermediate metabo- 



lism), 



(Stress reation) 



tf jTo (Cardiac out-put) 

, tf 



(Somotic efferent):- 



2. (j$0js*otf6s*s5ib'Q ( Special visceral 
efferent) :- 



(bronchial arches) 



3. ^^P^IO^OS'SO^S (General visceral 
efferent) :- 



4. ^>&?6j 6tfs8)&a (General somatic 
afferent) i- 



5, [_sS^g^ **Stfs*a^a (Special somatic 
afferent) :- 



6. [jSSgs i> o^a5*S^a ( Special visceral 
afferent) :- 

(arches) & 



, "3. 



or 9 ii &. 2, esS". 



114. 






Anatomy & Physiology of Eye 



(Ganglion) 
(Optic nerve) 



(Chiasm) 



Sowotfo 



(Cortex) e 
(Visual Centre). 



2. 

3. 



&OtfcCPQS, 



(Oblique) 

ld&& 

(84) 



(Laterally) 



fiofil, 3eoS03^ (Oatward)S 



. "Sodfc 



Nerves) 
a* "I 



(Axes) 



(Strabismus) S$r&oa. 



(Tough Fibrous Coat) Ibcb 
(solera) 



530 






II 



Opthalmic artery ) 



Opening) 



(Central 
sr'SS (pupil) 



5*08 



^0*3 



(Pigmented 



layer) 



(Ciliary body) ^oooofi, 



(Radiating) 



(Control) 



(Rods), 



oa ctA^otfc3-Oj (Neive impulses) 
(Optic dis 



(Sensitive^ n 



(Suspensory ligaments)s$o 



^055*3^6"^ ( Convexity ) 



(Aqueous humour j 



(Albuminous fluid) 



humour") 

/ 



(Vitreous 



(Stimuli & 

SSoSb&ofi. 



ii, 



Auditory Apparatus 



S^diSS^o (Auricle) 
Meatus) 



(Acoustic 



^rroo; 



). fcO ir$3:)3 
(Impacted) 



, 3D, 

*** 

(Cerumen) 



(Ear drum') 



ox. 



^Sooo^o 



(Labyrinth) 



*6 (Corti) 



531 



iii. 



S> (Car- 



tilage) 6odj"ox>. 
oosDorv* Ao 
Cavity)^, 



(Nasal 
(nasal septum) 






/Anatomical 



Structure) 



SSofl 



ooa. 



eJ 

mucus 



membrane) 



(Conchae) & 
(meatus) 



(groove) 



(^Olfactory nerves) 



]66o) (Ramify) 



(underlying tissues) Sbtf, 



682 



II 



(Mucous lining) 



55 



(Nasal 



mucosa 



. SQcsbtf 



v. 



(Pharynx or Throaty 
6" 



Aofi, 



(Larynx) 
7 



1. 



2. "602^ d&j'"fc 



8. 
4. 
6. 



n*jjo*eo 



3S^RtfS* 



(Adinoids) Arc3^ooo. 



( Oropharynx ) fir 8 
(Tansilectomy)^ 1 



23*^0* #0*03 



v. S5& (Teeth) 

, 06 

(Sockets)^ 6 i 
CPCO (Sets') : 

ft \ / 

10 srs 20 



&;; (Milk Teeth) Aod^cco 
&o eip^ e^S ear si<bj 2 
(Incisors^, 1 ^^i^ (Canine), 2 
(Molars) ^TSoj>^ &OPQX>. 

16 S"?S So 32 



, 2 



(Premolars), S 



. 12-15 



583 



f J-O CX^^-'W <*j\_/-uw i ' - - y J -~ 

-.^ y"\ ^5*<K ^sf <A fLoFT^X'.-j - /T-Tvffietii^r^ 8 

tfoeFco 20 3ooS> ^^cco. S 3 - ^^ ^^ A '^ (H.ygiemc)n- 

o-S^ *\ 

8 *0- 3Ts' 4 

O 

<3o<&<!5 



n bed) S^ rr 3 ^ fc^dTo 

. 17-46 SSoi^cpo SdBbfa)^ ff (Snacks) 

(Wisdom Teeth) 



REFERENCES 

58 AS^ Bn"^ sSD^do&D eo^J ^. Si^^ lt Helen L. Dawson. Basic Human 

eo&, S3o<3 ^As5sS es^ 55*^^, (i9 ^ 500 Anatomy. 

2, Catherine Parker Anthony. Text- 
boo/c of Anatomy and physiology } 

tf *" /cfrBor ; S.Evelyn C. Pearce. Anatomy^ 
ol a_ " physiology /or nurses, 

' ' ' (Pulp cavity) 

^ ^ a ^__ 4- Simson Hall and Bernard H. Colman. 

Diseases of Nose, Throat and Ear* 
6. Gray's Anatomy - 8*th Edtion. 



2, &. 



115. 3? tf 

(PHARMACOLOGY ot THERAPEUTICS) 



(Drugy- 



;Pharmaco- 



harmacognosy)^ 6 

, Dispensing Phar- 



macy) 



^Pharmacutics) 



(Posology) 

^ej 
(Therapeutics) 



entry) *- 



*; fRoutesof drug- 
\ 

(Oral route) ;- 
Sulphonamides ] 



routed- 
co "2r 5* f*B5"( Emetine Hydro 

- C3 \ ^ 

chloride), ^ S^foS (Streptomycin) 



3. &*?$&*$&) (Respiratory route) ^ 



(Ether) ^^^^ (Trilene) 



:- (Inunction) 



S . 



(Rectal route) .*- 



(Chenimofon) 
5.5 1 (Prescription) :- 



(Pharmacist)^: 




586 



(Untoward reactions) sS^ox> : 6c3Mt 



3Q^d35(Exfoliative dermatitis) 
au"! 



ajS', (Chlorpromazine) 5^5 ^.S" 
(Parkisonian syndrome. 
S (Thelidomidej& 



Heart failure)^* 



( Digitalis \ 



j (Mycardial-contractile force^ "2s o a 



(William Withering) l785fi^ 

5~ $^&e}$~ (Auricular fibri- 



llation) a^ Sgb&S (QuinidineX [aP^S" 

w^S" (Procaire-amide) S^tfdfi 3(K^o^ 

tfAoi$)&. F'G^tfd ^cro^*S5" (Coronary 

thrombosis) <5* tf 

<3$fc& "SpljSS' fHeparir,), ^^o 

(Dicoumaral) sSoflad 

tf^cpJDS sS^6^S" Sekfia, (^Morphine Sul- 

phat) & sj*^^Cb. 

(Angina Pectoris) ^ 



(Glyceryl Trinitrite), 
(Ethyl nitrite) co STCP. "a 



"S op^><5) (Petipheral circulatory 
failure)^ ^^^^^^^^^(Nor adrenaline 
I. v. drip) $t5y^jo;6 6" ^"^ 

(Hypertension) 



S' (Hydralazine), 

^S<5" (Polythiazide), rpgtfd&S (Guana- 
thidine) eo sp^jdid:). ^c^ef 8 ^^ (Ana- 
emia W ^ tfg Sehto, B g . ^sr w&^o 

/ t_ v J2. CD 

(Folic acid), s^^d&^^Sio (Liver exracfc'i 



S'tofiaSo K 



(Coagular) 



(Diabetes mellitus)Sb ?SrjS (Insulin), 
*6"j ^^d&S" (Chlor promide) e 

CO - 



X (Diuretics) : 



(Mersalyl), 



(Aldactone) 
(Chlorthiazide). 



(Low salt syndrome) 



* sSxrij?Oef*tf^ SjS^S" (Antidiuretic 
Harmone)& sj 
( Branchial asthma ) <* 
(Aminophyllin), D^?6t)S (Adrenoline 
Hydrochloride) 



636 



II 



(Emetics) o^nr, 
): &CPII ^S^Syi, (Apomor- 
phineY Mc&o *J35 (Sodium chloride) , 

oo8 S*tf&:a> (Antiemetics) :- 
[tr'&lkS (Dramamine), 
(Chlorpromazine) ex> 



( Gastric 



CO 



antacids) :- 



(Aluminium Hydroxid 



!>&" 



(Purgatives) : 

( Senna ) ^s^J^^o (Castor oil), 
S3jfi" (Sodium sulphate) 



natc), 



(Astringents) 

^Sfi" (Bismuth Carbo. 
(Kaolin). 

(Vitamins) :- 

A 

D Dfca& d^^^^, E ?Jb 
(Muscular dystrophy) 



(Riboflavine), 
( Nice tonic acid \ e>& 
.3jau8^S (pyridoxln)& 

(Liver Cirrosis); 
(Scury) fif^, P & 



(Central nervous Systems: 



(Dexidrine) & 
(Cerebrum) & 6"^a 



(Psychosis) 



Psychopharmo- 



logical agents), 
(Psychic stimulants) : 



(Imipramire), 
(Iproniazid)eo sSp^fcg' 5*tf^og^x> (Psychic 
depression S 



f^S" la^&i^cS" (Chlorpromazine), 



(Respiratory Central 



mulation 






(Leptasol). 



(Nikethamide), 



(Ethyl alcohol) & All 



(Central depressant) S. 

SOS 



(General Anesthetics) <9o4j*&. ACT u 
(Ether), ^ff^S (Helothene). 



(Local anesthe^ 
tics) esodpCa: &au g* JS" (Cocaine), 
iS" (Procaine). 



hypnotics): 

pain)& 

fMorphine) 



nodyne 
(Visceral 



hypnotics) :- 



(Paraldehyde). 



(Nonanodyne 
(Trional), "S>og 
(Analgesics):- i 



(Aspirin) S 



(Irgapyrin) 



ftfco&o;, (Antiepilep- 
tics): 

"&tfiSvtf> ( Grand mal") : 

Q V \ J 

fr*<3J&o(Phenytoin Sodium), j 

(Phenoborbitone Sodium). 

(Petitmal) : "& 

fTridionV S^rS)<5o<^ fPhinacemideV 
\ / *- v > 

CP^P pftjff'^^aJ^fiSyeu : (Drugs of ad- 
diction) : ^ctfSS cSg; 



55000^ 



rv 



nervous system). 



( Autonomic 



( Sympathetic iti- 
mulants) : *on ao^aSOS' (Adrienaline) 
(Nor adrenaline). 



blockers) : 



y ; (Sympathetic 
(Phentolamine)j5a 
. (Pheochromocytoma) 



( Paresympathetic stimulants \ 



stigmine),^ 



(Para Symapathitic blockers) : 
(Homeatrapinej^ 



; fGangliar blockers) : 
( Penta methonium ), 



53g(S (Malignant hypertension) 



/Chemotherapy) :- be$o 
(Plasmodium ) 



( Sir Ronald Ross IMS ) 

Chloroquin ) 3}Sr* 

* 

(Filaria) 3a ^ 

( Hetrazay 



(Amoebic 



hydiochloride), 
dazole) 6j^*fib. 



(M 



etroni- 



( Piperozire Citrate) 
( Hook-worms 



gjx 



II 



sjtf&S" (Tetra Chlorethylene ) 
^D^&ooesesA f Taeaiasis )& 

8J \ / 

(Mepacrine) EJCP). 



( Urinary 
antiseptics) : _ jS*&to&vx!5 (Nitro- 
furantine), i>oi<5~ e^cS" ^Mandelamine). 

ic&&g$ 5*35*03 (Ami tuberculosis 
drugs) : l^gDfcS ( Steptomycin ), 
(Isoniazide). 



er'oJbS' fLamprene)o&, 
laazaar)o 



( Penicillin & ) &5>a5 ( Syphfllis ) 
rSulphonsmide'i e&j ^3 



mycetin) 
fevers)*, 



^Typhoid 
(Whooping Cough) 



i"^ (EcboUcs) 
afl*aff (Petocir); ^S"2oiaS 
(Ergometrin). Atf^^sSsSa (Abortion)^) 



(Uterine Sedatives), 



(Oral contraceptives) : 



(Depot Provera) 



(Experimental trials)^ 



(Mustine hydro-Chloride^, 
urinethol) & 



REFERENCE BOOKS. 

1. The Pharmacological basis of thera- 
peutics. By Louis S. Goodman. 
M. A , Ph. D., DSC and Alfred 
Oilman Ph. D. 4th Edition, 1970. 
Macmillan. 

2. Pharmacology and Pharmaco-thera- 
peutics. 3rd edition. By Satoskar 
R.S., M.B.,Ph.D. and S. D. Ban- 
darkar M.D-, F.R C.P. 3rd Editin, 
1973. Popular Prakashan . Bombay. 

3. Pharmacological principles of 
Medical practice. Kranto eft Carr. 
Revised by P. M, Aviado M D. 
8th Edition. 1972. William Wilkins. 

4. Pharmacological principles of 
Therapeutics, by Oilman Ph.D., 
MD. FACP. 



3-<5>o 589 

TELUGU &otftfo& D. M, S. 1966. 



1 2, 3, sM&Boo. By. Dr. rvO cr>o C3P8H 2. 



oioe 

CO 



116. 

(Pediatric Diseases) 



12 e& 16 



2. 
12 ?5o=5 \6's5coo cutfs Sbooog fection^j 



8. $>&og'S* eso^S^ogsSxco (Congenital 
Anamolies) 



i*(5 5^^o (Developing Nations)^ 

(Erithro Blastosis); ^o"S> sSa 3*^ ^^*^^ 

^Nutritional Deficiency Diseases) : 

( a ) 



(Marasmus) 



640 



ii 



(h) 
(Protein Defiiency) 



. eio 



(^Kwashior Kor). 



(Vitamin Dificiency Diseases^ : 

iao^b ^ 
3fsScfl* 



o-o 
i6 ,i)" (Vitamin A) 8*3 

o i 

co L a 



sifi 






2. 



Complex^ 



CO 



'Vitamin B 



3. & 2^)2)0^ (Vitamin C) 



4. a &&<" (Vitamin D) 



Cod Liver Oi 



, "A 



(Rickets) 



Stfeo^n* 



a. (E. M. P.) 



541 



(1) &&*> Small Pox) 

(2) ^aoeJ titi (Whooping cough) 
(8) 

(4) 



(6) 



(1), 



(Diphtheria) 
(Tetanus) 

(Polio Myelitis) 
4 (Chickenpox) 

(Measles) 



(Small Pox) :- 



Sofi^S 



5^6 



3 if 



2, S 



5, 

L. Q 



1. 
2. 

cro 
* 

"Si a 



(Whooping cough) 
( Diphtheria ) 8 
(Tetanus) - 



(Polio Myelitis) 
(Salk's Oral Vaccine) 



. tfA 



642 



(Diphtheria)^ 



fitf 



SCPCP 



(Gamma globulin) 



(Tuburculosis) 



490X) 



(Primary Complex] 



. Sgs 



(Meningitis)rv 

S'S ^^S 
( B. C. G. Vaccination 

V 



*^ ( Stre Ptomycin), 
Isonicotinic Acid\ 



(P. A. S.) 



L. __ 



(Diarrhoea) 



i 

Q 



CO CO 

(Turgorp 



643 



matism) 
5, 6 



(Rheu- 



12 



(Carditis). 



(Chorea) 



(Convulsions -Febrile and Epilepsy) 



COJ 



a- 

dS 



2, 8 



10, 12 



"ig 



e t;\?S), 53 6 

; 2 3, 

7 ' 



4, 5, 



S'o'S) 



-^e 



10, 12 



esS'O 



f Round wormsj 
^Hook worms), & 
(Thread worms or whip worms 



ooo 



g'oa/^da 



544 



II 



j<l.e&tf /Anaemia) 



0> 

) 

co 



93 3eD&o<3 



(Iron 



Drops) 



117. 






(lafectious Diseases; Parasitic Diseases, Outline of Tropical Midicine) 



&Sg)0 (Anti Bodies) S5o 

C3 

(Lymphocytes) 



sSotf 



fcA, 



oGo (Autoimmune 



Diseases) 



(Inoculat- 



ions), d5s*o3 (Vaccinations) 



ex) SSitfon" 



g&aeo is eo (Phenyle) 5TO 



i!) 50 



(Typhoid) 



(Carriers) 



6" ^)S)( 



(Tetanus) 



(Spores) 



(85) 



645 



50 



38X GPSboCT' "&&)6S 
CfiDfi). 

(Diptheria) : 



(Small Pox 



j 






. SO 



(Vaccination) l^?i)^?6^ s^a 3 
. 8 



646 



a, "I 



(Poliomyelitis) 



aj&<*o&o<3. ^6 3 



(Rabies) 



1 2 



&o6. 2, 8 



ii 



10-14 

fc^ 

(Malaria) 



^ 



5*8)05 



(Amoebiasis) 



(Cyst) ^ 



S*fl^ocp 



(Filariasis) 



B47 



(Ascariasis) 






S"*oS 



(Hook worms) 



8,^ 



118. 



"So 



srtf* 



5. 



. tf 



(Absorb) 



(Pancreas) |jSSoS) 



648 



II 



(Level) 

V 7 



(Tissue) 



, rTeso, (Primary 



and Secondary) 



\ 



_ (Tendency^, 



"ft) 5J*JTo( Mechanism) 



(Common precipating factors). 



(Endocrine glands) 



(Micturition), o 



^Oiotftfo 



(Giddiness), 



(Gangiene) 



(Coma) 



(Fatty Acids) ^ acrffco 

Sfcs|tfo* 



(Bovine) 



1 e^oco 



(Plain) 



( Hypoglycaemic ) 



5tf8Bo (Cell)^S 



649 



(Obesity) 



(Fat Sythesis) e5Sj6 



(Economically) 



(Ingested) 



JScpoS' 060^0 



c (Fat Cells) rr= ^ 



(Hypertension), 






( fenfluramine ) 



3, 



(Gout) 



(Metabolic) 



lex) 
(Acute Arth- 



ritis) 



53 



(Hereditary Diseases) 
or? r 



(Albinism) 



.(Haemophilia) tf j 



560 
(*) 



(Melanin) 



5. tf 



(Hypertension) 

tfSo 130 



(Hyper- 



tension^ 



(Arterioles) 



( Amplitude 

of Pulse) "5)Q&*6ofi. S>< 
( Pressure oscillations ) #&& 
(Damp) so&o$) 



II 



(Mechanism) 



^0*3 



Sfcrf, 



Serpentine) ?o^, 






. a. 



(Rawolfia 



119. 



e.S' 



1600-2500 



(Kidneys) 



(Ureters) 



dder) 



(Urethra) 



(Bla. 



(Ureters) 



^^ (Urethra) 



551 



90 



jgQ fei 06^ "5r*ti>'Nn o &o& 50 

>. 10 



dS '(Chronic 
Glomeruld 



S 

<t> 



8 15, 16 

CO 



ronic 

Glomerulo Nephritis) : 



. 83tf;ia, S^oCsba-;, 

- ' -* " " (Acute 






Glomerulo Nephritis) 



; 

1600 ^oa 

800, 600 



652 



II 



(Specific Gravity) 

, rfl 

a 

(Casts) 



20^40 b.n. 



__ 



kidney) 



(Bladder) 



e&e5SMC :- 



, 6 



(Artificial 



(Pelvis) 



a. 



, 
(E. Coli) 



&& s 



4 t i 
Pyelonephritis) :^ 



(Chronic 



. fi^fl 



(Nephrotic Syndrome) : 



(Diabetes) 






(Diuretics) 5j"dfcS3&. 






663 

:- 60 



6. 



120. 



oo 



I. 



1200 



(Biggest Labo- 



ratary of the body) 



Sfi&Sa, 




^Sw",* 1 " J 
JF^&L-' . 



Vv<&fe 

-r ' "I 



ii. 



iii. 



iv. 






656 



2. 



, P. A, S. 



3. 



i. s^^cCD cC^^T (Cirrhosis) 



(Fibrous tissue) 



: L 



; 2. 



; 3. 



:, 4. 



(Bile) 



5. 



812' -- 

(Folic Acid) 



cfctfo 



(A vitaminosis) 



K, 



$&&& 



K 



656 

6. 

66% 



it 



(Fatty liver) 



7. 



II, 



eo o 

, 2 S^ 



(Cancer) 



(Aflotoxin) 



(Spleen) 



120 



cule - endothelial) sSgicS 

v 



3 



(Reti- 




(Infections) 



ii. 



667 



iii. 



8000 
( Leukemia ) 



G> CD 



( Chronic myeloid Leukemia ) 

F9<3. sjoii ib^&o 10 



iv. diip^ (Jew) &*& 



ital errors of Meta- 



bolism), 



v, 



(Rhe 



umatic Heart Disease) : 



(Bacterial Endocarditus) 



v. 
lenomegaly ) : 



(Tropical sp- 



53*68 



(Hyper Sple- 



nism) 5oi ^cii'i:. 
^^ (Spltnectomy) 



O CO 



III. 



(Lymph Glands) 
(Lymph) &&Q> tf 



(Lym- 



phocytes) 



. 



658 



iii. 



o o 

(Congenital Errors of 



Metabolism) : 



5 



. fia^ 



IV. Anaemia (tf 



3^653^000 260 

CO 



. 



. 



iii. 



ex> 



CO 

S 



iv. 



(Haemorrhage) 



v. "Si 



4,5 



(Red 



morrow) &o> 



f _. 

12 



(Deficiency Anaemia) 



90% 



80 



659 



, SPO 



(Piles) o-gfi^& 



OS^SdSofSo^ (Infancy)^ 8 ^ 



8j&SSa*sSsSaiSo tf 



Folic acid) 



B ,, 

12 



(Vit B,,, 



Anaem- 



ia). 

(Pernicious Anaemia) - 



(Folic acidi 



80-120 SfVeo 



tf JS ?oood6sSx) (Haemolysis) ^ 

(Red Marrow) 



( Abnormalities ) 



(Thalassaemia), l 
ell Aneamia) ' 
(Haemoglabiiis Pathies) 



(Antigens) 
(Antibodies) 



tf 

ow) 8* 



Red marr- 



660 



II 



C5 



. 

<P oj U 

0*0-* g^Sxw. S6[jfcSae 



STgr 



S. C&5\ 



cjflxsSca 



OP. d. 



121. 



(PS YC H I A TR Y) 



a 



s'iSb. 



tfSn-fc, 



S)^ 3fio 



681 



1. vStfg" o 

3*g<5aeo (Organic psychiatrical 
disorders) 

2. wfitftf 

(Functional psychiatric disorders) 



(Psychosis), 



disorders), 
subnormality) 



(neuroses), 



(Pschyo somatic 

? && (Mental 

*> ~* 



( Anxiety reaction), 
(Neurotic depression), 

l^ a ^^ (Obsesive^compu 
sive reaction), aotf^ (Hysteria) 



(Schizophrenia) 

^^g (Manic Depressive Reaction) 



(Personality Disor- 



E?a?Scon 



(Autonomic Nervous System) 



3^?5 (Migraine) l fitftf;;Se8a(Peptic ulcer) 
fi9SSn (Ulcerative colitis), 
(Neuro dermatitis) 



562 



II 



(Endogenous - 
tftfj$&>;5& So 
(Exogenous 

s 
syg&co 



122. 



a Q 

(Fibrin) 



therapy), 
therapy ) 



(Electric shock 
(Behaviour 



(Family therapy) 



(Occupa- 



tional Recreational), 
(Group therapies) 



(Psychological 



Testing) 



(lymph), 



|jrjf 



(Collagen Fibres) 



68 



CPn cb. 



123. 



a.g'fl, 



1. 



2. 







(Cancer) 



8. 



4. 



64 



. 
u 



^Cobalt) 



124. 



[Surgical Diseases of both Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems 
and Acute Head Injuries with their Pathology and Management]. 






(State of conciousness) 

5 Sfc* 



(Regeneration) Bd6 s cpB s-fc, c3*e3 w^?* \**> C^QO^Q*. SJOA 

(Victor.Horsely), 

(Harvey Gushing), 

.. . (Waltes Dandy) 
(property) ^ 



, 



(Bony 

<D 

Cavities)^ a^jo 



^o 



( Neuro-surgeon ) 



6^ (Isotopic 

Scanning)' esSSs^^ (Ultra - sonic) ^d 
( Sound echoing ) ; ^c^^ 
5 (Electro encephalogra- 
phy.) 3vjf) &t53tr^S) (Electro rayogra- 
phy) 

r J/ 



"I. S5. 



(Physical Structure) n 



, (Anosthesiology), 
*^o(NeuTo-physiology), 2 " 



t)0 (Bio- chemistry), s?gfl 
(Pathology) SSoa 5^S^ ^A?6 * 

6, 



3 

o 



65 



L 

Sr?5s:S64 8 

spSSoff* 60% 
^6^), ^^^.E 
^odxofi. 8ao6s'oSS)otfaff 8 l, 



666 



II 



(a) 



(b) 
osis) 



So 



(Hydro Cephales) 



08* 



(c) "3j^8J*SSw S^ 

S^SiSSw (Spinal meningoceles and 

myeloceles) 



(d) 
cts 



(Vascular defe- 



5.7 



03*. S5. c5. 
tf 

"S. 



, sS 






(Operating microscope) 



(Epilepsy) 



tumour)^ 



^a (Brain 
OBtf^ 



iii. 



(Haemorrhage) 



o&S 

3, cS^S jSoiJf <3o63u (Infections) 

"i ^ 

co e 

3fi) n*cftr*e (Open eaex ^PQ'd'eaori , tf^tf^ 4 &>_) S3, 

wounds) J)C 



fief 

<vO 

(Chronic Infections) s$o 



(Anti - biotic) 

" (Tuberculomas) 



(Vertebral column) 



o 

23 5o*^S 

o 



(Coverings) So 
ii. iSsSpCJo wOA^acSBoO 9^d'?5 0)8 (Arachnoiditis) 



E68 



sr 



4. 



mours) 

^L.B^ 
gid) ^ 



(Spinal tu- 
&% 
(Ri. 



(Malignant) 



23*^0* 



(Secondary) 



(Meningiomas), 

(Benign) 



"S. R?- sS. 



II 

(glial) 



(gliomas) 



(Parkinsonism') 

/ 



(Gait) 



(Stereotoxic) &3 



. &as3*tf& e 

(Three Dimensi- 



onal) 



(Surgical control of pain) 



sjos 



sS [oSeao (Cervix cancer), 



669 
i (Peripheral Nerves) s* 



(Cranial) 

'f^SSifrS 1 (Neuralgia^ 

._ .. - ( Prolongations ) Aodroa, 6 ^e&25 

< - -'^~ n -" -^i-v^ Sd'co 



(Spasms) 



125. 



S'Ooti 






[5Sx)Co tf j^tf'&cio CJ-^CP 






. tf&tfcrtfg&o 



670 >fis$Ai II 



C8 O 

a 



iv. 



ii. 

so 



1. 

ii 



83:65*01 



3o<3 



6-12 



671 



i 



fic^So 



40,000 



iii. 






ts 






rftf^sS* 



II 



ii. 



eon* 



34 



'co 2p;frot3cSpr>, 

A 



126. 



( Orthopaedic diseases of surgical importance ) 



1. ea^&tf, fSo^^bti B cps>?eo (Con- 
genital and acquired deformities). 

2. "Si&rtbtfo (development), 
(Deficiency) 9*n-o>. 

8. d'SD^&oD (Traumatic lesions). >a 
(Fractures) 



4. 

5, 
6. 



lesions ). 



&CQ) ( Inflamatory 

(Neoplastic lesions) 
tissue lesions) 



(Congeni^ 



tal Talipes Equino Varus-CTEV). 



(forefoot) ScyoLjoeS>T B IO(Adduct) 



(Planter flexion) 



ton* 



8" a 



(manipulative technique) 



. sitoS5o<S 



i. aa^fctf ct&&e> (Achondroplasia): 

& Q ^ Q 

& 



6 rv ^otoofi. s*^) SSCPJ, tS&eo*. 



. fifi, 

<D 83 

Osteodystrophy) 



( Chondro- 






2a. 



sS2Sa (Dyschondroplasia) 



674 



II 



Aclasis) 



(Metaphysical ii. cS^Sg (doefcetoo-Scurvy.): 



iii. wft 
Imperfecta :- 



Osteogenesis 



iv, ^o&g' ^aBsStftf (Fibrous Dyspal. 



( Fibrous 



tissue) 

2b. 
i. 



D 



Sbo 



sSo 



(Gastro Intestinal 



Tract) 



D 



(Restless) 

tfSaS (Flabby) 



D 



(Balanced diet) 



. too (Splints) 



^fc, 



(Endothelium) 









iii. ^ 



(Ostroporosis) :- 



(Anabolic 



harmones) ?&, 



3, 



Fractures) 



(Traumatic lesions) j. 



(Violence) So 



(Forci- 



ble Solution) 3 
(Fracture) ^oirCb. 



08 



wftifo^o 



1. 
or closed) :- 



(Simple 



676 



2. 
or Open) :- 



(Compound 



3. 



(Pathological :- 



(Secondary) n* q 

4. a,jg<3 (Stress) :- 



CO <J> 

(dissolution) 



(Cortices) fir 6 



(*Green stick' fracture) 



. ;3X>ioe>Sb esifi 

co to 



- (8) S 
(Loss of function), (4) 
Stf (Crepitus) (6) 
(Abnormal mobility) (7j 
tenderness)sjD-^e 



:, (1) 
^ 

(6) 
?6o 
^ (Local 



( Healing of fractures ) : 9 



: (1) 
^&siD (Haenatoma) Jitf^teo, (2) ^fo 



(Splints) ^fo 



(Sedative) 



2^3 (Institutional Treat- 



ment) : X- 



tfsSgo. s-a 



(Mani- 



pulation) 



Femur) 



(Neck of the 



8 Si 

cy OCJ 

tions of fractures) : 



(Complica- 



5 

00 



1. 
2. 
8. 
4. 
S. 

6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 



^^(Sso^^injury) 



(Infection). 

&5 
(Malunion) 



-traumatic 



Ostro Dysjrophy). 
0, wfo?*^ (Myositis 

' " 



676 



ii 



11. a^&&S*a;S iSj (Stiff joints). 

12. ^Sc?^ [tfspSS^a ( Reactionary 
Edema). 

18 tfr) Se^drSrfo ( Involvement of 
Joints). 

14. S$xnep& SK^ (Epiphysis), 

15. t&Mtf tf sTsfeseoSStf ( Avascular 

& _* * 

Necrosis of bone). 

16. ik^otftfjjfo (Fat Embolism), 



(Massage) 

o co 



(Primitive) 






4. 

lesioas) :- 
^SStfo) 6*0* 
genic Organisms)55c 



(Inflammatory 



(Patho- 
(Infection) 



ic), ii. 



(Spcific). 






, 



s- 



, 





i, 

(Syphelis). 



(T. B.), 

ic Osteomye^ 



letis) :- &rexrt> (Marrow) 



(Acute) 



(Bed rest) a& 



( Sub - Periosteal abscess ) 



(Incise) 



eletis) :- 



(Chronic) g*^go 

(Chronic Osteomy- 

18^0 

L. 

5*A 

CO 

(Sinuses) 



677 



&&c$eo (Complications j 

1. S*rf$0rf ^fotforpoo (Pathological 

<& 

Fractures) 

2. f5^2jo T) &o$o<Sbe> c^pd&sscSS' [ 
(Pyogenic arthritis of nearby joints) 

8, |jS^o[tf3rc&# (F c al sepsis) 
4. <3&"i^x> (Deformities). 






(Supportive measures) 



(Bony anhylosis) 



(Excision) 3S) n*), 
(Fusion) 



ItfSb 
o 

SPg&ew (Syphilitic afflictions of bones 
and joints): $3 
(Acquired) 



$"7? 



(87) 



s^Sbocr, 505*^01 



lesion) 



(\fi (Primary 
(Secondary) rv 



ITS ^dSb fT. B.) ^KS 

C3 \ / 



(Organism) s5o 



(Inhalation) CP^CP rvfc, 
gestion) CP^CP r^S) 
tion) sSo 



(In-, 
mplanta- 



R) o*g<3) 



, wotffc 



678 



09^ 



oe e> SPJ&& ^OaSS'o' tfoxoE?>. e 

i, Sbofi 
Aoe!> 



irto^sj^ (Rhumatoid arth 
ritis) : ^^)^ Ig^^j ^^) ^p^^saon 

o w^h i6 

oL o 






(General), 
(Local) w 



6 



!o$o^ (O-.teo arthritis) :- 






" v CO ' 

&>o&exi INHi PAS. 



083 " "- -^--= -i^^^ (Acalgessics) A, 

(Shortwave 



diathermy) 



s*^:. 1&<53*#' oD^j. i&a2focii o?SsSr\ibco (Bone tunio 



o 



urs) 



579 



(Malignant) 



(Benign), 

tf } 



8 





tf s 



t, 

SPG 



CO 63 

S^5 

CD 



ea co 



09 * L. 



(Penosteal fibrous tissue) 



53- <?^ 3 i&Sra* (P.ediliction 

ei L \ 






( Amputation of mfeli ) 



otfcg* 



( Metastasis ) " 



SSOONO; (Affcrations of Nerves): 

88>e) 
Zj 

(Policmyelits) 



(Cerebral Palsy) 
S5)S. er 

S (Motor System) Sa^SS 
eorve^ i^.S 
^Physiotherapy 



SsJOff'^ti 



680 



CO 



12T. 



oo - 



(Nasal cavity) 



(Orbit) 



brane), 



(Mucous 03 eiru 



( Extra ocular )n- AS > 

O(j 

ScSfio[tf3^ Aobo^. tf&tfpfij (Orbital 
cavities) 



^Stffib, "^i-^ (Sclera) t*3 il 
(Fibrous tissue) 



Aodxofi 



S'd^dtScp 



(Highly vascular) 



(Uveal tissue) 



(Ciliary body), 8D6S, 



(Diaphragm) 



(Protective mechanism) r? 



srrv 

(Inner. mos t) n* A^ETd "2:fib'B<5a 
(Rods), tfo&S&eo (cones) 

( End organs of sight ) 

^Aeao, 



(Nerve fibres) 
(Optic Nerve)A 



(Cranial cavity)^ [o55oi "^3& (fuse) 
( Optic chiasm )r? 



S (Distribution)a^ 
dfio^tf tf5.^ ( Binocular vision ) 



^tf ( Cerebral 
cortex)^* ^|lf^odb?6o<3 



(Anterior chamber) 

iaJsSo (Aqueous Humour) 



68* 



(Cavity)a* 



(Vitreous) 

Gelly) 




1. 



1. 



2. 



c6\3^ g'ioS'sSai 7. 
9. 

11. 

13. 



8. 
5. 
8. 

10. 

12. 



16. a'St-W c*d&iS*eS 16 

- 65 Q *~ 

ootfo^i 19. sSjsr 20. 

21. Jj^o* 22. ie^fifi 28. 

24. ^^^S^ji" &o^6"2S 25. 

g-o^^^c 28, 

27. coar "?rao^^ as 



17.8)6 



to 



(Photophobia) 



1. 



(Visual acuity) ;- 



(aj 



Diitant 



vision) 

(b) 7 
^ / 



18 



^j tf^gt (Near vision) 

rforftfo, 

, wdaeo ScdD^o, 



2. ^ tftf^i (Colour vision):,. 



(Shades) 



3. 



&|Jf&9 (Field of vision) :- 

SbtfS^ss*, tfoft SS&Sgj JbfiJS sr 



4. 



(Darkadoptation):- 



582 



II 



5 S&cSou dfotftf tf^ft (Binocular 
vision with depth perception) :- 



(Pacultyj 






"36^0 
eye-lick) :- 2? 



^0^63 



(Diseases 



of the conjuctiva) :- 



o 



nea) :- 



^Types of Opacity) 



CJ ej 

So 
co 



( Diseases of the s ^ OJ ur y) ^3. 



55*^03, 



ft 

<J> <J> 



(Curvature) 



40 



(Diseases of the Cor- &A tfo^tfo (Presbyopia) &3 fo? 



o, ESe 



588 



iO (Glaucoma): 



(Drainage) 

^5500^0 S 






(Unilateral watering) 



, 20 



Aoofion- 



/Myopia) 



^0053*5^ 



(Hoirzontal and Vertical 



medians) ^, 



fi**d&, ^^s-tf (Spherical and 
cylindrical) f5odS^fiS ^^^ (Com- 
pound Spectacle lens) & 



684 



II 



(Squint) :- 



) IP 013. 



^t^ 



2, 



ocular) 



3, 



(Extra 



6 



Ssg-tftfo, SPto, 



(Defective adaptation for night vision) 



wjftfeo 



CO 



a a, 



128. 



sSg). 



, tf 



585 



a 




1, 
2. 

8. 



3D>aaA ^otoofi. 



er ol 



, S'Soj Stfrffco, 
* 

06 sjg^&S* S5g_ 



0* a* 



5S6 



II 



fiS", [So5" dfrfflbS 



baa* 



e) o 



w\ a. 

v 



ip ) 

L 



II. 



ftSo Stffl, 




2. 
8. 
4. 



(n0 



So 



3S, 



587 



( TfcSlbdSS 

\ ^ ' 



o BS, 



"2:6 A 



8, "I 



1. 

2, 

8. 



IIL 




SStffc&o, 



CD 

, 3$& f 



SIS' 



0, 






&S 



- oL 



. J) 



. 2)00 

CO 



SSieiSiodb 



129. 



3*6; 



(i Sjr^ 600 



1794 



oo as 






rfh|*:fco S^jeo, 



690 



II 



CO 63 83 



168* 



. esj^fiiff* 



tfo 






& So 



CO C 83 



So^fifiSSSb 



591 



S 



we 



rfp 



a, tf 



SS tD 5 



692 



ii 



1. Eric W, Peet & T. J. S. Patterson. 
"The Essentials of Plastic Surgery". 
Blackwell Scientific Publications. 
1968. 

2. Samuel Tomon : "Cosmetic Surgery** 
J. B. Limincot Company. 1980. 

8. Sir Harold Gillier & D. Ralph 
Millard : "The Principles and Art of 



Plastic Surgery" Vol I & II. Little 
Brown & Co. 1967, 

4. P. Kutumbaiab : " Ancient Indian 
Medicine". Orient Longmans Com- 
pany. 1982. 



130. 



(1) 53sSg &^<&6&o (External hernia). 

(2) ^a>^?*S (Appendicitis) 

() fc^ifc& (gall badder) 5Vex>. 



(5) T6& Ll3K: 
(malignant) sS 



I. 



- (i) 



(hernia* 



- 90*6 



(ii) 



(ST J 



698 






CO CX 



(Complications) 
(Complicated) 



1. 



2. 



AoflfdfsS f 



(Obstructior) S 
(Strangulation) 



S5on, 



(Uncomplicated) 



(88) 



ulcer) 



(Peptic 

(Acid pepsin) S)SS&^ 
tf^djjtJ (mucus membr- 



ane) 



2. 



(membrane) 



sjfi 



eo 
j 






2. 



5 



694 



II 



8. 

tfo :- 



s: 



(Dy- 



srepsia) 



1,2 



( hypoacidic ) 



1. 

2. 
8. 



(Heart-burn) 
(Water brash) 
(acid eructations) 



coo 






>o&>)SSo 



1. 



2, 



(Haemorrhage) : 



(ab- 



dominal cavity) 



8. 



(stenosis) : 



4. 
chaoge) 



( Malignant 



696 



(antacid) 

(antispasmodic) 



(complications) 



; (Adomi- 



nal emergencies); 
abdomen) e^ 



82 



57? 



3. 



(Intestinal obstcuction) 



1. 
dicitis) 

2. 



8. 



550i 

L_ 

4. 

of gut); 
(sigmoid) 

6. 



6. 
tftfo. 



5^ as^s 



(Acute appen- 



(tumours) s5o Stf^S 
(Intussusception). 

(Volvulus 



II. 



(Appendicitis) 
(Appendix) 



696 

(blind diverticulum) 



(Lymphoid follicles) &o&r>oo> 

8367? 



og, 9 a &eorv 
croorganisms) 



(mi- 



f*$ 



10-30 
(acute) 



(abdominal emergencies) 



( mid line or umbulical region ) 



(right iliac fosso)& 
(sore acting)^ 



2. 



8. 

&& 



11 



S'fi?! 



(lumens) sSir>R 



a <p 



(lympoaodes) 



687 



r a 

- 40. 60 ^oiie'iicfc 53e ; i^tfogfofi"* rib Sib 



f 



5. tf ^ r\Feagt tJA, tf _ 

""" ^ "" "* 2. "S&dSiQ 



^^ (Gastro.intestinal track) 

7. 



8. fttfo c&ofl tfo g-tfrfo 



9. 

& Q *J 

10. ^oa .-^flfld. a^*K- stn.xfesfl 5 - ^^^ ^O (Chemotherapy) 



O 

40 i5oSrf>oo:- "Jbe^ai 5)S5? S" f^, 4 o 



131. So fi SJQ $) CO 



3 dJp, 

: 0) 



(ii) ^MO^ /<tf ^^ ^od, (iii) 



' (iv) 
I. cSsT'ow (Syphilis) : 



598 



II 



21 



35 
10 



90 



(Microscope) 



8 &o A 8 



^ (Mucous membranes) Tbtf 
^^) Siig^^ e^c^:^. 

j?S$&X(Wasserman test) 



II* "S> (Gonorrhea) : 



10 



III. 

Venerium) : 

2 e^fije 



" (Lympho granuloma 

^ e?S f5p^[flSb (virus) 
8 



(Lympha- 



dunopathy-Buboes ) 



IV. 



(Chancroid) 



*00*^ c6o|^!!bot&f&>. 



(Lymphnode 



V. 



loma inguinale) : sjfi 



&> 



II. McS^o[fid& 



132. 



tf es fi & B99 



(Carcinoma of cervix uterus) 



: ca^ii 



(cervix) 



600 



ii 




(1) 

|_So<3 



(3) 



(5) (6) (7) (8) 

. (9) 



SSdajtofl (Pituitary), 
(Hormones) 



28, SO 



3 ^ 4 5* 



83-0 



2- 
4- 



(1) 



(5) 



. 2 



(2) 



(6) 



fi>oejC6. eifl 



10.18. 



(Fertilised ovum) 



(Placenta) 

ftoi^^S 



26 "8)0. &>. 



O 

40 



E0.8 
81.90 jn*. (7 



98 



801 
g" X 2" X 1" 



12" X 9" X 8" 35 



(Os) 



. 18 s^ 



(Pelvis) 

36 
. 40 



CO 
3 



60S 



II 



Cal- 



cium) 






(Metabolism) 



2400 






OifSb, 
cs 



al 



(Proteins) 



(Minerals) 
tf&$ (Haemo 

globiD) i)tf^^ 35^.^0 (Iron), ^_| 
(Folic acid) 
(Calcium), oi, 
Vitamins \ s5 



S 0X^* 



00 



3-4 



srn* 



(Septic) 

r?fe, SbffS 5 



(Complications of Pregnancy and 
labour) : 



Cj 63 



(Vesicular mole) &orfs$ficrfc. 



( Eclopic pregnancy ) 



(Toxaemias of pre- 



gnancy and eclampsia) 



o a 



608 



(Rupture ut- 



erus 



- 7 

. [Ref : V.M. 

Bedeker's essay in the Annals of the 
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 

afl SWsS- M T VoL XLV ( I - IV )1- 

OJCs) fvO W t^J?A) oJ oJ c\} v ' \ 



133. 



(Anatomy and Physiology of Female and Male Sex organs; Reproduction; 

Diseases; Genetic diseases.) 



1, 

2. 




1. 

2, 
8. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
1. 
8. 



(Labia Majora) 

. fLabia Mineral 
v / 

^Entrance to Vagina) 
^Entrance to Urethra) 



(Anus) 



(Clitoris) 
(Perineum) 



0-30* rttf^ 
a- 5 






(Hymen) 



(Cancer) 



I 



II. 




1. 
2. 
8. 
4, 



(Cervix) 
(Uterine cavity) 
(Vaginal cavity) 



(Uterine tubes) 



(Ovaries) 



6. 
7. 



(Bladder) 
^ (Rectum) 



(B-^ny pelvic) 



605 



a (Bladder) (Pituitary) 

(kidneys) 



13 g^ 14 



gens), 



foestro- 
(Progestarones) & 



(28 ^ 



tion 



It 



III. 




(Scrotum) 



1. r 



8. fcsaap&a (Vas Jeferens) 

4. btfeitfod (Seminal vesicle) 

6* "So tf Sfo> /Penis) 

6. S$a|ja**'3$ (Urethra) 

7. &3 | Pirce&&> Bladder) 

8. btfg ^o^i^^sSa (Va Deferens) 



15 3$ 16 



16 



14 



70 $3 75 



40 ^^ 45 



A B 




-0 



1. tfe> (Head) 

2. 3oA (Neck) 
8. ^5" (Tail) 



(ovum): 






(cell). 



(Fertilisation) 



60? 



(saliva) 



(Acid) 



?6cC)o 



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nation) 



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612 SarS&aS' II 



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10 



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12-15 



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a 0> v / 



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629 
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680 



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(foot ward) 



: 1. "5* 



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nces) : 

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(mental disturba^ 



(Indirect 

reticular activation) ^Scoop, ^5*^$) 
(direct cortical activity) 



(non-ictegrated) 



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(hypoxia) 



V. 



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1. 
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endicitis) 

6. 
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VI. 



VII. 
ADH, 



intestinals); 
(stress), 



(irritable colon), 



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VIIL Q^tf SjSb2e :- "Sooo^gS, 
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631 



20 000 3n 0,000 



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TPulmonary Ventilation) 



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139. 



(Radio Therapy Including Cancer 
Chemo - Therapy) 



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5, 

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634 



II 



3 Adi 5" 3 tfgSSoo 



(Linear Accelarator), fcij> L dp& (Beta 
tron) 

ti^^ fib. 



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^^ prS^i, (Cycle Phospbam 
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(5 - Flurourack) 



Therapy : 



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(Harmone 



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140. 



(Pathological diagnosis & Surgical Treatment of Cancer") 



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635 






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^Kidneys) S5o?5 



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6000 



8000 



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896 



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fi^" 8 
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(Physical 



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agents) ;- 1. 3Sg_S aaS (Naphthyie - *' 



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687 



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0^3 



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2. s-Dc&c^D 



688 



II 



1, 



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141. 



1896^ 



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Vacuam Tube) 



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S'ofll 



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(Elec- 



tro magnetic-Radiation), 
(Light) 



(Second) S 1>87,COO a. 



(Frequency). ^1, 490! 
go (Wave length). 



639 



(Energy) &o<3. 



. X-tfespoSb, 



(absorb) 




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(target) 



(Charge) 



_8 (Eletron Particular Energy) X- 




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LL- 

D - 



(Gama Ra}), 



(dismt egration) 



33^3 



X- 



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640 



II 



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5. 



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BB 
bb 



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(bladder), 3*efsS^ (Liver), l3 
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(Image Intensifier) 



fc ^Sb^ e&*u), 



SoS36 



?5o (X.Ray Stereography) 

3o& 



( X-ray foreign body localisation ) :- 



~3o& 



Sfc 



age 



Sbfi Afe, 55 sStficfib 



(Mass Miniature Radiographic Survey) :- 



53<> 



842 

ff 



(Radio 
Isotope Diagnosis): 



(Radio Active Elements) 

e* sj^s ajao^-arp o 

^od&lf ^eaoEFooo (atom bomb) 
(atomic pile) &* "0^ 



(Radio-active Isotopes) n 



142. S tf $ 6 ^^-.25 5 5 "tf Sko eio 



648 



.- 



3 r\& fS&cSoD, ^o-^a- ?6o& 



cneretive. Disorders) 

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644 Depots II 

r 



57-g&ex>" (Occu- 
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- Environmental 
Hygiene Committee) 



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[JT2b89 



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645 



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143, 



( Nervous System & Diseases ) 



(1) 

(8) 



oL 



(2) 



(6) 



640 



( 1 ) 



- (6) 



(Axon) 

^Nucleus) 
. (Dendrite) 
S. "(Cytoplasm) 
". (Necleolus) 



(Cerebral hemisphere): 
(Dura 



Mater) 



(Frontal 

lobe),lj <^t><5T ^^(Parietal lobe), 
(Temporal lobe) &5d&> 

(Occipital lobe), 
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, ,(6) yfS^S 2r.gf. (Axon hillock) : , 



( Neuroglia ) 





2. 



, 8. 



Cerebrospinal 



fluid) 



(Cerebellum) 

oei) ^o^ 

(Vermis) 



(Brain Stem) 



tracts) 



(Mid Brain) : 

(Pyramidal 

s-oa^&o 



(8, 4 

2. >*Tj (Pens) : 

asfc^oefc B.8, 7, 8, 
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(Medulla) : 
BJO& 9, 10, 11, 12, 



(Olfactory) 



ar (optic) 






i 






card 



(Olfactory nerve): 



(Optic nerve) : 



5 of, rf^, 6$ ( 



(Ulcer) 



48 txsrSSstS' II 



ST 



(Trigeminal nerve): 



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(Aphasia) 



3>rf 

Q 



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root) ^fio&fcc&i so&oSb ^^\?6 >S^?x. cSgtfS*^^ (Sensory aphasia) 

r$os?o c6^ fiT 8 ^^ (Motor aphasia) 
(Facial nerve) .* 



649 



tff 



(Meningitis) : 



eso&do. 



-Tabes Dorsalisj. 



^Pyogenic meningitis) 



(I. N. H), 



", a. iJS. 

" 

. (P. A. S) 



(Poliamyelitis): 



7 Zxo& 14 



?6oeo5ou)?6 i 



^_5S (virus) 



ejS (Parkinsonismj 



(Trigeminal nerve): 



(Sensory 



root) ^ao&fco&i sjodioSb 

. *t&c&&~ 3*3 (Facial nerve) . 



(Corticx>steriods) 



e>d&fl3 



&$ (Auditory nerve) / 



(Aphasia) 



(Sensory aphasia) 

(Motor aphasia) 



0*^ 



0- 



649 



(Meaingitis) : 



?3o83oSoO?5 



Dorsalisj. 



" ^Pyogenic meningitis) 



(I. N. H), 2). ^. <DS. (P. A. S) 



'Sa'S ^3^ (Poliamyelitis): 

" Q 



7 ^3oS 14 



S_ ^_5S (virus) o 



(Parkinsonism) 



g|jQ bfi^0&S II 



ar 

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w5Ss-?f;S 

(Wilson Disease^ : 



"i. ^5. 60^" ^^sS^ 



(Polyneuritis 



\ 



tf tfleitf 



^d&^S" (Here ditary 

cJ 

Ataxiasy- 



(Epilepsy) -: 



: CPU 



144. 



1. 

dermis^ 



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. (a) ]|>Ptf (b) 



i_o& 



phatics) 
2. 



(w) 



3. 



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:. 



- 6. 



6. 



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7. 



03-30* 



(Benzyl Benzoate) 26% 



662 



it 



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(a) 

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0.25 



5 



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7 



663 



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5. 



IV. 



0*30* 



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664 Sg-Sfia^ II 

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j ^ 250 &>,| 



t EF& 

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7. 



wox>o<"^Do<6" So&S&o fcoftf 



666 



9. 



^S c^^o* 



CPU A'. 



145. 



(Endocrine Glands) 



I. 



(Pituitary Gland) 



1 X 1 X 0.5 



S)jfe9oj 



1. 



2. 



8. 



F.S.H 



(I.C.S.H), 



656 



II 



(A.C.T.H) 



&o& 



:- 



(Disorders of Pituitary glands) 
2? &>o&tiau (Gigantism) :- 



2. 



Syndrome): 



Soofi 



(Dwarfism t 



Hnfantilism) : 



sease):- 



(Simmonds Di- 

i|fce>& |jS?OaD 



f. &d&j*u&&; (Diabetes Insipidus) : - 



(Frolich'i Syndr- 



ome) 



. tftf |^o) (Thyroid gland) 



8B7 



(Tbyrotoxiccsis):- 



(Deep X - Ray) ,8^ 



0.1 



0.2 



(Cretinism) 



lagS)n a ?S>o& 



III. 

Glands\ 



(Parathyroid 



c 6. Sb>\rrj 00 



(^Hyper Parathy 



roidismj : 



lCO Sb.t) 
100 Sb. 



9-1 1 

2.5*4.5 



668 



16 a>.in--2 

"- 

2.5 



n/100 S>.t>. 
1/100 



(Stones) 



IV. 

glands) 



(Suprarenal 



1. 
2. 



(Medulla) 



(Cortex) 



^5" ^4385" 



1 2. 



Addison's disease) :~ 



^S (Mucous memprane) 



Q^S 25-50. to. in- 

ea **- 



(Adrenoge- 



nital Syndrome):- 



(Gushing Syndrome): 



00) 



Aldosteronism 



669 



&>, 3 



(Pheochromoc - 



ytoma) : 



V. "S 

Glands) : 



( Sex 



aS)' 1 (Hypogonddism) 



40^46 



tfo 



, ^o^S;^, Stf&oo 



14-2J8 



cBbio 28 3$ 29 



146, 



(Heart and Blood vessels) 



(RD.A) 

(ligation) 



es&fc 



(Co-arc- 

tation of aorta) &, fioctf sSoa (anasto^ 
mosis) ?6ij, as2ie^6c6 (Excision) dio 



(suturing) 



dff*oosc5co (vas - 



cular anastomose) 



(occlusion) 



(Cardiopulmonary bypass) 

>&> fl? 
(Prosthetic aortic) 



(trachea-) ^/^^ (oesophagus) 



(vascular ring); 2. 

&"^)tfs$x> (Aneurysm of 
aorta). 



1. 



(Dysphagia Luso- 



861 



#&3, a/or 
>tf^<&&). 



(arch) 



s3o3S5|8^ (Double arch) 



(Ligamentum arteriosum) 



?l es^d'K 3 ^ (Ligameutum) 



(Thymus) & 



(P.D.A) : 



(Ductus) 






Ko 



(distal 



20 feiDe? tf ^SSD, 

C3 



2 ?io<S 4 

(Systemic) sS 
$ (Systolic) 8u_S 

e$ (diastolicj 



?6e5e9 (dilatiom So^r 
(Pulsations) aSb) 



(left ventricular) 



(hypertrophy) 



(Duct) 



1.2 "a. h>. 



662 



&$ II 



pulse) 



xD 53" fi (water hammer 



6'ft (Atypical) s<5 



(Cardio - catheterisation) 



(Endocarditis) 



08^ ^d^)^^ 



53-^ 



[SET'S 3 



itf 

o 



3. 



(Stenosis), 



^Transposition) 



(Caudal) 



(localised) 
(constriction) 



(dilatation^ 

AsSSoff 8 ^ ^- 
sion) 0, 

^)oS, 

^i (carotid) 



gtfS (hyper ten- 
(hypo tensioo)^) 



668 



dhim) 



(_sS|Sd& 



10 



(Freezedried) ' 



(Intra thoracic) a 



(Cystic medial 



necrosis), ASSrS (Trauma), E) 
(arterio sclerosis) - 



si A 



?6(3. 



(Saccular type) 3o<3?5 



10 3stfe> 20 



sjfl 



SB.efc 



(Mitotic) ^/ 



^ (ascend- 



ing) 



fcelb) 
(Cystic spaces) tftf&rf 



(fusi 



form) 



(Isthmus) 



(histol- 



ogy) 8^g & si 



Sofltf 
(deceleration) 

(Tears) 



(false) 



864 



a rib 3 



(tug) 



a. 

oL 



&a^tf (Clot) 

O 



oC- 



(angiocardio ^ 



graphy)& <r, 
(aortograpby) 



(tangential incisi 



(Replacement) 



(Pericardium)^ 



esS : 1. 
(Chronic 



paricardial effusion) : 2* 



(Chronic constrictive 



pericarditis). 



(j5S L Sdt3oe (auto- 



immune reaction?) &, ^"1> 



esctf&o^fo 



(Pericatdsal sac) 
(Pleura! space) 



(Peri- 



cardectomy) 



2. 



686 



(Constriction) 



(Systolic ejection) 

(diastolic filling) fio? 8 



(Venous pressure)"^eA, 



: 1. 

ii;(b ? 2. 
(Pleural effusion) 



X (Ascitis) 5. 6 
ema feet) qa 



(Apex 



beat) 



(E.c.G) 



(Cardiac 



failure)^ 



(arrhythmia)& 



(digitalisation) 



Stftf (Median ster- 



notomy) 

* ' 



(Diseases of Chest) 



1000 



(abnormalities)^ 



(Expeclancy of life) 



3o6?6 



(les- 



sions) 

1. fe^s* (Cyanotic) 

(Acyanotic) 

5^^s co& 

saturation) 



2. 



(Oxygen 



( Pallet's 



Tetralogy) : 



gr 8 s ^157 as* 10% 



666 



II 



: L j3 Sc^tfSaa (Pulmo- 
nary stenosis) ; 2. E^ I SjrfS>as B &3&d 

e; g (5 

(Dextra position of aorta); 3. && && 
5*&.$x> ( Ventricular septal defect ); 
4. <55<E3 &* &&$>$& (Right ventricular 
hypertrophy). 9 



roscopy) 

SnotSa^S 
swallow) 



w 



gcr "60^0^ 

CO 



(thrill)^ 

t^fej: 
(Fluo- 
Ss ^e5^ 
?5^ (Barium 



2. $)ij? 
bulum) 5^6&, ems?> SD 
; 8. 



(Inferdi- 



(shurt) 



o ^ o 

S)^ a,^ sSdd ^ 

o 



(opening) 4 






(Direct 



closed operation) .- 



( Ventricular outflow ) 



(hypothermia) 



20% 



eu 



(Disorders of cardiac rhythm) : 
(Heart block) Scy ?Sos3p 

G0 

o^eS (Complete atriovent - 
ricular dissociation) 



^^ (Ischaemic) 

- 



(Septal defect) 



?3o>o 



667 
(atrial 



(Complete open corrective operation) : impulse) &^& 



rf&5tfS's$ ( External demand 
pacemaker) & s^^do dsS^j^^ 5 - $)^ 

(Thora- 



(Myocardial electrode) 



CO 



8 



IX 



S5 



(Veterinary Science) 
147. 

\B< 

0) 



I s 2. 

3. 

4. 

26 

* , * { 2. 
8. 



(8) g^Sf ^asS5o^e 1. 

2, 
8. 
4. & a 
5. 



869 



4 



2 5", ^"&<^, (jSaSfc, 



o (Total digestible Nutrients)^ 



(2) 



(Crude fibre) 



(Leguminous) 

(Non - Leguminous) 



(2) 



tf7d a^sfiis' tt 



;,_ nj * & 



(Peas) 4. 



(lotal Digestable Nutrients) 



(Coarse fibre) & Seisin 1 &c>o&) 25e>oS 

$) tfl / 

(a) cjo^ cocy^^oco Aoesoo (&*t6$G Aoeawi 

^ \ ei / 

(b) 



(c) 
(d) 



1. , = ^^ ^ , R.Xi<.V*^ L g , 6& . aa sf, 1. 



2. fi*&eSDCO 1. ^Xj C Sfl<S> ' ** 

8. S^flcssa 2. Ifitfaa g. E5-S ^& 8. waV&^asf;,- "" 3. 

4. *"- 



(Blood Meal) 



eft 

(Functions of nutrients) 



) ^^5 

C/ I CO 



hydra es), a - 



2.25 

SS&itfSr 6 ^ Sj*tf&j :- /Balanced 

Ratiom 

,SSb 24 



w 






9 

4CO K.G. 



g7g #*<3Sbg' II 



1. 20-25 



2. 8-5 ^ sSSrfA &5d& 

e atf&S a, 5 



- 9 

CP CA^ OC 

SS5 



20 

1 
1 



SSSSj - I 



1UO 



60 "l 



2.5 

2, 



(Housiog and Management of 
Dairy Cuws):- 4 - 



5. 



_, 6. tf^rfr? 

o n 






678 



9. 



I. 



IT. 
Ill 
IV. 

V, <y*&o 



(Isolation boxes) 



80 



100 



10 



S3&. 
10. 



(grooves) 



1 1 . 
(48) 



S&poeo 



12. 



;SjSSff3b 



8' 



15 



800 



13. 



Jf. 



L dr& (lie Stall) 



- si<3 



CO 



: BPn 



.48. 



(ST 8 , ag 5*^5530 (Kinder Pest) 
Sboto (Foot and mouth diseast), 
S3S& (Black quarter) 
(H S w S 



2. 



4. 



I c 

L 



6. 



6. 8- 



2. 



4. 



1C5F 



676 



6, 



6. 



&6c&> 



8. 
4. 
6. 






6. 



&&do 



SsS6S3.ba 
CSb 4 10. 4 <*S 



2. 



u's*e>bo3b, 



ec^fib. 



6 SSPS&OO rSboA 2 



60- 80% 



104F- 106F 



678 



-* --tetf n 



2. 

3. &SSr 



4- 



5- 



2. 



3. 



:- 1. 



(Penicillin) 



S'oo 



2,8 



2. "fcej^a>fij$S" SSJ* .X^^vc, J " ""'J* "'3' 

>on3_,, 
A 

vi"* 1 * 



or 8 !! dSo. 



149. 



(Some Common Surgical Ailments in Domestic Animals) 



000*, 



I. 



a, 



b. 



C. 



n*0 



(horn cancer) 



- tf^ra 



II. 



So 



(Castration) s 



678 



Ill 



and Caudectomy in Bulls) : 



IV 



(Pateilar Desmotomy) : 



eaan- 

tf 

o 



V. "Sotf 



(Yoke gall & tumors]:. 



a a 



ga>ri:s?$). 



VI. 



(Umbiclial 



abscess:- 



VII. S*& rrd&Sgjw (Tail injuries & 



necrosis) :- 



S>fioo4e66ydfo 



679 



VIII 

injuries) ;- 

&&>ri'c&&o (Fistula) 
(Supernumerary teats}, 



( Teat 



sf A, 



IX. rtb^^jd^ (Prolapse of uterus):- 



J ' (epidural anaesthesia) 



X, 



XI, ^tf^tt^ - F*&>S)^^ (Bloat and 
impaction) :- 



o ea 



XII. 



Molars) :- 



( Sharp 



2.S tf SCfaSofl sSa^fia (Molar cutter) 



( Tooth Rasp ) 5* o 



XIII. 



(Water Bag) 



( Caesarean operation ) 



XIV. 



(Eye cancer) : 



: CSPia 



150. 



IT 



1. 



2. B^o &\ QS 
^s5sSoS* 



3. 



4. 
100 a 

I78os sbb at^s* "os-e^oS e-a- .. .,., . ^ 1000 ^ c& 2000 



6. 



_ 1933 
, ?Sp6" 

. 1942 ar 8 on S, 



682 



II 



7. 



8, 



9, 6^ 

cJ . 

(Proven site) * 



?6o}_tf2po&, 



10. 



tto 



8S*oeSsSodSS>. 



4. 



5. 



1. 



2. 
3. 



4. 



5. 



6. 



7. 



8. 



9. ^ 



(mucous membrane), 



10. 



12 &o& 24 






1. "a^Sbi.oo SSd^S"; 2. "38*33 J 

J CT Q tt ^ 



rfo^tfc&s&o 



(cervix) fo 



^; (Glass catheter) 



&>6c&o 



a 5 



2 ^cr 8 



-S S'oo 



A84 >e*c6&S> II 

w> ^ 



(Refri- 
gerator) d&cdi 



151. - - - w 

w^ W 



> 

r 



033. 



II. 



CPU . Sb. 

OP ii dbbo 



Sotf 



19 



CO 

. e3, 

co 



CO CO 



70 



16 000 
236 



fia?in o 



10 



tip. 12 80 
>. 114 
'. 127 

. 680 

. 600 



2661 



685 



30 



3^5 das' 3 



Scr-jto 



egtftf 



II 



. 49 



SA?6 



, 



1966 



S^Sb, OP'S 



30 



co --co e> 



68T 



tftf^qptfes lloicycxh " T ^ " " ' & 

**r ^^ ^-^ /L /- v<__ ^ -CTQ -3 X" N ~^a-i' 

ICtW cv)CO. 9 



asfoefi 



&sS 3"3*^dx 



69 9 



CO 65 

& 



fl8Q SspcSS*}^ II 

\)U\J M 



CO 

fcofcooft. 



Aocr. 



*2j)gSSfi COST'S). 



eprv ^?5 

Q 



bo 

co 



SQotftoc ^^ CP 






-s 






ff 8 



if 

(Felt) iaij 






2. 



152. 



e co 



srn 1 



s* a 



030, 



C3 

^ /T 9 ^^ 

CO , 89 CO 



(Entero Toxaemia) ; 



689 

~C9 CO 



$0& 

ej 

(reit^ "- L_ fp tj - to 

Calico 



9 



1: 

(Entero Toxaemia) ; 
(44) 



2. t l)S*&>&>jo Q 

N-' 

_ & A _ ft 

152. 



K& 



690 



II 



2. 

(Anthrox): 

|j>o0*<3 rS sSawgon- 



^"o 



3. fTo>3*^ CHaemarragic Septi- 
caemia) : 



4. 



(Lamb dysentry) : 



(Multi component vaccine) 



5. 



Sodosj-jo gj^ 



36 



6, 



(Foot and mouth) 



023 tf 



691 



7. 

(Rinderpest) : 

asctfo 

*J 



BOOO QADoiJOfipO JCK)tXT-(O tJiJJ^rOM CJO ' CO 

***"* " o 






"ioO, <se> 






_ S'^io^^^, 6"^ 

^> o- J^ :n~ n /^> fl"^ A n 
-^ "^A. ~\j ^/o. '^ " o _ ^ , _a ^j -P , ,, 

~ 3 



i<a 

CO 



") (Lice), X& S"OAo^ Sti5eo ^8^?Q jjtf43p ^g)S J)5 



ggg 5J#*dQi>S II 



. tfo 



as 



(Round worms and hook wormsy 

1. "3o> C5tfs$ 
(HaemonChus) : 



. a-a 



^ I 

005 ' 2- oi>S3&> (Tricho strongylus) 

ro 

jCT* "oi 



9 

*gt ^fibiK)^ ^o^3*coi. g "IjrtiSbSbeS)^ cj)Sbfib (Oesophae- 

gostomum) 



(Round worms) 



Tape 






(Lung worim 

) 



es OK ^Sb^co (Flukes) 
fefi 



o. sso 



lb 



JfolS) ^ 

)bd3j*A&ca}. - ^ 

**} 



E>ejiT i 

o L co 

w 
bfl 



[_* ei 



153. 

( Poultry Husbandry ) 



60 
, oooSS^eS So^^S *& ^o5 220- 260 



as 



vs 
*J" "WJ, 5 * " SootfertbSa. 

3, 

oL 

V^a> 



80* 

^ 2 
1)0* /fo 



CO CO 



*<& 10-12 
s*a 3 \as 

60,000 L 



100 



21 



0-4 



0.8 



1 #. 
7-9 

1 ^ 



1650. 

(Brooding) : 



CO tt 



O CO 

L 



, 

U 



96F 
90F 
8&F 
80F 



695 



76F 

70F 



200-250 



(watts) 

eoex^co 



5*3 



1. 



3-a, o'^ 



ll 



. go 



20%, 



18%, "Sitf 



2. 



8. 



A, B 2> D 3 . 



60-70o 



2-3% 
5. 



100 



s^Odio, 



CO . 



1. 

2. 

8. 
4. 

6. 

6. 

7. 

8. 



5)O O S>e^ 

CO 


<3fl^ tooSb 
o 


-Ltf Vj5b 
o v 


W ^^0 


23 {Jg'o 


IS ej^o 


2:5 efsTo 


15 tfsfo 


2aS cTg-o 


48 


35 


42 


80 


45 


30 





10 





10 


>__ 


14 


20 


16 


15 


20 


15 


20 





6 


15 


12 


15 


12 


28 


26 


22 


18 


15 


56 


6 


5 





7 


6.5 


6.5 


.6 


2.6 


2.6 


2.5 


8 


8 


0.5 


O.S 


0.5 


0.5 


0.6 


0.5 


JUU 


100 


100 J 


10U 


100 


. 100 



697 



1. 0. 4 

2. 4- 8 

3. 8.12 

4. 12-16 

5. 18-20 

6. 20 



2 tf. 
2^ ^ 4 
8 tf. 



erex>&. 



11-12 



(Hanging Feeders) 



6, 6 



a,s 



4,5 



8, 4 



Sod'O 



8, 9. ssoii 



6-8 



20 



. 20 

9, 10 



154. 



3A>ev(Ranikhet disease-R.D.) 
2. *fj& &&* (Fowl Pox) 
$. (^ &&>&& (Cocci Hosts) 

' 



2. 



. 8. 



0*0 tfftS^oco, 



00 



. 6. 



-fl 



90% 



(FJ 



8 

6-8 



(R, D). 



1P-20 



J*g< i^S 



2, 



"So A 



4. ^s^ 



5. 



3. 



7-8 



700 



2. ''^0^606* 



V 
; 



3. 44 



84F 



1. 

53o? 
4-10 
Q 

2. 

^. 

3. 



90% 



4. 



155. 



10SS 



II 



2. 



8. 



4. 



5. 



16 



: O^ii cSbo, 



sao&S&e l&^es 701 



I * CO 

tf 
o 



6"o^ 



sao^b^co 



&*o&bo<&&>;S$o<3, 



80% 



a 

10 



^ > 

Sa* 

o 



702 



II 



tfo es 



10 



69 ro 

^T^o6 

69 






OS5(^ 

00 

bo 

O 



AofccoS. 



120 



^otx> t 3 



oo 
&pe 



156. 



50 



a 8 oX^a 

L. 

, 6 o^ ^Ctf5f~a*&, 8 



sjorfo& 

C3 



S&*>j 



orv 






704 



e& 



3 tix&l>& (Crude fibre) ^Sb^ 



('Cereal grains) 



(Breeding 



Season)^ 



1. 

2. *cS)SS)o 

3. 



78.0 

15.0 



4 
6. 

6. 



8-0 
5 
0.5 



6sSx (Hand Feeding) 



(Rations): 



(Calcium) & 
(46) 



tf Sao. 



706 



4/5 fi> o 8Ddbo)So 2 ?5oo& 6 

in_2o% 



3&(jjn* 



o 

8i*rr'M 



706 



(Small Pox), 



a.fi,eo& 



SSsrS SoSjJ) 



tf Jtf (Hog Cholera) : 



3 ^o^ 7 



a.S' 



707 



OS 5* 






1ST. 



S> o ^5 



2. 



3. 



CD 



708 
6. 



6. 



9. 






zsa 



2. 



33 JioS 50 



3. 



(28 



2. 
3. 

4. 



2. So 
3. 



1. 



^3 



3B 



28 



(Detergent"! 



.6F 



(Incubator) 



&) ^Brooding") 



o^i 



J M (Intensive System) tfrrft 
"OSj i &cfiJ' t (SeiDi Intensive SystemJK 



8. 



(100) 



709 
24; 



80o Fs -**" 

5 F.o 



L* 
3. tf. 






<=: Q 

to (Deep li- 
tter) Z& 



16 ^31) ^oC^, fedi <0r 






710 



I! 



15 
2CO 



40 



"2) to 



2. 



8. 
4. 



(wet wash)n* 



(Pellets) 



ri 8 



50 






20 



5 (Starter Rations* 
& SpocS^&e 
sptf3Sc&. 17 



55!) 



(Internal 



Parasites) 



^A 

A 



rvO 



50 F^sSx) "in 8 

* 

ib^jo :- (1) 
("white eye") 

(2) 



(4) 



(Duck 



cholera- 



ci&o. 



158- 

f Zoonotic Diseases ) 

II. 4 *$otf"" (&fo3g#bco) 



S-oS (W.H O.) 



<J> 



4. $3* 
HI, 



7 ^ 



II. 

6 

2. "Z^T^fltah, * 



cJ 

2. ^ 

3. 



S. fiff tt )trd*o$o& ( /&r'&& 8 &5'} : 4. 



3 /S aUe^ - a7*O9i;C? /? aiy ^ 5. 

.__ j, ^ 



718 &*&&* II 



01 CO 



Ill 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 
5. 

e. 

7. 



i. ao^ (3&S) 

2. tf 
3. 

4. 

O * 

1. 
2. 
8. 

4. o5o<s&rcs$ 

5. 

6. _ 

7. Sidj. 



Scg'j. 



718 



. (5" 



(d&*Q/&>~ f j' i 



SFC 



! 



(Spare) 

B dt&ofl, sSp^ 



(Wood Sorter's Desease) 



o-aa 



7U 



7. 



8 



8. 



159. 



fl8 



cSorvorn* 



2[ tf g rf e 



716 



69 

. S&. 4000 



cS>oui?6 



^600*^ 

CO 



5*e>b?6o& 



5*0 



. .$ 2100 
^y ^ 
Po<S?6<S. 



Swrs- 



fl. 

Ow 

. 160) 



fcc3o^ (Mosaic Doctrine\ 

Q / 



7i e &&*?&&' ii 

* -^ v 



n (Hu. 

roaral ^heory) H) 



Bo3c5S 



>:$ (yellow bile), 

(Black bile 1 ) 5$&S'3. 
460- ^ > 

f - . u . . v . " . ., tf S'Sa sS N rfdS&oab es? 

376^ Cr^ 






53 s 

^^ ^^S>^ (Spleen^ 

/*^QcO ga, fe" er<K&o dfco^ > ^ 

^9 



L ba 

(Oath of Hippocrates) S> 



o 

csr 

& 



SS&V&. rSo 

"J CO 



(Humoral Theory) 






400 
> 
tfS (Apysrtus |l.?f. 300) 



717 



700-1200 



sacs') 



1800 SoS 



^Pathology) o^ 

&:>$&, StfQoK>;& sw 3B\&. iS&Jis 1632^1728 



SofifS 
450-600 iSotf^tf&o 3-0 *A" (1682-1T7L; TOO 



718 aartSfiatf ii 



17 S5 

C 

. 16C4 

^r? a. 

t)ff ^6^6" ^ S&Qoa S 



17G4 



160. 



(1821.1802) t 

(Pathology) c& ^saSS^e^ &p&^ &CT>O$&D (Cellular 

Pathology)^ Sf 1 Ss'aei 



3rf (1839-84) 
. 1762 8* ^ ~^ ^" ' ' 



'719 



1300-1400) -a- 



ssfibeo 3o&?5 (Hippocrates oath) 

v 



?SosS 



* * 

?6Sbo 



1* 

d&rS^o&cS 

^7 * ^ijfca (i<ibiG 5oSi 

v - ea e^|^o^sS?So 

_ 25^^03, 

cj 
Q 



720 



II 



700 



579) 



.^. 631- 



SS^tSdfioa Ss 



SSfiftfg 



^eso&co 



700 



d^o&Sb. 



> 



20,000 



c6o5) 



18 



34 



721 



34 



1 

._jtf&fi3 
O 



682-554 



161. 

f Veterinary Anatomy 



(Relative) ._ 

is 



1. 9ftteP'(SsSa> 

<3i a- 

Osteology). 

2. efc?5oa^^?6 
9 sr 

Arthrology). 

8, I^SsSS&o (tfotfrfSoo 
sr v 

Myology). 



^\ L "=- s$ep&o (Angiology). 

5. f^&2)e'^sS: 

5P 

Neurology). 



Sio^o&o (Systems) e 

(Organs) &^^^. Scp^raSSx) 8. 

/Structure) r&jSp ^3 oD^bo^^pQNcJio o)S)6ooS 
&&. S^)c3 wSdStf SDO^O wtf^Sb SS6^S^ -Splanthonology) 

(Systemative Anatomy) dio^A. &S 7. ^o^di a^^sSw (^*^o[ 

doSS^afo d5bo^sS^e ,v S5Qs*^sSx- Aesthesiology). 

(46) 



722 



1. 



M 

T 



3SK SooS'So 



I 1 



1. SSSfc&o #V)tfcSc>&o (S*&o & i T 

*, llaSS", 



III IV 



2. 

w u i^ , 

ill | I 

8. koebdlD^ 
(Phrenic) 



i 4 

*< 

r. 

4 



I 



T T 44 44 

s*eo 



728 




1. $si (Skull) 

2. L Sofi 
3. 

4. 
6, 
6, tfo 



(Mandible) 
(Cervical Vertebra) 

r"cfceo (^ Vertebral^ 

(Scapula) 
(Humerus) 

7. tffi^ (Radium) 

8. 3>#vtfy (Meta Carpali) 
9- *3ort>tfj&ec (digits) T 

10. wtfB^ (Ulva) 

11. jStfj. ^stoS'ea (Ribs) 

12. '3^aa>5' )VertebraI Column) 
18. S<3 SSec&Sa (Pelvic girdle) 
U, S^tf ^SS - (Femur) 

15, wo^S" (tibia) 

(meta tarsal) 
(digits) 

(Goccygeal Vertebrae) 
tarsal) 



16. 

17, sso 

18. 5*^ 
18. 



(Face) 



(Phargny) 

Z^S& 
bral column) 



(vetta- 



(Veretbral Canal)^e 
(Spinal Cord) oa 



(Girdles) 



(Arm) 
(maners) 

(scapula) 



(Shoulder girdle), 
(Fore arm), 



(Arm) 

(Humerus). 






(digits) 



724 S^SSSM II 

s&n* cS>?$y , 7 o^ 8 Pb"o:c<&i?5D. >0si rse Proces\ l^jd&r-do ^<S 

O&0& 



c3 



5-6 
(Transve- 



DcXL f ^o (Round ligament) 



ijS^SjS S-asoo55^sSe (check 
ligaments) Actf 

' 

S 



^Skeletal 



muscles) 



e-odfi 



S) (Cartilage) 



o 
&>o&,&)> ^55^ 



(Blood vascu- 
(Synovial fluid) ^o<3 lar syfetem) : 




1. 

2. 
3, 



6, 6, 7, & 



3aooo (lungsj 



53Ks3bo (omasum") 

V / 

(abomasum) 
(Intestines) 



9. S 

10. S)^ 



12. 



^Urinary bladder) 
(gall blabder) 
(ferres) 
(Penis) 



(Anterior and pos- 



terior veaacqua) 



'xS" /Aorta] 
^ 
(g)o5) 



(thorocic 



dUCt 



) SSi 



GO : 



8* 



(Nervous system) : 



1. 






Central nervous system) 



726 



II 



2. 
8. 



(Peripheral nervous system) 



(Autonomous nervous system) 

f3S&otfo&o& 3D#& (Brain) 
(Spinal cord) 



48 



24 



16 



(Sacrum) &>$ 55 ^CsSa) 



(Motor nerves) ooei>fio. 
b 53*^0^1 
/Sensory nerves) 



o 

12 



87 
86 



42 



(Splanchnology V- 






d). sioiS) 



(Accessory glands) ei& 
sjtf^to 




, 



1, 

2.3 

4. 

5. 

6. 



j^Rnnen) 

Reticulum) 
53- A^iSbo (Omasum) 
Ms& (Abotnaium) 
jjl)Sg)Go (Small intestive) 






727 



8. 



o&cotf 
(Alimentary canal) 



5. 



2. ^ffo (Pharynx) 
((Oesophagus) 4. 

6. 



2. 



('gastric glands) 7. 
(Intestinal glands), 



3. 



" - Isthamus phacia) 



(Pharynx) 



2. 



^Stomach) 



. sjod) 



3-3So8>* 



(Intestine) 



Aftdtfiodb 



(Pyloric valve) 
(Splinter 



728 



II 



denum) 

as&io), "fi>d&S>' f d&c&do 
titf^^ (large intenstine) < 



o 

x15 

O <p 



SbflBS 

POO* 

J 



830 



(Respiratory 



system\ : 



(Trachea), 



(Larynx) : 



fo (Cartilage) 



*Sd8boab 



(mucous membrane)^ 71 ^ o&?<3b 8crflT\aj4 



729 



(Urinary blad- 

a. 



(-urethra) 

ft. 



X 



( Agriculture ) 
162. 






1971-72 tfoStftf&i ^otf) 105. 2 



V 

C 1 
o 

r t 1972.78 SoS^tfJ&se 1 SStf 

tf 





781 



. 1970.71, 1971-72, 



. 1 870-71 fi* 



1972-78 



13 



(F.A.O) ?5 



. 
L 

. 197^ 



. 



1972 



1971 



. 1972-73 



36.6 

. S 

a fctf&o, 1970^71 

sa 



. 1971-72 

s.ei 



.00*. 1971^72 *T 5 736^1971-72 



1971 



1972 ^9^6 sStf& 20 
a L?J^^ 1978 ^ 
. 1078 



20 0^0 t>c 
197/-73 



1973.74 



38 S^do 



1973-74 



s rfg 



"3* *)5. 



163. 



70 ?*se 



1960 



)fc^^ 2.6 

~ E3 



DCS n 

S)_fctfS 



i960 



1964-85 



19B4-65 



8 
l.G 



I960 



I960 



8 
1950-61 



19C4-G5 



- 1950-61 



1964^66 



3.6 



. IS60-81 



733 



64 ?<S 17 



. J963 
3b ET>5< 

2 

1964-65 tf 



1966-67 



tf&ocj 0506^8 



"2)8 



3 ?6, 



fcfl 



co 

1966-67 



18.9 
1972-73 



220.9 



1972.73 3S 19] 0X0 

a 



cu o 



1971-72 



1964^65 



128 



1971-72 



440 o^ 
1864-65 So"B 120 o 



784 



II 



fctf&o, SS 
' 

t^ifoer 8 

. ba 



a 



164. 



70 



60 



&>ocJ 
40 



Sofi. 



26 



"3. 



a 

, 1907 
' 



. 1868 



1906 



1919 



736 



1928 6* bo^ 
commission) 



(Royal 



4. 



rSo&x>, (Counail of 



cotton 



?oo?Sco ^sciip ^odoolb 



(First Indo-American Team) . 

z. aeja ^0x06" go<3^ 

fiS-1968.^Thc first joint Indo-American 
Team of Agricultaral Research and 
Extension) 

8, 



S^oeso^) 19?9. (The second joint 
lado American Team on Agricultural 
Education, and Extentiom. 



(The Agri ultural Administration 
committee) 

6. gpd& Otf^J)agocSpo v^^sSojO 
?5o^)^ - ^criiSiStoo^ ^^aS) 1982(The 
Committee for Agricultural Universites 
Legislation - Cummin^s committee). 

6. SpS&d& ^a^S aaSo^cr&sSoD - 
196S(The Agricultural Research Review 
Team). 



1928 



1957 



786 



II 



, I960 



24 sSp 
a 



?Soo5o 



1680 



1964-65 


a 



^p<SoOo(S. ^9 



(G.M.F) 



1949-50 
3.19 



1.55 



1,60 
jjSes 
ef^e 4 2/5 55*^^0 



, 3/6 



815 



986 



, 787 



883 S 
43 4 S^o ^)od 493 



737 



744 



&& 



& 



1981 



888 



1959 



. 1964 fif* 



a 

abS.tpS". 2; fc.c^S. 
. 4; a d^S -apff. 5; 
&. 19635* isStf 

*- 

a 
5 o$o'$>8 



, 2; 



68; 



cSo.i 201; SPCP, 



1970.71^ 



)g_o(3. so. t*5".8; 



so. e3<5^ era^ ^3^& e 

if )fl A^T 5 :) ceo, 



i. 5, 



1966 



15 



788 



CD 

42 



. 1970 



5210 



8 






165. SS 



- e-?i)53^^o 



jSQot3caD. 
1966-67 6* ig 



SgSS^cft 






a 



789 



1821 

v(/ 

1867 #* " 



69 crib c& 



S, SuS^tffS 

^p 

1917 



1870 



. 2-8- 1362 & " 



S5e3 



2J 






1878 



, 1905 



, 1906^6 svfc^fibtf*, 1910S5 



. 1946 



1948 



ts-u 



j'Uiniversity Educational Commisson), 



740 



4, 1984. 



Q 

in>i)rSi ,, 


"" uj I <O<3 5^uO"N30 3 cOj I vo(SO [ V^rCQ-tt^ 

196U <; ^ C^^ i3^ O'cxilojCD-O cJOO ?on O ojDO ersAnA 2fl i"^A/^" ^Cr\(5^-i /^^rprlit Vlf 1 ^nrc^ 

* ** u ^* Z* w*>**- ^^ ^> y - --n-rr- {SJvflSW* U H O U9 wJ f t QoJ tAJ I v^XCUiL ilVJUIS/ 



-e 9 

1. 



2. 



8. 



i^ 

*JD ^i , 



ir r 
v ; o ' ^ ^"^ 



5. 



166. 



3o)&*&&> 



tf&o. SpfioAS s^Q^SS^es^ w 



II 



S'eso&e^ 



SSoti 



Scfcofo 



rfrs* 



(8 



0.3 ^3oS 0.5 



17 



, SSba, 



C? 



748 



CO 

t^ 3 



fetf fian* 



38), 



?u J&e**$Q&8f II 



n 

50 



167. 



30 &o<3 40 
c<?5ix> 
& !^) ^^^ flAeafi 50 



"2) 6 ft 



3 ^S" 4 



). 



746 

00* if) a & 



5J*^&cxooa. 



&&or? 



<{) 



CJ 

^ 

CO CO 



"(S,^oo 

o 



CO O 

53* 3 



CD co 

tf 

CO 



k Ibo^^o 

C3 CO 



(Fertilisers) 



746 



II 



3sKh 

d. 



40 



owth Aneestus 



, 5*dS) 



^0830 



(Scxi 



feeoV 

v / 



OX). 



SPfcSfoftfS 



800 
KO 



SSo^fSS 



io > 

L ^ 



S5o 
, <5*^, fcjf, 



dfrjtfr? 



&*efrrcx3bo?i> "^0^53*5 



2. 






O CD 



8, 8^"i> & 3dabtfe>0f6 Sfc tf&o^ a, 3 



4, 



,- u-u-^. , , It^siB (Pesticide^ 

$&&>$ l)lb r5xv - ^.*-.^s _<<_*. ^ /* 



24 



go 



200 



743 



II 



300 



400 



S fctfotfo 



1,000 



60,000 



sjcii 



ofl, 



S'tf . 



fisa ; 



1. Pe<3, 2. &'tf, S. 



, 6jdJ'Dc6<S" > 



749 



\ 

d 



168. 



(Soil stru- 

sscture) fc9o&db. & ^SoScrisio 

-jxaeer ^^sa^LQex) i5)n*S3iSa. c^niT 





oc*o^> (S3 



(Textured 






So tfS&&p5sS-Sj;:6j 
^^ - -& ~ 

A-), ^ifib, 



sS 8 . e 



D, &QdSco 



&. So 






a 



II 



CO CO 

S5*fl a^WJMjCNJW CU UUW^W CWWWWUWaJWIU O,^ 

n 

$ 



53*6 & & S 23tfd f 3" SfoS" (Check-basing 



02id8bao& 



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il 

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uP^SboC^^boCT 8 

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8 ^0 )oc!(5" 0,65 T= 

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\&> 



00 

Aoesco 



b 

10 y*tg5jO /^0 3 WD D^D*^) 8 

5 ^fi$ f^b o^ ^r^oSxo& ^rdS a 

2. 



6 450 

C3 Cl 



( oS 2* ft^cu lo o5 
10 &*>*=* 2,8 



758 



20 f* x> 600 
3x1), n*a, A.A. 0. 50 sptf&o 2 



2. 






10 



ra "5 S^tfspg 100 

* CO 

ico 



&&* 



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60 



(48) 



26 rtf&a ai.fc. 



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6.6 



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660 



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450 i 



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a.a.a 



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85 v*3oo Q.& 



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800 



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a. a 50 



co co 



-v< <* -4 ^ tf& 2 85*0 s-ETNeS" 60 

oJ OrOojOOCO euQOO eJCubouOo) ^ 

*<5s3St 3 ^5"o-S 100 y*tf333 r?%> ^ 42 ^^^^ 3pl3 ' 1 [5*^^ * 

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600 



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60 



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0.1 5P&&D iS^S ^ &0&3T 8 15 



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<* fec&cpaa a,^ gd 4 S)^G& 100 



Q - ._ . . WV I*V , j_ ^?*~> I 

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2.5 

i 1 . 527 
600 

15 $ 



759 



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1, &*/&& s'/fieu 



0*0 



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8 tfofco 



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B_0 6 



TJ 0.8 

0.7 

co& 4SO 

600 o^o ^5" i. 



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fefl 



Massy Ferguson 1035, Escort 



37, International B 275 &3d& 4S6, 
Hindustan 35 aoort>c5S. BJ^ SB tr5.fi. 



. 80 



2. 



a,*! 

3. 



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a 

3 



6. ^o "Sd5:o ^^S(B U nd Former) 

AS 



So "S>rf 

co O 

fe>i 

CO O 



GO 

2, $3 3 ^**D 7. 6& c3*rt> (Ridge Plough) 



(Bund Former) S 



8. S 

.x-crt . fTiSo (Seed cum Fertilizer drilK 

oT*o (^bpine tooth Harrow) 



2 
13*0 ^*^art)r& AS 



5. ^to (Floaty 
o \ ) 



762 
9. 



6 3 8 



10. 



(All crop thresher) 



172. 



IbcO 



II 



(Be 

\ 



6-6 
7-8 
4.6 



Co. 3-00 
Co. 2-20 
a&. 3-75 



11. 



(Groundnut Puller) 



0.6^0.7 



CD 



as 



^(Marginal output) 



returns) 



factors^ 



(Variable 



3tfsS 



2. 

marginalism^ : 



\8 

oJ 



763 
(Principle of 

liotf 



^ 



3. 

1. rfff&&* cSj-L*SM (Principle of ple c f Substitution) 

Variable Proportions^ : 

(inputs) 



(Princi- 



e335sMrs$xe> og, 

Cjtfolfe 




764 



II 



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n tJ 



(Prin- 

ciple of Combining Enterprises\ : 



1. jSSglT SgScSeo : (Independent 
Enterprises) 



2- 



Sco.: (Jo- 



int Product Enterprises 



3. 



enterprises) 






: (Competitive 



(Pcsciculture, Sheeprearing, Poultry 
etc) Qtoc<3 J)5.d&^)?3 1, 
2. ? 



4. 



lementry Enterprises) 



ftff 1 



btf 



o-. 



76B 



5. 



(Complementary Enterprises^: 



5-a 



Farm 



business analysis\ : 



i 



1. 

2, 

3, 
4. 

of Supplies) 
6, & i^vfSsS^ idi -Feed inventory) 

(Financial Records : 



^Production Record) 
(Labour Record^ 
s5d& (Implements Record^ 
(inventory 



1. 

o 

(Land record inventory) 

2. Srfdfc apCb^o sS& (Cash Expeases) 

3. crod sSd) (income reciepts) 

4. ^3'^ fts& ar)3* (Net work State- 

ment) 
records^ ^& 



(Land use efficiency^ : 



21 



15 



eon 



ii 



21 

Is" 



X 100 = HO 



40 



(Crop yield index): 



Sofco 



(Intensity of Cropping) : 



-X oo 

(Cost Ratios) 



^f (Operating 



cost Ratio 



Ratio 



S (Fixed cost 



output Ratio): 



3. 



i: (Receipts and net in- 
come measures) 



2. 

8. &fcocD 



4. ^^o 
5. 



"itoofl 



ITS. &Sj*5"*5oo, Ib&o&S, 



SS3 

&B. ?6^s*5 Q 

<P fi) 



1904 



, fib&sSoo, BSotfsSSri. 



0> 
9 
9 

*J ^ 

t ' 0m '""** " 1912 

. <5 a 



U19 

i^j 

f5oio^SeOfS^3; 



tftf 



768 a*cSfiS>tf II 

100 ^ 



j a. ooo & 



ScJii^ 



L&o (Prir- s'jf, 3p&eQ ff*&43&, 

mflry ) j\lsj*3*^ oSoo^^i^o, io5x>r*5 /Multi 
Purpos?) 



15 



'4 

2. 

^ ^^^r^/^^^-^ AnAK"^/*v s r>A 15 (3oOi ^COlSO) 



tftf^DS 



3. 

6 



v< 



(48) 



T69 



1 

O U J 



t3cr- 



1. 

* _ oo 

, 8. 



"sbdxeod S&^&vkcS^S). si.jiT^ oSjco) L ocS*eOoaa O^JS^GS ijTio^^ 1 o-o 



770 JJg^fiW' II 



do^2 

CO 



o 

>ED*<!DD cf 



(Warehouse Receipt) 6&ra, 



co 



fS&go etftfss 



tffa L , oao wJtooS) S4o^, ^Sfio^ tf to 



771 



So 10 ^ x *3 d& a & ?S a 
/Warehouses^ : 



174. 



) rS5es s^ 

"3. 






18 OiKo ^)on 

j 
1 8 



20 
30 s>o 6tSl) go 



16 



772 



20 



da to a 



Scon* 



= 40 
= 30 
= 20 
= 3 
=2 
5s 6 

Too" 



300 



0. 



40 







778 



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8 



12 






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53 



Srd?6aiT(S), 



II 



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at S E?r? &*io^?5^ 18 



1T5. 



12 



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100 in^:oD " 

"oJ Ol3'o5l^)'\ ^1. SJaD 

12 



GPM 



i^& i 

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, 10 

46 



;GalIus Callus) 



21 



-**g 



TT6 



26 
9 

6 

26 ,, 

20 ,. 

6 



8 
16 grst 
2. L Sfa 6-ftfto&* : ^ ^ ^ 6grs=l(V) 

C 6 grsl ( ) 



70 



"ig &<3A, 



)& (Unferti-, ; 

Used Eggs^ Sr^^o^cy^S sS^o*S5). ?3fl<^)^ S^t> ('Feeders^ ff* 

/ ^^^^ co \ ^ 

3. S*tf:)"Sj^ : 4. 



, qp^ies c55esoooo SaifiSDSx), g* ie)o& 20 






14 



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03 

a ' 

16 fcfci&o tT'iv^ e3 &BSPO&) 17 



6. 

3 3sT 4 

i 
L 



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, iooe^^, s^Sbco 



6. 
OC 
8. f'tf^fif 1 S3 r3 



2. 

* a 

8. 



4, sj&tf s'd'ssSSao ir6 s5tir^?6^. ,y 



80(5 



1. ipoooeS" 



777 

"o" 

,2! & a 23 



2. [EFccDoS" V& "i-^Sb 8 






176. 



6. 



ccn* 



^.,, c6o&2ifc (SS^ioiofi. S5cf*r6"o^ j^^ 

ti C3 * 



3. 6 sp^^o 5Sd&?i) sj; 

. . .. Ie2) 1B3 ^ 



(Malnutrition)! 



ar 



((Obesity) , 

_.. N 5?tm. MffnNCQ. c 5P<? ex>t 



TTft 



tl 



rt>aou) 



, S5o^3 

C5QO. 



2. 



SSo<553 && SStodo. arSS), So 

CJ ' k 



- 



(Scurvy), 



(Rickets) ^^ 
, ^S^CsSxi (Calcium, Phoshorus) 



and ostco Prosisis) a 

/ 



doo 



Sts Ssi 



778 



cor? 



I 8> 






(National Institute of Nutrition), 



Sl on* 



. s 



(Education-Extension Pro- 



grammes^ 



780 



%>#& SStfo (Mixed Diet) 
(Balanced Diet) 

So* or- 



?6sS 



(Applied Nutrition Programmes-) 



Feeding Prorgammes), 

&eS (Distribution of Supllementary 



' II 

foods), 



(School Luncli 
Midday meals Programmes) 



o^o (Vulnerable Groups)^ 



(Food Fortification) S$s*tt: 



(Fortified 



(Amico 



acids), 



(Modern Bread) 

(Multipurpose FoodV 



781 



3 



coo. 



6?So*eG, 



^0^ 






782 



5, 



>. a. 



17T. 



Soo 
co 



O CO 

^303, 3^)253 S 53-SS 





tas 



BJT? 






(Constructive Programme^ 

S$JpoOo<3, s 



57=5 sya 






, 

L 

(Technological Revolution) 



SSotfdao esO^ofi. 



(Industrial 



Revolution) S5S"3 



TJ, 



784 finite II 

eStf 



(Automation), 
g;o S)Ss5o (Green 
Revolution), stftf tforro^ 
fComputoriation', 
(Transistorisation) 



2;eyG;; 

a; *v 



f^o (Modern 
^ ^ ^ ^ r^ ^ WoSs 1 ^^ S&tffo^aot&^S, S5i56 

gement Science) *^ ^ ^ ^^ *^ 



too 



&JOP 



735 
KS?*" Stotf 



. t> 

o eo <* <t 

COO 3G>3b 1 



(Furfural) 

f^ck (Insulation board) . 



Dtforv aj^tf Sooibo 






"S 

O CJ 



iofl, 



(50) 



786 aavSAitf II 



(Overall Economic Returns. 

f 









(Agro-Indus- 

(Essential oil ; #cip3 Sao 3 ?6a). tries Development*) & 






(Modern Management Tecbiques) 0*^0* c ^ )0 *^S ^So3 ^sSs$ o ^O^KT= Ao<3 



sea>?s 



ITS. 






787 



f J tffl, 



(Adapting ^ 



XI 



83 

Sofi dsS. 



iSvo 



1^00*0) (Metropolitan areas) 



s&s*oa. 

Pff^J iSOeb 

iSocial tension)^ <5* Stf^dofl, 



^Forces) S 



50^0 

^X)<5* O 9 

f& S)<$on 



789 



5j&<30 - (1) *30M 

&,<5^$p;S(Carto~ iSSSf" s'TS^ jfi*~ B^'Sa <*b6o (2 

graphy) v^sS^. -^s ^^ S&apgorp ^T^r^ 

0*0 (SSQ^o*o) 



180. 



3o<3?5 






( printing Technology) 6*S *&9*6*e> aB-rvo&*"/fr8> & ^fln- 100 



1. 



AodxoQ. 



17 X 10" K.W. 

_ 6.6X 10 21 



790 a?&&& H 

Aoixofl, -8 



be ^Coo 



85^55* 



a- a 





e-sf 








as?aois$eSc ^a: (1) 

(2) ^t>S sScrzpo). (3) 



1150 



, ^6065) 
KSSjD-a 



Son- 

(1) atf^c 

sScSCber, f 3V 

(1) Qtf 
5?rvex)K ^^^otf SSky (a) 

^ J v b ) ^L^S* ^^ ^J 

g'js* ^ ^fi^ ^?6&a) (Geophysical 

resources) 



791 



S&fibcx 



:- S5-fcex>, 



So, 



c6Q. b) Sj)?68 i left 



, o 



"Sxi 



49 **tfo 



Aofi. 



SSo ea'SD^ea 



1. U. M. Fpod 4 



3 VcgSSxi 18o 
tf Sib. GO. Qoti^ci 22 



. 40 



!b. 



17 



57 ^.e 



4. Ds.tf.SSb.co. 
10 Sas.tf. 



(Land utilisation ) 



12. 8 
3. 79 
21 87 
40. 24 

56. 89 



2. 8 

16. 2 
29. 8 

42. 1 




IS. 



136.00 



sjoti) 



A 0-^035. 



a. "I 



S'atistiQS. 



792 



tfs-s-o 



&& 



2000 Son & c 



SofiS 



(Climatologist) SO. 



. 1975 



400 



58 87 



88 



83^5? 



O'er* 



793 

400 g'daSb liQfloa. 2,000 oiioaS 800 



2,000 Son 



CO 



2. * 3&tf\ 3 5 

*.'. CD 






(Geometri- 
cal Pro^regsionj a* "^^ro&o(3. ^ofib 

S3 (1650 A.D.) 
5 ^ 

CQ 

. 1750 gen 8* sjt, 
50 ^& lb5AoS. i8iO Soil ^ 
100 *4a& liQAo<3. 1950 



250 g*4:b "^dAoa. 1975 

cp 



CO 



(J) 






9 

5 









sS&fce 



784 3S$Aa* II 

&, 2&?68^!bo#o 



Selected References : 

1. Zimmerman E. W., Introducti n 
to World Resources; Hdrper 

Row. N. Y. 1964. 

2. Hagget Peter. Geography: A 
M dern Svnthesis; Harper fa Row, 

S3 3 aj 2j S (0 C O S y &J fO O oJ CJ ro^ I^T \f O 7 t 

IN. I & I 1 m 

8. Thompson W Hard. & Lewis, 
S.T. Population Problems: Tata 
Me graw Hill, Bombay. 1965. 

4. Venugopal B , Arthika 
Bhugola Sastramu; Telugu Akadaml 
(Teluguj; Hyderabad 19/2. 



181. ^2)j^ SSaCGO (Rural Settlements) 



IT 

(3) esJSS) 

JM - M , . a Sites' 

_. ^-"^"j ~ ^ w i- 1 - 1 "~ 



^ 



(2) S. ^8) S)^^E&. (1) 
So- e-S" rfsS* 



6*3*^$ fa 



ASS 
(2) 



(Pattern of Settle- 
ment. 



(Spatial) 



(Agglomerated Settlements) 

SJ^jSeatf icrco. 
(Dispersed Settlements). 



796 

[Tribes &: 



^Hydrological Cond^ti* us), 

(Inso- 



lation^, 



#5 



(Field 



system^ c 



Sx> (Hamlets), 



(Dispersed agglomeration) 



2. 
S. 

4. 



182. 






^ (5T 8 



(1) 



: (,) 



(2) 



798 



II 



>AcSboofcoo<S. 



y 



sr 



f racial traitiV 

\ } 



tfG $ (2) 



O co 



rftffitoo 



SSSbeo", 



WO 



SS ^oeo, 
tial energy - 



(Water Poten- 



799 



(J) 



Soco, 






606 



>a 3o<2?S 



;> 



dfl 
o 



Economic 
Geography 



Bibliography 
1. C. F. Jones & O. G 

Darkenwald; 
The Macmillan Company 

2 John. W AlexanderjPrcntice-Hall, 
INC, Economic Geography. 

8. Ellsworth Huntington . Principles 
of Economic Geography. 

4. Van Royen & Bengtson - Funda- 
mentals of Economic Geography, 

5. J. L. Guha and P, R. Chatterjee; 
The World Press Pvt . Ltd. Calcutta; 
A New approach to Economic Geo- 
graphy. 

6. NCERT Publications - Economic 
Geography - A text book for Secon- 
dary schools, 

7. S^^ Stftf&j Vol. 5; 



"3. 



183. 



(Urban Geography) 



Geography) 



(Urban 



&odxofi. 



(Urban region) S SbcoS5 



(Euphratis) ^[A^ (Tigris) 
3 ex> (Nile) 



5,000 



400 



76% 



(Geographical factors) 



(2) 



1. P. 13. India -A Reference Annual 1974. 
(51) 



802 



, 305, 

C3 

(4) tf*T i C3*Cc> Sij 19 ^ w*r3*coi 1970 



~~ & . ' oi 



icyeo: 



(Metropolitan city) 



O 

^h 8D<S 0^,<3 3odi^ Aotrooa. 

(X, CO ^ 



(Industrialization) 



808 



(1) S&S* (2) 
tf?f, (4) 



(3) 



S^oipfio. 



. "3 co 



1971 



sSfifS 3=*g 


CO 


a^C- 


1. 


!ToSfo 


70, 31, 382 


2. 


TcE7>^. 


59 70, 576 


8. 


it) 


40, 66, 698 




a 


<S 9 z3 TT^ JT wt^^OftjCJ' j yy" 3 *$jr*C)^'"^ 


4. 


&ICP&. 


^*^\ O 4j M (O * B * CCxX^ 29 O (So ^Qj5Q ] 

24, 69, 449 


5. 


5-*o-B-5 


17 j 96, 839 


6. 


a-i cro-5 


17, 41, 522 


7. 


Sorted) 


16, 58, 779 


8. 


svS^fib 


^12, 75 242 


9. 


f 2^7*3 


11, 85, 034 



Source : Registrar General & Census Commissioner of India : Census 1971. Table35 

*^5% ^ 19.91%, 

1971 
54.79 

10.9 *> ^ 

|fiiD(x)' r5n^ g3o*5J*y*to 78 87 ^, 

78 68*. | Zr^e* 69.97%, 



69.86",, 



68.09%, 



io* ft*4A 




80S 



tt 

U- 





1931. 1331. 134-1. 13151 1361 






fetw* 


a^aOT* 


.*.* 


^AO 83^3^53* 


(5oS)g 






~" 


s <So6"^ 
o 









| 


1. 


1921 


?5, 12, 39,492 


11.2 


2.81 


2. 


1931 


27.8S 67,4SO 


12.0 


8.34 


8. 


1941 


31,85,39,060 


13.9 


4.42 


4. 


1951 


36,09,60,365 


17.3 


6.24 


5. 


1961 


43,90,72,682 


18.0 


79 


6. 


1971 


54,79,49,809 


19.9 


10.9 



P. 7. Table L2. India A Reference Annual 1974. 
P.I3. Table 1.12. India A Reference Annual 1974. 



808 fiaptfAaS' II 



sfcS&fo f 8 
2,641 Sofce^od* i47 t>spo a-j^sr 

CJ 

207 



Ksyc* <3rton rtbesSSj.^ (Geometrical 
tf.S. 178. e$S &*oieS" 

^ n 



ratio) T ^^ ^o^ofi. 51*6 



CO 



cT, SjioE?co 



. 

a- 1 XJ 



?OD8Dolo 

QO * oco 

tt 



fib. 578.65 



BIBLIOQRAPHY 

1. Registrar General and Census 
^J^!T VJW ^1i K>J Commissioner of India, CeDSUS-1971. 

2. Growth of India - India, a Re- 
MW ference Annual 1974 - Compiled by 
o-a the Research and Reference Division, 



807 



Ministry of Information and Broad- 
casting, New Delhi. 

8. Arthur E. Smailes, The Geography 
of towns. 



4, Taylor G. Urban Geography. 

5. Agarwala S. N. Population of 
India; National Book Trust, India; 
New Delhi : 1967. 

S. 



184. 



-Nt 



5*3 



ScxS^^bofi. 



ft) C9 



-959^6 ^Si" (Bobek), 19653 
(Van Passen) e&spfio 



(1) 



19 



II 



dotui), &?bsa5 (Thucidydes, 



0*6 



(Antbropo Geogra^ 



"J> Frediric Laplay") 

O s / 



(Durkheim") 



(Vidal de la Blache) 

. 1917 - 18 



(Monsoon Asia) 



8 



de Vie 



?56" 5 3_ (Genres 
Sdbco (Patterns of living) 






Brunhes'; 

/ 



3. 



, 2. 
Sio 
. 4. 



l "3 (Pierre George and Maximilien- 

1943-53^* 



\^ oL 



^ 564,00 



o 



edbrfflfci 



809 



2) 

S< 

* 

SJ OS* '' ^, ,^ ^-^ , ~ ~~ ,.- 

^.^i . ^^> ^. v ^ -- i~ - - - v ^ri 



S} 1 



sjfl i 






8l6 Stefc5s>S' II 



si a 



<D o 

Cb 

O 



(Genre de vie) 



. 3* A* ^0 S35?oc?o 



185. 



(Cartography) 



"*> 



2)1 C, 



*9o"fe 



co- 



So- 



(Locational), Sj^ 



tions), 
(Phenomena) 



try), 



(Function) 

v. / 

(Spatial Posi 



CPc 



tfaJ*gc&> S J^ 



(Base Maps) 



, (Trigonome- 
o, (Geodesy) 



812 



II 



(Aztec) 



^fipfib 



(Turin Papyrus) 



estf^S 






S (Hecataeus), 
(An^ximander), 



(Eratosthanese) ^*oSb, (Ptolemy), 



(Manin Beheim\ 20 



<3sp, 



[i ?'. 15 4 IS ( 
Gerhard Mercator) 



T^c^S" 



SCPCP S^c 



T. 1769 



0*5" 



.tf. 1788 



^S 1 



("Map of 



Hindustan") &' 
19 



(Lithography)^ 
(Photo Engraving), 



(Aerial^ 



Photography) 



818 



i^ 
^Elements of Cartography] 



6,871 Jb. o 



corv 



fife 



^0^ 



, "IsS 



oo 



L 



1, 



So 2 Sib. 
Hitf 
. So 1 SSb. ^o* 2 "aobs Sb 



815 



(Qualitative) 
/ Quantitative ) 



CHELTENHAM WIDE ITALIC 



GOUDY BOLD 
Goudy Bold 

GOUDY BOLD ITALIC 
Goudy Bold Italic 
CASLON OPEN 






Some classic or old ttyi* fetter 



BOIM>INI BOLD 
Bodoni Bold 

ttODONI BOLD ITALIC 
Bodoni Bold Italic 



Spme modern letter style* 



MONSCN MEDIUM GOTHIC 



COPPERPLATE GOTHIC 

ITALIC Some sans terif tetter styles 
fUTURA MEDIUM 

UDIAN BOLD 



ITALIC 



2- 



816 asr^SM II 



(Topographic- 
^ i6e9 &n>a L r ex>, 
stral) 



, sg) brfe$ sheets oodoea S$7r5)[f e, xr&& /Cada 

/to L ' ^ \ ws*- 



, 3 tftfcSdi, 
-^ 



<^ 



g'X' > jcr8 */ j= -5 " cOS^JrOO odCoCT^^S ebeDCCb^ c5a>3T*c3* [ Model) 



References 

. RaiszErwin: General Cartography, 
Mc-Graw Hill Book Co; NY. 1948, 

2. Raisz Erwin : Principles of Carto- 
graphy^Mc. Graw Hill B ook Co,NY,l962. 

8. Robinson, A. H. Elements of Carto- 
graphy. John Wily and Sons Inc. NY, 
1968 

(Wall- 4. Misra. R P. Fundamentals of Carto- 

rnaps\ 5"^ "^S^/^ ^5^ T? *s 

) c of cya (oas&o:. graphy, Prasaranga, University of 

Mysore. 1869. 



186. 




(i) 



(ii) 1)3 KP fiuS" i 



S)?6o 



^S(Suucture) (2) 

3* Si 55 $&fS2dj* 

(Processes) (8) 
(Cycle of change) 



/Deposition*! Phases) S^& 



(Tectonism) | 






53* fi 






5? 



(Quantitative geomor- 



phology) 



( Dvna * 



819 



(Vegetation) 



Aofi. 



(Structu- 



ral Geomorphology 1 



(Lithology), 



(uplift and subsidence^ 



Geomorphology) 
(belts) ]b 



o (Climatic 
rO 5"3^Co 
b*> (Cli. 



ii 



matic Parameters)- 



A- L 



; D. S 



A 



2. 



; C 



2) 



(Empirical formulae) 



(Applied Geomovphology) 



821 



-^8 



1ST. 



55*5^ 



12 14' - 19 54' ^r^d' 
, 76 60' - 84 60' 



, 74,680. tf. SSb. 



. 

tj 



965 S to. 



* -CScr- : 



o!^, (3) 



(1) 



o. 



(2) 



(6) a^ 
too), (8) 

(10) 



(6) 
, (?) 



(9) 



(11) a-tf^ffj, (12) 



g22 Sepsis' ri 



c$) ( \\ h$ (2oQ*r6s$, (2^ dcp&'N S'c&cSb^x, ^5^00 V ofibsp^ ir6 \ Ac6D ij*5^) 

V y f \ ; j vy OL o 

TS^ I:^l3?&. ^^ 3& 12BO ^436 (4100'). 

V / O O 



o 

ff'^ 

CO 

K Q 

o 

p^bo 



O 

. o. t>5 ?6^to i)^b 1066 



CD 



g7^c7Yfi3'<iii 



> 

t 



3. 



"s>jot)5 






606, Sa ?5^to ^tfc 488 

CO ^ O 



610 S^do ^eJ^b Aofi. gfi 



0*6 



828 



ST'S) SO^GO 



720 5. 



eBg- 



do 

5fi e 



aO. 8. 



41. 1 

IB. 7 



19 



60 

89 



df^sao cioS 



-: on- 



100. 



1ST 



824 



<3^orj* 16^ Stfo 



S* 64, 504 tf. 5. Sb. o S^g 

sygiou) ^^^ooc*. g 
^ 23.5%. jrytfrfStfoS* 

F.5. 



CD 

, i)3s!b^ 



127 ao.Sbc 

C3 

CC\ -a. K. vr A 7C~= ^ /Of, f " QA*^ 

OU.RjO.Ib- fO)O<3 (&cOO.aJO. ^l -OU ) 

D^ Bl^tf 16 ' 94 



, >dc#Saexco, 



flT^o, 



S. 

o 



188. 



3,267,5CO tf.g.Sb. 
, 8 4 1 - 87 6 f 
68 7 J ^ 97 2& 1 



54.7 ff*to (1871). 



8,000 Stb. 



8,200 Sjb. 
J5,200 fJb 

, 5,700 sSb. 



18. 



61 



Sa&o.=c 



ST3> 22 



(J * 



63*6" 



2. 



826 



II 



2,050 

3tfeo^; 

5,280 



150 &o& 400 



2. 



5,000 Jb. 



8. 



6,000 io. 



2 (8,61lSb.); 

; 8, 75; Jb.); 
(7,817!b.) 



fcc-fio* 



1608. 



fia 



|SS*6 , ftsi", 



82? 



OD. fiS^odb "3 ffiCb, )*vS I^Oft^SSxi^rSS. 2S9\SSD S'rSD^DCO, 



(Rift- 
Valley) ^e fijjiS'cs^sSMiSo 'Sofa 



So^g 

^ 8 ^S rS 

(1732 Sb.). 



],600tto. 



(2,687 b>.). 



o 

Sd 

o 



II 



S5o 



fi 



&r5jfl. 



cP-sS r^ 
ocpotftf 

n 



55-6" 



0^)^25 tJD) S5afodbcoo"fe, 
ff* A^f 

3 

0*0 



2. 

E9 



3. 



829 



: (1) 



(2) &J*tf SD 



Bibliography 

1, Governament of India-The Gazetteer 
of India, Vol. L Publications Divison; 
Ministry of Information and Broad 
casting; New Delhi. 



2, George Kuriyan - India ,. a general 
Survey; National Book Trust ; India, 
New Delhi. 

3 Dudley Stamp, L. - The World; 

O/ient Longman. 

4. Pitchamuthu C.S. - Physical Geo. 

graphy of India; National Book Trust, 

India; New Delhi. 

6. Krishnan, M.S - Geology of India 

and Burma jHigginbothams (Pvt) Ltd; 

Madras. 

6. Spate, O. H. K.& 1 India& 

Learmonth, A.T.AJ Pakistan; 
Methuen and Co ; London. 

7. Bose, S.C -Man, Socity & Comm- 
erce: Kamala Book Depot, Calcutta. 

8 N.C.E.R.T, -Economic & Commer^ 
cial Geography of India ; A Text book 
for Secondary Schools; N C. E, R. T; 
New Delhi. 
9. 3o>rt> Sfir^ StfgSgiShD - VoL 5; 



XII 



189. 030! tf. 

V- w 



, g)83 



Pre- 



cambian) 



^. [ 

oj L_ 



S) o56c) &^5^ ooo 



55* ^,5" 



[0:5*^ 



, . 



260 



300 



ex> 






j 

ex 



CO CO 

CJ*^ 8 o^aCS'^, S 

CO O O 



L L. a* * 



CO CO 



co 

, [AS"e 
a'o* 3c> 



42, 000 



o 

60 *d) f6oS5^\oo ^ri^ocS" 1 ^^\<i 4odTax>, Q ^ipS S 



, 83oE?O^X), /^O^O* if &O 06 

CO CO 

. SjS 



I 

n L 



L. 

180 






sot? 



rSi^off* "2> tfS ^sSsSx> (Ferrous 

O ' ^~ 

miuerals) Sj3^ ai^sS gp^aj^ n*&ocp c^S" 
"2>itf5 5*S*sio-(Non-Fcrrou8 minerals) 



832 



II 



60 

60 0X0 



(6, o^; GS?^tfo (8. o); 



, S^fcrofiO, 



0*0*3 

O 



1.8% 



60 0X0 tv 



"3 



c 

CD 



"ol" : 



1967 



co co 



CO O 



"So s : 



68B 



CO CO 



600 



^g ff 



1970 



90% 



. 1970 



a. 



CO CO 



cp.oa" 8 



Sex 3*6^0^3 6" 000^ 



(53) 






Q CO 



CO 



Ls$stfo *oe*a 



eJ SF^OD (mineral Pigments), 8>onj8| Cera- 
mics), ^A\f6^^ sSc^o 8 - (Refractories], 






3, 3. 0-$; 3ea>rt> ^3-^^ ,6S>5ea; 1974*. 

* ^> 

2, Geography of Irdia & Burma by 
M S. Krishnan. 1968 Higginbotham 
(p) Ltd. Madras, 

8. Geography of India by D,N Wadia 
1966, Macimillan & Co. Ltd. 
London. 

4. Geography of India by A.K Dey. 
1958 National Book Trust of India. 
Delhi. 



190. 



(Minerals and Rocks) 



(Texture) &8d&> ao6B3S (Structure^ 



(Homogeneous Units)fu& t 

(heterogeneous units) 



Cf (Inorganic Substance), 



Properties) 



(Petroleum) 



feoS^ - graphite) 



(Long Range Atomic Order) 
&& (Crystalline State) 



(external form) 
(Symmetry) 5^ a 



(Atoms) 

(Atomic groupjo^ t3o&e>&5a 






( Th 



ree 



dimensional Pattern) 8* 



cal") 

/ 

s 
(Minerology) 



(Chemi. 
>aaf ^ia 11 



(Geometric Forms) 
E3-S ^g2o&c56 fiorSSsioe (External- 
Geometric Forms), wotftf icJ&'Ea 
( Internal Atomic Structure) 



^ <> 

\.cj tu 



(crystals) 



dBbofi 



(Crystallography 4 ). , & 

(Optical Properties) 

_ olt 

(Non - Metalic Minerals) & 

(Microscopic examination) 



<||)M (Crystallography): 



2. 

cal JMinerology) : 

(Chemical Structure) &dc&> 



3. 

Minerology) : 



: (Physical - 



(Igneous)^ad^ 



885 
(Optical Miner . 



ology) : $> 



SPSS' tfo^ew: (Physical pro- 
perties of Minerals): 

-* o 

(Diagnostic valuej K 



(crystalline form) 
(Structure) 
(8) &S^^oSSx (Hardness) 

(4) SdSlT^SS^) ^Cleavage) 

(5) ctf&o (Fracture) 

(6) SSe5^ (Colour) &Od&>Ato (streak) 

(7) &g^ ^Lustre) 



(Sedimentary)So 



32.0 

9.6 
16.8 

3.8 
7.9 



100,0 



"3(30 



22.3 
80.0 
25.0 
6.6 
5.7 
11.4 



68.8 

l-.B 

6.6 

1.8 

11.1 

2O 
o 



100,0 



100.0 



886 



rfb 



(rock candy) 



00 



C3jjo 



(Molten rock materials) 



_i M (Metamorphism) 
' (Sublimation)o 



Seeo (Rocks) : 



^^(Heterogeneous Aggregates) 



(Rock cycle) o<3r-rt 3ofi 



(Sedementry) 



*' ( Igneous V 



(Dynamie^ 
Thermal) 



(Petrology) s5gS5s5^QoSjK>^)?i). 00), 
caboS'j. Rc^wsSa (Structure) 
(Texture), gpSa o&fctf 
(Hardness) 

(Factures in Hand 
Specimens) 



(Igneous Recks) : 
(Molten 



Silicate Rock Material) 
li5 
(magma) 



(Lava) 



(Magma) 



Soeo, 



Bofl. 



(exclusive) 3tf 

(3 dlrS_(" > 



, L " fc 



^oi; (Intrusive) 



(Plutonic Rocks) 
n*|^, &| 
6e&i [_5oi 
" (Hypabessal rock) 



blages) 



(Characteristic assem- 






3*^5" 



. So* 



8S8 



(Glassy Materials] 



S&tfg 



(Glassy grand 



Mass) 



2. ^fili^ Soeo^Sedimentary rocks): 



(basin) oS^ ^ 
^Sedimentary deposits) 



(Pre-existing rocks) 
(weathering) 
ion; o S^S5^o^ 
d&odfo?6a. 



(eros. 



3 a- 



(angular) 



(cem- 

\ 



ent) ojjo* 



|SoS 



(2) 



(8) 



d (Organic origin) 
oS* ^cft?6tosSo(S 
(Loose deposits) 



iSbfSj 



(4) 



Basin) 



a. 



(1) Q3 
(Striated) 3g ?5o^6^3} (bedded) 

. a"3 l sSe8o 



888 



(Glassy Materials) tfSrj > 



(Glassy grand 



Mass) 



2. osSliLi Se>e(Seditnentary rocks): 



(basin) oS* ^ 
.Sedimentary deposits) 



(Pre-existing rocks) dtotf;, 
(weathering) Siadio ^^o^dfisSa (eros 
ion- o 



6 fib, 



(angular) 



cem- 



ent) 0*30* 



[ofl 



(1) 



(2) 



dfib^sS^o 



(3) 



S (Organic origin) 



3_S "i;5es;$x>s><*) (Loose deposits) 



(4) 



(1) QS 
(Striated) 



ja^^ (bedded) 



(2 



remains) 



(Fossils)& 

aksS oeo 
(Organic- 
rfo&. 
(Past) rS 



(preexisting rocks) 



(evaporation) 



(rock salt), 
(litne stones), S*o 



( Vital activities ) 
(shells) 



(shell lime 
stones), $*&*\Q' S36^^s5a5co, (phospha- 
tic nodules), i>?* J5odcSo T/*6 



Scco (Metamorphic rocks) 



(Metamorphic rocks), "80*5^0 tftf 
L^^** (Metamorphism^ 



(chemically active fluids) 



w|jSsS (mica) SbQcfico 
loo 



(1) S'fiS <3>o^odTtf^^ (Thermal - 
Metamorphism) ^adSb (2) tf&io ASl 
^^^ ^S^o^tf L^_ft (Dynamic Thermal 
MetamorpMsm) 



(Country 



rocks)5 



8*6 
) 



S'tffiS'oS'&X), 

' v^ftx'v ~ ticS} ^; As 

)*rO^)COSSOa ^3^* ^ 

c5oo. S 

191. 8e7SSxeo (Fossils) 

(fossil 



spaa 

o5 05 d'^S" jer-83SS^) n*^ rts_6o3s3&. ^^e^eotp^. 

18s 



*- 



(Xenophanes) w 

600) L A5 3{ 



(Herodotus) (J 5^.400) ^B^^ 
crso^ ^ 
84-822) 



841 



. [I.*. 980-1077 
(Avicenna) e3 



Si" OO&D 



i 

L 



(Leonardo da vinci) 



.f. 1459^1619) 



(Carolus Linaaeus), 
(Giovanni Ardumo), 90 ACT 5" 
(Abbe Giraud), ScfibS) &^^ (William 
Smith) gogSc&S" (Cuvier), ^.S.e 
(C. de. Lamarck) ff 






(l) 
. (2) 

sSci''off 8 



ito- 
03 o a 



842 



tJ 



Bofi 



. esotfs 



tftf ,0^!) i^oo Sbtf $ix>o<3 /^Ci 



o-Stjetftf 



8,0^0 



843 



SS5rfsSoS$sS&> 



500 



100 



-00, r 6 ^ c6 



2. 



3 



SSo oS)o)o(3. 

C3 



844 D^fiLs II 

w ^ w 



fSsS5jsS*Or6i 



O CO 



1 

^ , 1 K 

4. 5ooT* sv-viK ^M XP->-. *8 



192. ^^os^e; ^CP^^OO (Geological Time scale) 






^ ao 



3^0 



* 



846 



)\_3o& 



6,500 



3 



oijSSa 



(Cenozoic) 



Quaternary 



(^Tertiary) 



(10,000) 



1,000,000.2,000,000) 



, ooo) 



(25,000, 000) 



(40,000,000) 



(80,000,000) 



(70,000,100) 



846 



II 



(Mesozoic) 



(Peleozoic) 



(135,000,000) 



(180,000,000) 



(226,000, 000) 



(270,000,000) 



(805,-. 00,00^) 



(350,000,000) 



(4,0^,000,000) 



[6 S*B 



(Proterozoic) 



(440,000,000) 



(600,000,000) 



(600,000,000) 



(2,600,000,000) 



(1,200,000,000) 



(Archeozoic) 



(4,500,000,000) 



(8,200,000,600) 



0. 



193. 

(Internal Constitution of The Earth) 



(P- waves and s-waves) 

_ *s. . , 

sr^sSotfo e&rtbo 



(composition change), fedsSyCbj /phase 
change), $*& sSpfib^ ^physical phase 
change) esfibfo 





oiD)d3 c6o*5 tfS^ ScoSw* sSDi5Sl*tf (crust 
4000 v 
' (Mantle) o 



)** (Mohorvicic discontinuity) 

3 
5-40 



(shear waves) 



(core) ?S^ 
^ (Gutenburg) 



B,000 



848 



II 



6.52 



&ofl 



(Moment of inertia) 
S'o'ft "l 



fcfi 



(Silicates), 



(Temperature gradient) 



200000 



(Theremal state of the 



Earth) 



<t> CT 



dfib 



200000 C 



1 9 2,000,000 



(Radio-active materials) c $>g (charged) 



'core) 

aS, [tfiftft 



(Angular- 



849 



motion 



(Hydrodynamical Motion) & 



crust 



Jooo (ultra 



(Hydrodynarnical - mafics) 



SJ-tf 


T& jO-jS)tffia 


SaSSeSa-aaxe* 


1( 26 )rr&x> 


ifo*) e^o | <^o6s 


J3 oi* CT* ^ ?T* oJ O 




. So. " 


s.h>. 


5Ao5oO 


yS* L^^2 


o*S* sSofib 


3oJ) 1 Ooj<? 






i 




o- 




n*^ ^5-& 


u 





6371 


O.U155 


6 


O.U08 


O.Ol 


(crust) A 


38 


6388 










{Qolp0*'\ni & 3 


418 


5958 


0.1667 


62 


0.104 




5o cdoSoo \~j 


984 


6387 


0.2i8l 


8 


0.164 




(Mamle^D 


2893 


34,73 


0.448 


245 


o.uo 




&o*$u*\rt E 


4982 


!389 


0.1616 


188 


0316 




t^a&fe) F 


5121 


1250 


0.0028 








(core) G 






00076 








a*&> 








f98. 







3o&e>&6 !LtfcsS)ao^daba iEri 



(Metallic Hydrogen) S* 



S)4sx>, a- 3 



(Thermostat) JT 



( Hydromagnetics ) 



(54) 



194. 



A ,^000 

^o 
(Porecambrian N ; 



t5o [Shield) 



6CO 



4000 

go, LS^ 
2500 



(Geological 

eld) footfo-rton* 13oD*?So (lado-GaBge- 
tic plaint, QQoSja'o'x EPSpeii^o^o, (Extra 



^otfe>6* 

CO 

$>)e3o. 






851 



1891 



$45* wotf o*^ 



3 Sea, 



, 0*83^^ 






co t 



(folds)5*&, 



GO, 



1,500 



830 



3000^4000 






862 






^ofi. 



(troughs)^ 6 all a^S 



6000 - 



.* 

oL 



ie8 



eajea 



?So5aex> 



120 Sto.s5o. 



o, jjbcipa" 



loexi. 



a 



o 

>sSo d 



Sbtf 



Si tf^ A cO-ooa. 



195. 



868 



-L. ~ ' OL * 
._ J Cd). ouOrO O^txX CO^ ^ * L ^ 



&5' 5*00 
Si6oS?tf 
. Sfi 



Shallow Trough 



a* ii 



Koir-S>o6 
: (1) & j*tf ^& 



864 r*?S<3a II 

r 



sWj efts 

9 fi*uarv>f3 



sfcofi. (NNW-SSE) w&a ^gc^ 



(hinter. 

land) sy.^s w&3_ tf jsS Jfofi. fisa SsS 
3^sS (Mahatiadi Strike) eS 



e-S$.3 (ENE-WSW) 

\ / 



.s^o (dias trophic cycles') wi 



Ocr e ^5'sx!-2,450 ZbDoSoS* 



^Gangpur series) fl*&, 
2, &.^lf ^ W$) S5 A 8-a&*55 ^ <r ^^ (sausar series) 



S Dgo(Regional strikes)^) ^SSi^oSS S5ir\. sS^oo (cross foldsj & <*o_5 

(outcrops) 



(crescent shape) 

(convex) $ 
(gentle dip) S*&, &&J- sC>3> (concave) 
Sptf 60 (close folds) & 
(Ovetthrusts) So 

(Steep dip) 



3. 



(Horizontal - 



compression) 8 
stf o<3* J6o sS, 



(Complex Folds) 

f 

i^ex) (Nap- 



pel) 



: 1. 



(Arcs) 
2. E 



3. 



SooA 



(Foot hills), 
(Lower Himalayas'), 
(Great Himalayas), 
(Trans-Himalayas), 



toons') 

/ 



Fes ^ 



-, ofi 

OL 



4. 



- 3 



(&NW-SSE) w& 



S^^ f Green Stones) o I^ 
i^S"^ (Chlorine Phyllites) 

(enechelon folds) 



"3oK)<5 



(monoclinal cross - 



fold Structures) 



. J). 



196. 



53-asra 

O 



e Q 9 



3973 



. gptf a 3*00*10 



4, 90 



l. 

2. 

8. 
4. 



6. 

6. 

7. 3(3 

8. 
9. 



53<!3 



857 



100 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 600 900 




858 
1973 fSo.< 



1,400 



, 



1. 
2. 



qp&eao 






1978 



230 



^o (85 



al 6 



coa 



. sjos* 



8. 
4. 

5. 



0*000. 



, si^o&o, 



11. 
12. 



:- fiT A, 



:- o*fl, fc 



D^cxo, 



JbozreS 



: ooo&Sio, 
. 1972 iSon 



2,900 



jSo [1,100 

^o 
80 SS 



9^830 

2 s5 



[5 ^ ^etSb] fcS^ [1 4 



&", 



1972 SoSrf^tfoS* 
5400 



197. 



si ocaosj 



s , 



li 



1. Brown J. C. andDeyA.K. 
India's Mineral wealth- oxford- 1965. 

2. Krishnaswamy.S. 

Indian Mineral Resources - Oxford 
and j.B.H. Publications -1872, 

8. Roy B.C. :- Indian Mineral Re- 
sources, Industries and Economics - 
Calcutta- 1973, 

4. Sinha R.K. :- A Treatise on In- 
dustrial Minerals of India - Allied 

Publications - 1387. 
"3. 





. * . . . - - *" aJU_ 



2. 

Planning) s5dfc& - 

3. 



881 



4. 



6. 
Plans 



( Contract 

\ 



( Specifications ) S^Si 



6. 



7. 



^Civil Engineering)^ 






fi 



( techniques ) 



(Geological History), ^ 
(Stratigraphy) sS>ed& aa^ft (Structure) 



eo (faults; 

(Buried channels), <*bs5* 
(Cavernous Zones\ ?6ls5^ (active)^ 



(Potential^ 



(Landslides) S$>ac&D (8ofirp 
(Water tables) 



erngj, 
(Bcddicg) 



(joints )> (S 

SSoa (Foliation) 



bfl 



(Tunnels): 



862 



II 



(aquiductS), g_ 

afrritf^Sx^ 
(Subways), 






3. 



o 



^Structure) 



(Runwaysj 



^0*^8 (Topography^, 



(Landslides^ : 



dated^ 



(Unconsoli- 



a e>o&<3 



(Shalej 



. 8. 



4. 



(geological; 






868 



5. 



OP 8 Sc&&. 55 [SS 

(Geologic Processes) 
a^otfsSa (Hi* tor. 
ical geological data) o&> 2j6le> S& 



a 

0*6 



6. 



198. 









(Terrain intelligence^ E?O 



dScoo&^. 



Sofig'co 



oSoaofiou) diooCfo^). 8*3 

(Terrain appreciation^ 



3_?5 S^oS 5" (Schonbcinj 1938 



864 



II 



m 



ents), 



, 2. 
(Control) Bcfo 



aoces 



(Ele- 



(Solar System)a^^ |KSfiao (Planets) 
(Planetoid s)& eu 



(10.7) 



(Aband- 



(Siderites) 





EOCo^) ffeS& 


Sitf S$T*30 W&O 


oitfsSj'eao opg^* 

eoA=10cin 



&S 6Qs3j 

9eJo 


o 


46.60 


62.55 


1.40 


98.77 


Si 


27.72 


21.22 


0.42 


0.86 


Al 


8,18 


6.47 


0.61 


0.47 


Fe 


5.00 


1.92 


0.74 


0.48 


Mg 


2.09 


1.84 


0.66 


0.29 


Ca 


8.88 


1.94 


0.99 


1.08 


Na 


2.88 


2.64 


0.97 


.1.82 


K 


2.59 


1.42 


1.33 


1.88 



865 



^ O 



68 % 



2. 



8. 



si fl 



97 



1963 



i-5SiSfee& 

O 



_ '2, e 

8. Sto, Ssio 

(55; 



Rcferetces 

1. Bose; S. K. [964] Recent Adv- 

ance! in Geochemic.- 
al prospecting in In-^ 
dia for metaliferous 
ores andlndian Mine 
rals 18,pp 56.69, 

2. Gold Schmidt V,M\ [1954] Ge(X- 



II 



chemistry. Oxford 
Press;. 

8. Hawkes H.E.and Webb; J.B,( 1962) 
Geochemistry in 
mineral exploration. 



Harper and Row publishers. 
Newyork. 

4. Mason, B. [19E8] Principle of 
Geochemistry; John 
Weiley and Sons Inc. 
Newyork, 



199. 



(Oceanography), 



1842 



rlcs Darwin) 



o-B5 



1872-75 



1888-1920 



71 



(Cha. 



(Echo Sounder) 



(Diving) 
rffcef 
Vehicles) 



(Deep-diving 



1980-70 



s'S' 33*000 F3, r6 



867 



1. I 

2' ^ j 

fetfSj) es>o ^Continental Shelf) 
100 



n 
IBOSb^iw, ~ ~. j , . (Heavy minefals ^ 



7, Sa a*a ^co^ 42 



2Q ol 

3 T ^"i^ex> /Glauconite deposits), ; 

*~ * " 2^3 & ^ftcjg'eii ( Phosphorite nodules \ 



190 . 

SPeo Continental Slope) 



V- 

wptf (Sdb 
. 20 








86 
40 



i o 

L n 

(ridges) 



(gravel) 

^ J J U ^ 

30.000 



88 



II 



{' Submarine 

\ 



Canyons 



3700 



TO 



rrents) 



ajtftf 



(Rocky Bottom^ &otoo<3. 



(Deep Sea 



729 



(Ridges), <9*g_ 



( trenches) 



(Mid Atlantic Ridge\ 
Y . 



[sS*c>(Turbidity Cu- 6,000 

as' 8,000 



10,830 



(10,800 



^Diatom ooze), 
(Radio ^ Kerian Ooze), 
i^sSsS^ / Globigerina Ooze i 

CO "- V * 

Aotr-coi. .ifla i^rfii" a^&'o /Pelagic 
deposits) 



^oo Sbtf. 
nodules) 



(-Manganese 






. 19 



(^Binocular 



1)*OoB&. rfo-stf 1926 . ^^ m ^^ ,0 

x U 



; 33c 3 air ( oO'mps.y 

1952 sSosStf^tfSxiSr* CT*II 9. Si. *~ 



1952-53 sSs>#g.3>oe*&, tfo.^ ^S 8 ^^^'^ ^^ 

1956-56 ^ ' -"' ^ 8 



54 

*- " ^^J 

.. >^. . * ^ ^ B 

do B 



500 

i6ri iii oSo 



200. 



(20 



(32 8.5b. 2 



50 



o&o (1. Sb.L. cX3bo. 

ajsf* s-05/uro/^ou; i. a.a. 

0.20 a 
0.27 



8 

0.73 



[Sofi 



5,000 



22.5 S. 
226 i. 



88 2>. >.); 



400 



4,500 SbSdJoS" {3osftrjoe]. 



&QABO&. 



4000 '0(j5' 



, t35"ex^o 



,7.72 X 10 26 



(500 3.Jb 



871 



Th 4+ 



tf 1 P. 

1? Li 

r^B^ff 



Bocro. 1) 
8.2 !b./%o. 



oo 



6A 



3750 



C00<5" 



3i 



4,000 So. 



Sco^ofi. ("feoS" 



. 



Sio^o 



10. . 



NNW-SSE 



). 



I AS * 

L. C5 



so-a $0^0^. 



Stf 



^oOcSaS s-o^ 



530$3 



201. 3 sr* 1 si 89 



53^)33^ 

. WOMB'S, 



cOSftj <&>5S tfjf&OO QrSDffr*CP 3uS 



2. 



connaissance Survey), 

2, W^M 

a^o sSdSo^ (Detailed geological inve- 
stigation), 

8. 



iD (^Sampling), 



tf&s^sfc : $78 

j -. 

4. -$>a3l^ oScS^oST 8 ;- ^o^oS) -^3oj(\3* /coining methods) ^^fd^o^ 8 ^), ,^Sb)p-sS 

*^SSiio !"5eS" S5S)^r\3 
Processes) 



0*0 



tftftfd* 



:reo 



a 



(Petroleum) 



^anomalies) 

AJxSSS 



e^ ~* 

fo ^otoofi. 



er 






sfs 



Sj 



y 



(altitude^ o 



oS> (Pendulum), 



(0.0 1 



(Gravimeter) jjS& 

to ufi&^a'ajS a 

(Spring Balance) n- 






a 

cor? Aa f 



S'Ib 



(magneto- 



meter) 



(magnetite) 



SSd$3n*3 I 



00) 



n-S. 



n-a, a&gg" rj [i^^o on aaA as* 
tftf * 



1. S^dfio a&jff i*r 3*8 ( Self- 
Potential Method) :- 



^Secondary 

fieldj [_1>3 



| s 

L_ 



875 



SStf&eo OQ^O ^o "30^ 



tfd (Resistivity 

)'~ *_ 

esS^ 2. 

s^ ^ 









Tgeophoneje o-oo* 
5&*i(j5 (Seisomgraph)ST 6 



1. 

2. Soo-3 tfS 

.^ Q 



$00 cS5s*iSsS, ao'^ea 



tlr 



(Geiger Counter, Scintillation Counter) 



radiation\ 



loo 



elements 



^oo i_co 



835^^6 

, sfi 

^anomalies ' 



(Indicator Plants) 



(accumulator plant^ 



(Selection) 



(460C) 



photomet 



ric, Spectrograpbic) sS 



878 



II 



Sofitf (Hydrothermally 



altered) 



(tracer gases)& 
o (absorpion spectra} 



sa (absorb) 
^wavelengths) / 






(Iodine) 



, 0*8 



g'Ofl^ocl 



(tracer gai) n S& 



(i/iooo, 100) 



(Very Sensitive Spectrometers) 



,, SO, 

2 2 



(1962-72) 



dBbflot) 



(Very complex data) 



(computorsi 



202. osoi tf . SS 

^- w 



(Surface water Resources) 

(Ground waters) 



8T9 



(Occurence) :- 



eso 



$00 



( Porosity j :^- 



i^sS (Igneous, Sedimentary and Metam- 
orphicj 



(Primary) 



(^Secondary) 



f Tectonic N ^6 

\ / * 



(Solution Openings) So* 
fcsfcoD I Reservoir Conditions \ 



(non-porousW 



(Vescicular 
(Secondary por- 



osity) 



porosity)*otoo<S, 



"8 <^go (weathering) sSo 



lar porosity) 

(sand) - 



(inter granu- 

. 

(s ravel ) ^^ 



"3eso S 



(clay) 
(Effective porosity) 



(^ 

iC3 



Limestones 



j 



(storage), asoofc (yield) 



Structure V 
( StratificaiioD ) 
f Inclination of strata), 
ing), ^oltfSSsSa (faulting) 



(fold- 



SOPCT* 



Soc 



fers) :- Q 
uration), 



(Types of Aqui- 
6otf^^ (Sat- 
aeration) 



^S* (soil) 



(Capillary) eso&S 



ii 



(Permeable) 
Co, 
/ Percolate) 



(water-table) 



(confined) & 



sjS 



0*0 



^^es (Distribution); 



80 2b. 



(basin) 



(Springs) 



20 Ib. 



S6 



^Pre-Cambrians : 



( Jointings 



es be> 



. -basr* 



eao^dS 



^Gondwanas) - 

aS (Consolidated) 



(dip) 



"tftfifirr 



'(Seepagei)' 



831 



200 Sb. S*& tf& rfo 

st<S &&$ /Cumulative Piez- 
ometric Surface ) 29 Jb. 



(Flowing] ft 



Traps]:- 



80 



jahmundry Sand stones- Equivalents):- 



Cuddalore 



9oex 



^Coarse grainedjd* 



30 



19 



(Alluvium):- 



60 Sb. 



(56) 



eaoo 



?o 



(Exploitation) .v ^g 



(dug wells), tfo[_#Si EJ'S^eM (^bore 
stasJte c-fteo (filter points ), 
(tube wells) w 



1.0 



c?<5 



8 Sb. 
200 



,^ (Hard) 

oo* E^SS)o e 
^68*^ ( draw down 



1000 &.&. 



6-12 



Jb. 



200 Jb. 



Wells 



tfo o-ea&O 



882 $sr*r5cjj)$f II 



3 > 20J 

6 Sb. 



Q '" ~~^~~ " ~ '** oJCJCJ tO'ST* S^a^ Q5.% 

bOO io, Si. _ 

. ^. <&&+ 



600 Sb, 



16CUOOO fe&g 



6 Sb.eo 

s) si^oa. g' 

500 






91, 267 _ 

coo^^ssittt lipesoo esfiS' SSQipEao^ S*fiC)So6o<S. esc 

600 






1969 

asc SSScfio ar^o (^5*^0 eso 

21 



ton- 



9 

(Central gro 
12 o^o und-water Boards 



fca 



S'. I). 



1. Bala Sundaram M S, & Subia- 
many am V. 

Ground water Resources of 
Andbra stale with special reference to 
Rayalasima Districts Geol. surv. India 
Bull, ser, B. No. 11. 1959. 

2, Central ground water Board, 
Ministry of Agriculture. 19 "2 

Summary results of ground water 
Exploration in Andhrapradeili 1955-70) 
Monograph No 1. 

8, Deckshitilu M N. Ramana Rao N. 
Prospects of ground water develop- 
ment io Rayaheema region. Seminar 
on Planning and development of Back 



ward Region - A casestudy of Raya- 
laaeema. 1970. 

4. Deshmukh D.S Ground water Ex- 
plotation in Godavari^Krishna Inter- 
Stream area, /^ndhra Pradesh, India; 
Symposium OB Development of Ground 
water Resources. Nov. 1978. Madras. 
Vol III. PP.V. 113-122 

5. MeinzerO. E; The occurrence of 
ground water in the United States with 
a disccision of Principles. U.S G.S 
Water Supply Paper 439-1928. 

6. Raghava Rao K.V. An Estimate 

of the ground water potential of India. 
First Approximation; Invited speech 
at the Soil and Water management 
Symposium at Hissar, Haryana, 1969. 

7. Raghava Rao. K.V. Long term 
ground water investigation and Man- 
age!* ent Programme in AndhraPradesh. 
Andhra Pradesh Academi of Sciences 
Bull. NO. 11-19 4. 



XIII 
203. 



Ds"tfon 






204. 



8P 

_, 


dSoo 



' * -i. a3 



J&o. 



: 



886 



^ rt-fo, 






: 1. 
3. S&gS 4. 

e. gaa^^e^ T. 



2. 



esdi 



(5) <fi 



ae53 



886 Ste'SatS II 



2. 



3. 



3 GO. 

4. 



er 



cJ 

5. 



O 

&e 

?6 



DO e3dS:r> "^ CPo SSr-sS^o 



3. 



205. 



on* <3 
o 



60 v iBira, us^o OdODfL 

a 



o 



30 



?So^(Geological Survey of 
India) fir 6 



asOAofi, 



wo[CJ ^^ Sc^^d^o^, e.S' 



b flrt 



BQ y j v ^ . - 

. oc ^rionsi j $i QDO cS o3og od&o0^ rfj^if 236^06 1968 ^ 

o, BSc 



S&33 s^SS M.Se a Aft 

(U N E P T A) 



i9e? 



M. Sc (Tech) S^Co^ri' 
G M. 5c ^Tech) &|_Aft SCQ ij3^to ^O'6'ra 4& 



35 

^ C a> o """ ' *^i ^-> ww w r^ttj 1 A3GC?p^s _ 

X 

titfor^CD, 



1968^ e,^ 

SQS^tfeo, ^ - 



(Centre of Exploration 
ScS geophysics) 



w 



10 



25 



16 siofi 



889 






?3oS (G. S. I) 

. 1980 ^ 



I ^COJ^rVCcOC, rvJOCWCO^CF oJS. J)fi 

1 O 

ofi. cijDrS 
i \ rOoSO J* 

tJ O 



e)"3 to, c^A, cxi^'^o > do 

^^0, ^c^iSfl 
o S^So, Sorfib 

CO 

fip 



n 



83 J : 



4 65- 



g 

- 



(Council of Scientific and Industrial 

Research) SP& '*r>cr5r&&* &g &>&$ 
& g*83 ii^O^ ?6c^ (National geo- 
physics research Institute & 1968 S* 



12 



65. fc 



sSd'cro?i) - 



#o?S (Remote sensing Agency) 



eogtfo 



iotr 

L ,o 



i us 



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g 

v/ 



43otfo fesSD^) go^eso 3' to 



> a. 

206. 

aQ73 



5^55 fi^S 



892 



11 



17. 5. 



?6dcBb^ 



Scio^eso, 



(ii) 
(iiij 



(iv) 

(v) 




o; 



(I) 



) a,"! 



17, 18 



1735 



on 



352) 



Ao^doo 



tftfo 



(ii.) 

d (JSofi 3tfcrv 



978 



988 



esc 



r, oo, 



8.4 



*l 









(iii.) 



(iv) 



"^53* 



18. sS 






OexSSo 



o :- 



16 



Q CO 

Aocl 



s-sf cpcy^ SS (Pear) SSo&?5i 



flVeo 



80 b>. 



894 






II 



6)65.390 8Sb f 



6865.880. g.Sb. 



6876.760 8.Sb. 






2. 



830 







1962 



2, 



896 



'80* foQ* /^o c \-jff loo* 80* o 40* 2.0* Q e Z0 40" 60 9 80* )0 e ILO 8 IfK) 1 



Uao* ilfl" 100 80' 6Cf 40* 20" icr 




2. 






3. 



1962) 



19 



. 9c3j*ox5"o 



C3i\h 

I^ 
L- 



2 80 
t> 



118.7 8.60. 



level) 



Soflo 



ifcoo, 



(Isopiesnc 



II 



i& (Roots of Mountains) &3 



^) fiC 5TO "6*65 S 



<J> Q 



3 w. 



= 2.83 



3^27 



8. f 

V 

SSijoo 



-5 -4 -3 -2. - i 2 3 4 5 




897 



70 .&> 



S&eoS* 



dinatesj 



20T. 




dian)" *9d& 

Equator)** 

(Magnetic Coordinates^ 



&d<Sc&~ (Magnetic Meri- 
(Magnetic 



d3co?6; a. 
(^Magnetic 



Moment) 8. 1 X l()25 
(Gauss, cm 3 ). e 
(57) 



(0.6 fl*5). fi 
tir-, ^> 
j&a (0.8 



ODJ* 



0*0 



x (Magnetic 
(Dip poles) 



force") 



(Lines of 



(Dip) 



, 1200 S.Sb 
. ^J SSrotfCf ^^5^ wo 






( Main field ) 
d 



(Core)i<s5 



61(5 



b. eoeiS" 
Hrregulariticsj 



Anomalies ) 

(j Sofia eo 
^Eddies) ^o^ 



(Regional anomalies^ 



(Surface 



1960 



06. 5*10 



[0003^^26x0 



S'ea 
radiations) ff 8 ^ 

f conducting) 



899 
/Corpuscular 



(Magnetosphcre) 



(core) 



" Sun* 



-(Geo - magnetic taiiy 



(Extrapolation) 
(Space) 



(Sphrical 



harmonics) 
7. 



(Secular) 
(Temporal) ^3tfgx>o ( Variations JSS 






(Isoporic) 



900 

(Epoch of ti 



as 



20.50 



Sq) 



(SoJar Quiet day Variation- 



, Sq 



, 1-5 

L 



Sp f L o ^o5tfT fr 



tudes) 



(Ampli- 



eg 



(Solar activity) a&^ Sn . &0& 



aff (Equatorial elect rojet) 
Sq f L 



II 



(Tialal oscillations) 
(Ionospheric 



winds) Atf^SoO 

o^n , 

^^9 (Induce j 



Sq, L 



X- 



D, E 



Sq 



,d^ Sq 

Sfe (solar flare effect) 



coj* Sfe 
r3&d&&>eo&, 



. Sfe eo rftfein- 20.30 
, 5 



rms) 



(Magnetic Sto- 



(Sudden Commencement)^* 



H 



iff 



801 



i 



12-24 tfcfco s*ooo<3, H 

asStfSarp' tfft 
(Recovery) 



*e>olb 
(Active Sunspots) 



CCXP 



$)c( Solar wi 



H 



a.g' 



H 



33-8 



(Geologic periods^ 



H 



8. 



ma 



jSgS (Paleo 



gnetism) 



(R 



em- 



narxt Magnetisation) 



(Assumption") 



(Paleo magnetic 
Reversals) &&r-& 6,000 



ings) 



(Cluster of ancient bear- 



00 



(Reconverge) 



(i) 



;te&> (Aperiodic Shift) 



8T7 



^metalliferous deposits) &>! 



eso 



reconnaissance 



(Remote-Sensing Techniques): 



(Airborne geophysical, geochemical 
Techniques): 



"1 1^x0:6 
L 

S^^^iS" (flux gate) 



Proton- 



(Low 



frequence Electromagnetic field) 



(eddy 



curr- 



ents) fS 

(Secondary field) tf & 



sa. 



(Infra-red) 



(GeDphyucai 



signals) 



(short radar pulses) 



returns) 



(gamma ray spec- 



troscopy) 



902 



tl 



er mantle) 3 



(ii) 



(Concept 
of Continental drift) & 1910 ff 8 



fi3 > 



S&o 



fig&eeo(Mid-ocean rifts), 



(Dispersal) 



(Subcrustilj 



(Overtur, 



&* 



. S 



208. 



(Seismographs, Travel - Time Curves and Internal Constitution of Earth) 



(3.) 



GQ&&. 



908 



x, y, 



003) 



K 





SdoSSbo 1. 1. 



. 



2. 



4. 



. At 



&-L*&)3-l4sS$a 



908 



: (1.) 



x, y, z 




904 



it 



tf tf&^^ 
d 6s=^ 



> 



doifc^o. 



, & So 



(Indian Meteorology Depart- 



ment) 53*8 



eao 



CQJ* 



rSo?5 ( National Geophysical 
Research Institute) 



tftfo^^boo^a 



a, 



. P,S 




2, 



906 



S'eaSSx.to 3otr*g*tf 



3) 




4. 



"S^eo, 



il 



vj 30 

i- 




JSO 2OO 250 300 3SO 40* 




/ , / A 

t j j t 

"&** / / 

We .**./& / 



/ 



256 390 350 4M +SO 



8 S.S 



t = 



6 S.!b. 



^3 



, B x 






"5s 



&*oao^ >f 3$ DBS 

^t DSS 



1972-76 



80-60 S.Sb, 2900 8.&. 



808 




O 100O 000 3OOO 4000 5000 



rMi 



YD 



O 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Gooo 

SAj&o8. 



Pn, Sn 






P,S 



(Mg, 



, p , s 

O S 



Pn, Sn, 



, cooos 



e] 2 Sio 4 

. 400-600 S. So 



1948 



909 



1. Eiby, GA. About Earthquakes; 
Harper and Bros. N.Y. 1967. 

2. Hodgsoo, John H; Earthquakes 
and Earth Structures. Prentice Hall 

Inc. N. Jersey, 1964. 



8, Richter, Charless F. Elemen - 
tary Seismology; W.H. Freemason & 
Co; San Francisco. 1958. 

4, Annual Reports of the National 
Geophysical Research Instt.Hyderabad, 

5 Stacey, Cook and Gyer. Global 
Geophysics. 1971. 



209. 



r ca 



800 



60 



e 



3exoiro6. 



X 10 10 



, 1 tf. 



1.5 



80 X 



Sotfo 



2. 10 12 



. 1989 



SSo 

CT3 O 



910 

v 



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20-80 Iboibg 



mal gradient) 

Ic/100 !b. ^o^ 7c/iOO 60. 



2. 



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0.00lc 



s*j?6 *)0^ a,"! _ _ 

< ff" ^fl A r?rft "o x *^'&VK'V' -d 

ttJ J rOcuDSOE3OtJ &4 

19 * ^ 

O 

eother 



Ss*^ ^es^o ^s [J3o<3 ^ 

8.4 ib4)& 



a'.SoiJ 25cp#tj)\ ^"^ A;< 
^ ol 3" 



911 




1. 



70 ^^o, 
*^.o 



?6 5 S. Sb. 



q-Ojtf 

K 40 . bfi 



U 238 , Th 232 



, 6 x io- 13 



35 3. io. 
^ 
too? 



912 



II 



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bo&co 
<fir*o 
S. So. 



6,000 



5000 r 



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3000 



4000 



5000 



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2. 



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918 



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tinuation Methods)". 



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(493 

c& 
orfo 
(Phase) 



S 



o- 



s 



CJ-^CP 
^odooofi 



II. 



- a. "3 fi^n- 



sjos* 



(Regional) 

* 

or\ 

(Local anomaly) 



947 



"4^0 



53*060 SPSS' 



(i) *>%* Ss<&, (it) 



c? 



XIV 

219. ST'S'SSss 



0*11 






TV do 



940 



tftSS g tiS* 
a- 



a 






3o43rcxa. 



tfo 



!0, 



220, 



2. 



19 tf.S* 



(Meteorological Observations) 



3. 



1873 S3 



536 



a^otfo 



?S ( International Meteorologi 
cal Organisation-I.M.O.) ^io^o e 



(India Meteorological Department') 
18753 c 



4. 



Meteorological Organisation- 
M. O.) 



M.O.) 



e-S'S. 



Sjex. 



&^0 ^8 S^O r3c$>g 1 



"Io[j3*o& 



1880 



3&S 



?6of5 o-o 



5. 



^International Co - operation) 

1968 sS. j6oS^sSe* jSSotf S^CP^^O 

(World 



Weather Witch - W.W.W) 



Meteorological Cectresj 



, 16 
(Regional Meteorological Cen- 



tres) |Si;5 



(Regional Telecom- 



munication 



(High Speed) 

iS)i3*>)fib. 

^ oi, 



I, B. M. 860-44 

19786* S^fibtfoflSa. 1976 fi^ 
Philli P s D S - 714 



2400 

"BO 



50 



. W. W 



^Short range Forecasts) 

5-7 S^oSb sSi^g^ sSgS5$ ^cr^&sS^sre 
(Medium range Forecasts), 3cSb ^ 
Atf igsSfi ^ycr^&^p^ ^ (Long range 
Forecasts) sjijjtfo 



1978 



6. 



e&ootf &ors-W.M.O. 



(International Council of Scientific 
Union) SS*stf25* ^*fi*^ o-d&sio^o 
SSS^tfS |oSfi^^ - rv5^ (Global Atmos. 
pheric Research Projecf^G A R P) & 



(Garp Atlantic Tropical 
Experiment - G A T 

A 

3>el&*& 1000 
1KT4 SS. 



LO *&> 





it 

OS 



(Monsoon Experiment^ 

MONEX) wsSS^&a 1970 S. jSoSrf^ 
GARP ai'te^ 6sSj-3f o^ ^tftf 
rf W.M.Q. 
1978-79 6*G ARP 
(First Garlo 
Global Expriment F G G E) e^sS 



7. 
(Radars) 



CO 



(Satellites) 



v 9 "3^(53^ jjj^*^ spcri^es d>o[0eo 
(Radio Meteorological Instruments), 
cpcr'tf), sj-OPcS^a A^LK^ea (Meteorolo- 
gical Satellites'), gofr^toti (Computers) 



iS 



(Cumulonimbus Clouds), 



963 



fi^tfo 



(Geostati- 



onarny Satellites^ 



(Micro Waves) 



8, 



fertS8>J6tfa 



0*30* 



e?&^tffi80cSi 



1973 



-ore 



bo: 



9. 



(Applied Meteorology) 



, ^ftd'tf 36 L ?f&o6*&, 



(Computers) V Meteorology Branches) 



( Applied 



954 



II 



10. sunsstfii ssass 

_A 

(Weather Modification) 

Xti 30 fSoSfc^tf 

[Weather modification) 



**<*&, S 



SPC&O S^) 



1974 



S)cSS'cSDScpcSSn t 



CPU 



221. 






&S ?4po (Macro), PC 
&<j (Micro) && 



S3 * 



58^ &ffjcSS>,X& 



EO $ 



955 



Sato 



. (Agricultural Climatology \ 
|i I' "$*&> (Airmass 
Climatology), 3SSr*<Sfr* *fl* 55 
(Aviation Climatology), <?3 
(Bioclimatology), <?3 
(Dynamic Climatology), 
(i) 5 ^ (Mediaci Climat. 

dogy), Hg* ^^ ^"(S)^ ( Paleo 
Climatology), e>^^^^ 
(Synoptic Climatology), 

Air Climatology) 



(Arctic) 



Kj'0'tf:Sx>n' 8*^5 (Koppen)- 



IS 1 ! 



/Tropical rainy climates), 
climates), 
(Warm 



Temparate rainy climate), wSft^o 2r>^ 
fctfeex>(Coldsnowforest 



climates) , 

y 



(Thornthwait) 



(Wei), ^5^ (Humid) 
{^Sub Humid) 
(aiid) ss& 
3$3*&o'D' Tropical j&^g *$ t /Meso Th 
ermal^, ' Micro Thermal) &j^:^si, "* 

' \ / ** ca * 

(Taiga) tjo^r* (Tundra , ASr-S 



er 



II 



, 

Q 



, n 1 



, spfi 



co 



E9 









tology) 



967 
(Paleoclima- 






O 

5 

O 



ir conditioning") 

' ----=* StfiSyf 



. 1885 
1940 $3& i^So 

19*0 



222- 

(Disturban- 



ces). 



S^ 



968 



&& II 



a, 






(Synoptic).-? wS^ 



( Isobars 



^ 

ol 



SPCP^O ( Front 



(Cold Froat', 
Front\ 



( Warm 
Front), 



e 53-0 L ^fo (Stationary Front) 



SotfS 



10. 



(0*3* 



8oB 



6 - 7 



80 



53*0*^830 



tftfors-o 



]fc?$ (Net) 
Heat gain) &otoc<3. 



<*oS5*on*, fefl 
^ ( Sensile hcat ) 



rffib^rfo SP^ 3&. (5^^ eg, 



^oj (Meridianal- 
cells 



e,S" 



869 



o*33 

* O 



70-80 



(IMO) 
Weather 



Watch-W. W. 



960 

o 

3* & "W. W. W/'< 



1978 - 1979 S* 



oL 

fi&ff 8 oT B 2>oC"tib* "2i SS^N^ ^(Sjrree 
a 9 



1. 



AotpOD 

f^^ n^at^/^ te^^l -r^e KW S, ^ or TVR 

p ' 






(Humidity), 









* 

0> 



eo<S ^^o^-Scpo idJo^ex) (Daily observations) 



981 



/Climatic zones'^ 
1896 <5* &&, 1900 &* 



/ Natural Vegetation 



(ii) 

S$ 

(iii) 3?5S)d6odb 
6j)CO(^6;s>( 
/iv) "SsSoc 



JT^I, 



(61) 



$x (Evaporation) 



ocu* 



^^o (Evapotranspiration) 



Eavpotraospiration) 



tfSo (Potential 



ftfi 



1948 






19B5 8* 



1^53*6^0 



, 33cZ&> 



80 



962 -, 



3. 



(Death valley) 



2. 



o>sVo(Western disturbances)^ *j 

2. S 



(Distributed Trade Winds) 
8. 



* >^<> > ^ **or^ AC\ - 



GXP 



(a) 



(b) 

2. 

(a) 
' 



. 3 

* 
fiTtf 

40C-45C 



CO 

3cr>$>6 



(Trough of low Pressure), 
trough) 



8 
breeze), &r- JoSbd^, (Land breeze) 






964 



200-260 "fto.Jb. S5tf&>, 3 

SbrfzS 5Jtf ta<T ' d- " CD 



n 



(Break) 



200800 "ODO. ob s5^o5oo oSdiof^L). 8Joo^bsSo6r6 5. 



d&Sjfi. 1966^^ o-tfo 



224. "Sag" 



71 



.sa 85 



s 



12 



80 



6300, 

o (Biological Mediuoi)iT 



^Biological 



Oceanography \ a, S"is 



g^tb 

C3 



. aaa 

(Sio-Ocean) 



fB.O.) r* 
V x * 



soo 



140 



ooo* 



2. 
8. 



(B.O.S). 



B 



986 



II 




S5S 



sr 



2. 



a 

&T 9 ^5P S:S 



200 



2000 gc3- 3000 

o 



5 
, 53*43 



(Symbiology) 
ff^^o 3oo$3 
3fi 



028 



. ifl 



4. 



TOCP ^ 



I 



8) 



2. 



ii 



.01 



10 2 &o<3 10 4 

10 &c<3 1C 2 



O 

t.Sb. off 8 



2. 



5*. to. 

.001 

.0008 

10,000 

.05 

.OOB 

10 5 

10 4 

10 9 



2) 






66 a 



c 
1 




11 




2. 




8. 



970 



II 



(Biological 



Oceanography) 



cor 



(1) So, (2) i^S" &S ^vfi. 
2; 



. 1959-64 fiot 



225. 



iSb 
L 



ied Sciences) 



SbCf oS^^pco ^06 



(71 



(Physical 



Phenomena^ 



(Temperature) :- 



(^Physical Propeity).^a 



^, sat: 



34-4 



34-5 35-0 35'S % 



* TO 15 20 25 30 > 




" " 



. 

" 



972 



n 



(Polar axis) oo& 



C 



fcoo rfdfefctfo 

a cj 

ofib (Sea Ice) 



r-cS 2f0 



eao 



- ^ C 



1.3. ido 



(Total Salinity) 

\ 



(Total Salinity) 



1. 



cwa od&p&eo (Ions ) 


*.*M X L ^r^ ! 


|^5 (Chloride, Cl - ) 


18 9799 


S^" (Sulphate, So 4 ) 


264.86 


S^S^fi" (Bicarbonate, HCo 3 ) 


0.1397 


\JS*'&5 (Bromide, Br \ 


0.0646 


^3S" (Flouride, F } 


0.0018 


ifr*ac&D (Sodium, Na + ) 


10.6561 


i^A^c&o (Magnesium, Mg ++ ) 


1.2720 


^gc&o (Calcium, Ca + + ) 


0.4001 


aTfij*2xd6o (Potassium, K"**) 


0.8800 


&*^oS.cQbS) (Strontium, Sr + + N j 


0.0138 


S^^o Total 34.4656 


LSB-j* ttei* r&& 1. *, L 2P^Sff !5 s <fr3 t>Stf 



974 S^SfiM II 

81 



690 
( Perturbation ), 3fl 



^Evaporation) 

^o* & {rPSS^i (Sensible heat^ fib* 60 



D?S (Sensible heat \ 

tfOr&odjojco, 

[ ^!g ISo'dj'GO 

i oSciir'SQOw^ Q&\ d*ot^ tOo*.)GP 

rfi 



/Heat budget) 

(Snow) n-^ S6A 



975' 



COD. 



j^Stfeao (General Circul- 



ation : 



- Q 



( Clockwise j 

S^g^) ^Anti Clockwise) 



fc^s M (gulf 

stream), A jtf Sfcftr^a tf 9*2^5* (Kuro 
shio to ^ 



25^5*0 



rfv 






Circulations^ 



|jj?6o"eaeo, 
60^0x1. 



(Upwelling) : 



eaoo, 



tfo 



ASS^OOD. 



8SO 



& 



6 $*& 



978 



S$a$po fcoootfo iProportio - 



nality) 



fifing 



O$BSO 



fa8A?5 



(Process). A^ 



oSSGTo 



1. 



*57? 



(Nutrients) 



S* OS" 



s'fi'es 



(Light Penetration) 



(Radiation) 



200 ibtog 



(Sound Propagation) 



(Navigation)aS 



Stress ) ^tf 



974 



n 



15 fiptfg tfoi&o 



( Perturbation ), 






' f (Tsuuami) 



/Heat budget") 



fEvaporation\ 
(Sensible heat) daSo 



690 



(Sensible heatj 



ofl;6 



(Snow] rp& S5A 



0*^(^0 



| 



j5pSS*o 



S$DotfooT 8 ?&, 



876 



^SS" iSScStfs&efcfLocal Circulations^ 

L \ / 

iSSStfjso (General Circul- 



ation 



(Upwelling) 



esoo, 



( Clockwise 3 

65SSS^g^ ( Anti Clockwise) 



tfj^ 



w " ' w j y^ V B " 11 ^^s fcoSDOBp |Sigo5o^ COP 



fc^S" (gulf 
stream), A^ef SaaS"flr*a ^s*^^ (Kuro 
shio 



&o<3, 



976 






(MoneX-Monsoon Expert cnent\ OPii ). a. SSoj* * 



XV 



226. 



(Nomadic) 



SOPCJ* 
otfo S)S^a 3oa 

(62) 



(Luxurious) S$OX>^)Q&, ^iSS) (Artifi- ^ , a 

\ / L. \ oJQDStS^ 3 

cial) ii 



978 



(Pesticides & Fungicides) 



So 



tf eo 






^0/^0 
o ( Recreational 
aj 



(Aesthetic Sense) So 



^8 



(Oil), 



( Fire wood ) 



Q O 



(Global 



Environment) 



979 



(-'National) 
(Social Needs), 



BSS^So 



(Open drainaces), 
(Slums), "ioto SbsS^eo (Duog 
Hills), e3SSe&tf;&;S ^Sj-c^dooD (Insani. 
trai-ry Roads\ 



^?S (Nutritious) 



830, 



&\ 



& 



227. 

(Accumulate) 



ijS*cS> (Troy) tftftfSa [Sacs 



ffi Cfc * ^ ^ ' 

sj^fi" 35" (Tetraethyl Lead) 



f Radioactive fall-out) 



SStfo, 






fll" 



(Caribou\ 

SS^e 
(Lichen) 



981 
18,000 



3 W^tfgO. 

90 (Strontium-90 ) 



tf& S&tfofb S$oi3Q*53<?!>o& 

a & 

\ AQ 

> (Detergents) : 



3 vj&jjwv?w OAPW x >-"> ^. ,-rB.^ii^ Tav^ ^-.aL_r3 ^wv 



. v-s 
e) 



*AEC (USA) Biological and 
IP *(& aas Medical Advisory Committee Report 

, 1967 3on ^J?Sb BfiLtS D^b (1957) 



<p J * 

3d&<Ko EFliQci&*ex ifia sSipSo^ f D.N O.C ^) dC3o?6e<Iib a-g" 3 SiG* 

ct> q> 



Soo-d'^eo. 



So, 



5^5 83OS), 

?ic OStfSb 



a. a ^ 

(^Degrade) 



( Insecticides 
and Pesticides; Herbicides; Fungi - 

cides ) &. &. a. 



983 



SioS 



" 



rial Wastes) 



. fl 



flndust- 



Arf^tf 






&84 *?S&W It 






(NOV 8. 1975, PTI s*jT. 



S3- fl 



o 

10, 00, 000 



cp.fi* d. dibS. 



Suggested Reading. 

1. Commoner, Barry : Science & 
Survival. Viking Press, N. Y. 1966, 

2. Mellanby, Kenneth : Pesticides 
and Pollution. Collins; The Foru 
tana, New Naturalist. 1967. 

8. Stewart, George R. Not 50 
Rich as you think. Signet, New 
American Library. 1970* 



228 



2600^00 (^Biosphere) 

ts$ 
s a 3 



, Si 

U cL, COO 



8f6oex 






[SSiotS 



8>5' 

83^53* 



20 

SS&ofi. SX)A)^ 80 wtfo && s-tfg 



O 

' 



bic^ 
& 



(Internal Combustion Engines) 

(Oxides), * rf^c3e (Hydrocarbons^ 



n-S', 



87 

fi 
Cj^d>i" ~^~ ^ - ^-' 



$08* 



oc a SQA, S^&o (Nitric 
Acid)n 



OB & tftfas'Sbo Carbonic 
acid)r? 



( Radiation balance ) 



(Snow cover)6A 



i 



981 



, estftf oo* 07? 



1. 



Dom- 



estic sewageV 



2. 

sSc^o^ex) /Industrial organic 
wastes). 

3. # rSoSSMS' sSo-cjGo. (Pesticides) 

4. S5x5^ grQfloi3 io'O'exi (Deter. 
gents)* 

6. ws-tf^aS' S5|^ SSD*o*cx5. (Inorga- 

nic wastes) 
6. S5A ^r>^ s5D6d2DD &3 O^sSa 

Bsfic)^) s3c3a*eo (Crude oil and 

oil disperses ts). 
7. 



8. 



active wastes). 
(Heat). 



(Estuaries) 



g'sofo 






(Level) tSA, 



. a.S' 



Sio 



115 



, '0,000 



d92 






rSoitf 



cides) 



(Herbicides), 
(Fungicides), 
reo (Insecti- 



n-0, SS^&o (SoSbtf fefl 



60^, 



compounds) 



(Organo - phosphorus 



C3-6 



(Land driainage) 



(Organo chlorine 
compounds). 6* &cspgoctt&K a. a. d. 
(D. D. T,) 
4e ft. 4. fi 



o o&5" 



(Clear Lake) 8* 



, A. a a 



5-8 



tfA, S52) a,"! 
mortaliy)e35A?5^ 
plankton) ^oA 
cycle) C3"a a. A. a 
800 



(Mass 
(Phyto 
sSoo&o (Food 



(Lethal dose) 



. A. 



sjt) 



bfl 



con* 



, A a 



O.I Ppm 



60 



(Trout) 

1,0 Ppm 



T 



I 



Ada 



cation) 



II 



COT 



OH* S56f3aex> 



s^tf er $ 



229. 



^ as. 



(Pollutants) 



(Water pollutants) 



(Sewage) Sb fS 



srCb. 



(Aquatic life ) 



(Ecosystems) 



KJ- *8ia!$ 

_. * 

Environment; &, 



(Aquatic 



**' 



ting 



Southwest Monsoon Season). 



(Transition Seasons)^ 
***> 



Level Temperature Inversions) 



989 



T^doN oto-6. MiSs-eon- n-w L ----- - - . 

Islands) _ _^ ^__ KB a-an-atf 1o|0e 

9oS &*. 



Lapse Rite) S3* - m< . & A 



988 



ii 



Soft, 



rOOt^GrSo 



(Temperature Inversion) 



sjfi 






(Atmospheric Turbulence Index). nS rr> 



g&ofl. 



tf o3 ?6 ?v 49 

CO 1 



, rrt 



xo (Comectionj 



3oc3 rv 



si otfo - 



6o(S, 



onal Cooling ) 



capacity) 



He8t 



XVI 



230. 



con- 



^o(fl5 



Sovfo" (Interstellar matter) 



(100 X10 9 ) 
|^ S 
- (Galaxy) 



og 



(Astrology) ^ 
(Alchemy) 



(Milky way) 



996 



n 




66 s. 




120 "So. 



98t 



[/fSSo f 



(Polari8 tion) 




sSiSd^b" (The 



rmo nuclear 



reaction 



L. 



O * 



S&oors* 



898 JDfi^Aasf II 



(2) 






ici5&D.-8}o, tfo*oexn* 

0) 

(2) sScysS tf?\ 






236 



(Apertuare) 



288- 



48 - 
rf" ' S*K, ^oJ ^XiO'o 5*08, 



ft&*: S56^oo5l. 2, S.^ 

v J ; _ ,, , w w< __ iw ww 

D [i)S 



i- o 

200 - sao^s^o fe&rS ijr 8 ^*^, *)dbq5) ^o^b e^djoff 1 



2600 3Ax> 



, * - 

l_*j brf 

(Grating) 



S 



"Ida)!) 

CJ * 



O S5^5$) |jS8008DO Sj^ 

, 12 3S 15 - 



999 



Electric multiplier) o& 



( Photo 

S sro& 



Cb 



system)^ 



dig 



231. 



( Solar 



S^dSb 



(98 



149 
g 
24 



(oblate spheroid) 

rft* tf^SSa "fi^ ar^vofi (Slightly 
indented) cfo^ to^ , A ^^ tf^S&t> 
Slightly extei.ded) cficc^to 
(Artificial Satel'i:e) o 



/Equatorial diameter) 



a. 



12,756 S< 
(Polar diameter ) &^^ i2,69B 
Sbt6, 

CO 

(P. Von Jolly) v?is T 



8 x 10 27 



6.5 B 

O 

(Atmosphere^ 



S'ofiS 



d&c?5^ 



(Ultra-Violet radia 

*f3oc?^ 
^ gWtobrf 



1001 



(Long radio transmission 



(Stream of ionised gas) 

560 



(Auroral 



displays) 



' (Solar wind) y> 
95 ^g Atf^a (Hydrogen), 
5 SPS&J lrS)c6o (Helium) 



(Magnetic 



field) :- 



(Induction by electric eument) 




1008 



(Target) 



e (Projectiles) 



ctions) 



Horizontal 



Motion) 



1851 
(Jeans 



(Pendulum) ^sS(3jAoO 



62 tToif 



( Dome of the Pantheon in Paris ) 1L 
219 o&tfjo 2J*^$)^o Sri 



( Oscillation 



on) 



(Clockewiae directi 



n-ooeo 



(air and water currents) 

[LOW Pressure area) 
(Convection) 



* Q 



(Counter clockwise direction) 



Effect) 



* 1 ( Coriolis 
*s Revolution) 



^X (Elliptical orbit |0*(6oS^tfsSS 



r6tbS&c5* (Perihelion)^ ep3_ 
(Aphelioflj 



1004 SSflitf II 

1,49,600^00 



/Oscillatory movement) & 

&!>ot&&. (Parallactic motions of the 

star) 



3. ^^^o^^o) |jjd&EJSb<5fo 






)o Sfe 



(iv) 



2. S<^sSS2fj. 3 <)aas3rfSx> Radial ^fl- ^ ^J 

Velocity of a Btarj 



s*o 8 
(Displacement] (Refraction) 



18 



(iii) 



(i) r> sS6i 

^ ' j- .j* ^ A ^ . ^s j i nO 



71 



g* 



12 



CO 

So ^e>SS^ 

CO 

a <3T 
r 8 .^n* Ir 



1007 



(Earths Light) So*tf tfoi 



(Crescent Phase) 



_a (Full earth)n 

i 
tfo^ 



15 

(Eclipses) : 



16 s$a 

L & & 2138 ?Sc 





o 

360 &*6x&* &i 



( Shadow j 
^p 
(Total lunar eclipse) 



(Umbra - &&$> . tb 1,888, 



1008 

( Partial lunar eclipse ) 



356, 655 



405, 



648 



373, 358 

* 



270 



Total solar eclipse j $ fi> 



5 



; e^o* 4 J 



10L 



/Similar eclipsesjlS ;S 



(Atmosphere) s 



(Spectrum) 
(Replica) 



(Scattering) 



(1) 
Telescope)^ 



(Astronomical 



(2) 



(Occultation 1 ) 



(3) 

\ / 



(Twilightj ^<^o. ^p^b Jbo<S 



16 (Apollo 15 J 



(Argon) 



TMass Spectrometer) 

.Jtotf 
' (Neon) 



(Carbon dioxide) 



.270 F (-168 C). * 



1010 



ii 



1 4 



(Fra 




8, 



ij5$2x 



(RuggedW 

91BO 



(Gray) 




7. 



Jbdofio. 



3$ 



(floor) 



(80,000 



"itf 



(18,000 



62 



. sjfi i) 



1011 



285 



(Rim) 



1012 



ii 



d&ofi 500 




8. 



Sbtf &oO, OS^ 

, 8)8 3acj 8 

^460 



(Plains of 



(Ri\er 

beds) Q9& rodJcb f ^.a^co ejD cSJ** ^o 

j6^SSt^G5, ggf a c .OgS ^53. 3,^ 

(Collapsed ditches or tensile cracks) 



tfo 



Ifilfi 



16 



(Far side 



(Maria formations) 



24,)969 



llitic rocks), 
(Titaniumj 

' (^Zirconium) 



(Basa- 
i f (Scandium] 



(MetBllic iron) 
3.8 



3.7 
yrarsj; 



(3,7 



4.4 



sSsfi (soil) 

a-S' i '8/ r a) f (Nickel), '&&o- 
(Zincj, *oA* (copper), 3o<S ^Silver), 



'rvaa 3 ' fGlassj 



1 (Spherical) &8d&> 



(Augular) 



' (Aluminium) 
1 ^Calcium) 

- tp"-dfio f ^Titanium) 
i2 ^gSS^rv^xiaj, ' 

SJ^ glass - *reen) 



(Boulder field) 



(Cone crater) 

o 

14 



a^<b& 5 (Orbiters 6) 



(gravity) 



10U 



H 



4.6 



' (Dust) 



(Solar System) 
4,6 



pound) 5er 



Carbon Com- 

)5cX$]0(^ 
w 

(Carbon'; 



.Cosmic material^ 

/ 



. & 



(unsymmetrical) ' 



"3. 



233. 



(Asteroids). 



(Earth), 



(Venus), 

(Jupiter) 



1016 



"Saturn) 



1609 



a 



8. *T. 1781 



(Uranus), I. <f. 1846 0* 
(Neptune), *. 1930 ff 8 



4876.40 
^X) *>&< 
42,648 



5*2^, 



8,C82 ^ 



88 640 



Soix 

a 



.6* 


8P.98 


88 ST^a^co 


886 TO 


3,085 


0.068 


6.46 


*L A *> 


67 20 


224 2 fi^ca-eo 


248 firs9*CO 


7600 


0.8i6 


6. -23 


&*2o 


92 90 


36* 26 5*^ai 


f) O i/ .^ C. fl *\ 

2o no, 00 ro. 


7913 


1.000 


5.52 


gbs-fc 


Hi 6 


e-87 S 4 ^ 


24 /^o B7^. 


4 00 


0.107 


3.98 


ACb* 


488 8 


l! 86 So o 


9 A B6 j. 


88, 40 


818 " 


1.33 


* 


686.9 


. 9 46 HCO 


o o 14 a. 


71 f,dO 


9-. 2 


0.69 


G*]^ Q ^ 


1 b8 


O A f\ ^ 

54 J' cOO'lOj 


1(1 Ao.4o ^ 


^9400 


146 


156 


ai-jb 


2794 


1 64 7B -^oH^x 


16 /< ..48 a 


28.0^0 


1? 8 


2.24 


$r$* 


8870 


247.69 ?5on-3o 


w 


,j.,r 


0.11 ? 


_ 















1016 



ii 



(Laws of Kepler) 

[I. r. 1609 ar 

L c a 



0) l*^ 5/ 
s-tf ^e<3 (Elliptical 



(iii) 



a ecooSSS&rfo, 



3 



JS p 7 



B 




9. 



P r 



S P x P 2 -ftgfi 3 



, B 



101? 



^Masses of the Planets') 



ti 



fDeiroos) 



cS) safl 55 



(Mass) 



, 3 

14,600 ag. 



(Mathematical Expression)^ 



(M + m) P 3 rr Ka 3 



M =: 



p = 



0.108 



K = fetf ?Sc8p^(Conitant cf proporti 
onalityV 



88 



1.262 




1918 



II 



64 



400 F 
ex>tf[ 
S&SSotf 8 S&o&id) 



(Atmospheric molecules) 



?f_ (Gravitational Force) 



Atmosphere) SgjS^to 6^6. 



SCPCP 



). 1962 cSon A^oofiS 14 
2 (Mariner 2) ' 

21, P. 88 ^r 



6 2 



21,598 

' 



1967 Son 



4 (Venera 4) 



90 



^Oxygen), 



CO , 



. 19673 



ner 



6800 



80 



A 5$ 



*|[ e L A$~268 C^-450 F); . 



9U 



(Artificial satel- &*&> (Earth) 



7927 



1619 



33<>c3&5 7900 3^. 6)6 



5.977X102' 



6.62 c3to. 



66 S).o 



365.256 



500 



o*& (Argon") 



(Krypton), 
(Neon) &3do "S^^S (Xenon) 



Darker and 



^Darker Areas) n- 




11. 



II 



4,225 3>6 (Ss? 6799 . So); 

^ CO > 

4198 3> (e& 674,8 . Sb . 

CO V 



3.92 



100 . n. o&^jtfo <\c^> &83^ss ii 33 < o> ijjgg 011 3"3 31 <?& ^pfi^f 6, 

3; 00 



Kg 80F (27 C); 

. 90 F ( - 65C) AodSa&. ^S&co 1971 Son 

r ' *i *^" "^ *^*^*N/?T^ f^n^ T7 ^y" 

s,fl--iaoF(-oo c; 860 



30 KOH 18 ^HCO. 

1986 Son e3 14-16 



& ^aS (Phobos) 
j'Deimos) *& "3-^ 

6800 
ctito SS5 

7 tfo. 39 ^.OD. 3 2r>5 &B3 ^^^3? 2. So ^ (Viking) 

14,600 



Si 6118 SD^ SuSo (3 142,648 fi^ io^g) 

21 



ifiii 



*J 

_ Sa^ 2.64 

'00 jn. K 

3> 284 8. in-. 



SSearfa 



1878 



ou 




12. 



(Elmer Reece) 



4 So ag 53g?oS 



9 ^on 4 JO. 6 "fo. 



Great Red Spot) 
80,00 jfc 



1082 
Wildt) 



f Of (Rupert 
fSao 
(NB 



a f s'Sa (Jean D. Cassmi) 



19523 So 
(Balm and C. A Code) && 



Europa, Ganymede, Calhsto) 



1610 



76,100 S: 
; tf^S a 

109,111 



120,858 
67,800 



CO / 



fib da 



t)&S* 
(lo, 19696* 



(Kuiper), 



^8 



55 



sSo?5 



10 



10 



1966 




1025 



(Audoui 



uin 



860 



4603 

&a* 
1944, SOBS' 1 



17bi KSon jSj-8^ IS S5 
William Hetschel) 



eSb6tf,i (P^e Greenish) 



1 78,8 ,OU,000 



2,86,03,81,900 



84 Sou 

10 rfcii 49 



80 3o ^ 



48 - 279 



_ 186C) 



^Miranda), 
Sj' (Titania) 
Umbriel 



800F 



Ariel), 
(Oberon), 



1.08 



(Spectrum) 



150 



600 



966 S*hjt>Cb). 5 



Sons 1 
1846 



(Adams) 



fLe erriei) 



000 i 



88,000 ^ (Af 46-000 



17.8 



ii 



2.2 



1.41 



6.39 



247.69 



(-212C) 

L KsS*sSSSb 5 
^ a (^Nereid) 



(Triton) 



(-240C) 



2240 



S?S> 

CC 

1849 



200 



, 

* * 



822 < 



jo ^ -ss< * w [ffoJ^g'S'osSoaexj /Asteroids) 

? |. S~oo-^(CIyde W.Tombaugh) *>*&<* ( Com( * a ) 

(Meieoroids) 



3675,OOO f OOO 



6,814,100,000 



19&0 



200 



480 



^ SJOO 



6,954 &&* 

. sSa 

SfldBoS 



(Ceres), ^oS ( Pallas), 
83-^ (Junoj 



480 



, 800 



1931 tfoiitf* ^5*S (Eros) 

&*& o-cr^ 14 
23 



17 



gtf 27 



|^sS?fS'eSSo 



S5o?5 



(Comets) 



(65) 



7g 



(Parabolic^ 
(Hyperbolic) ie 



ifl 



, 19BO 



(Jan Oort) 



150,000 



( 1 



= 9.8 x 107 



/Structure of Comets) 



(Gas Cloud) o>. * ^ 53" 



10 



1-5 



MS. 



10,000 



1026 



', a. 







jptf&oifc stcC 



(C & C,?3 



aff (NH 2 ) S5b5cs& 



(NH) 
(OH) 



(Craters) 



200 



c? 



1027 



(Chemical Composition) afi (i) - 
(ii) o*^ &tiBd& (in) eR&Sa- 



90 



8.5 



24 



36 
, 18 



234. 






rOO 



(Silicon^ 



14 



u 2. 




B L G ^r^ 0; ELY 

; H Y D ^.tfTrs-; K R N 
; P R I ^perP K j ;>0(8; V $ 



N G 



1028 

1980 sS 011 SiEDSSS 16 



1600 .Sb. 



TO. 



60 8. 5b. 






tJo j^Jfioao oSbiS'^ 
1898 ^5 Sjoii 

82 ?ooS6ei^U*O 55c6o^6'oiD, 



(Shadow 

bands) &S>|coo., -S 
60 &o<S 80 So. 



feg'dS 



c?6a 3<^es 



1029 



itii 




2. 



1030 



1980 



, |5) 



S'o^Sb 



3on 



o a 

&( Welders glasses) 



phere) 

( Infra-red ) 



(Photos- 
(Visual) 



S ^g(Short Wavelength) 
"3ad3br ^6"on^o ( Radio waves ) 



CO 



(Chromoshpere) 



1081 



&-& '*_-" " r 



sSaDo5d"o 




8, 



1082 



i. 18513 



ii. 



28S5 



r. 



fEinistein < 



. 1919 



iii. 1882 S ScuS* 



17sS 



24 



, 1999S5 26011 wrfsfc us 



g'co 



Si. 2. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. ''Canon of Solar Eclipses" by .J Meeus, C. Grosjean and . Vanderleen; Pergamon 

Press, 1966. 

2. "Exploration of the Universe" by George O. Abell; CBS College Publishing 

The Dryden Press, 1982. 

3. 'Astronomy: Fundamentals and Frontiers' by Robert Jastrow and Malcom H- Thompson; 

John Wiley and Sons Ine.. New York, London, 1974. 

4. "Astronomy" by Robert H.Baker, Van Norstrand, East Wset Press, 1965. 

5. 'The Eclipse of the Sun', Contribution No. 10 of the Japal - Rangapur Observatories 

by Dr. M.K. Vainu Bappu. 

6. '-Local Circumstances for the Total Solar Eclipse of February 16, 1980 for Indian 

Locations", Contribution No. 1 1 of the Nizam iah and Japal-Rangapur Observatories, 
by P. V. Subrahmanyam and S. Sreedhar Rao. 



235. 



5*00 



12 



(1) 

(2) 
(8) 



2,600 



6,000 



(Aries) 
(Taurus) 
(Gemini) 

(Cancer) 
(Leo) 

(6) ScSg (Virgo) 

(7) ^c (Libra) 

(8) S^tfo (Scorpio) 

(9) tflSa&^ (Sagitarius) 

(10) ^^tfo (Capricorn) 

(11) &ctfo (Aquarius) 

(12) ^So (Pisces) 






88 



27.32 



27 



27 



(Sirios\ e^^ 



(Pole star), 
(Aldebaram) ^ (Betelgure) 



1084 



11 



(Bayer) 



1608 
" (Urano metria) 

&&& 



eg 



(a) . 



soS 



(Y) w^i- 



AotooS* 



_ 



. a, 

24 ^ d ' 






1729 



fc& v Flamsteed) 



(Historia Celestis)e^ 



1,2,8. ..ea 



g- aa 



so88r*S 
HD 47129 
S*3 47129 
400,000 
BD 



2,3,4,5 



100 



33.0 



( Magnitude ) 
20CO 



eg 6 



ss s*oQ ia 



5^,3 s*o 



oOP-oco. 



1b 6 



. 6 



2 612 



o o 

22 



200 - 



1 Si 



-I**,. 


scS ssaofo'Qo 


L *r. 


K^Agefo 


- 26.0 


25,000,000,000 


& L && 


- 4.0 


40 


/uob^So 


- 2.0 


6 


S3* <? O 


- 1.48 


4 


^O cO? 


- 0.77 


2 


^8 


+ 0.08 


1 


o L tf 


+ 1.03 


0.4 


O^oJ 


+ 2JO 


0.16 


^o" " 


+ 22.0 


0.000,000,0016 



I.BX io 19 . 



(Blue) 



('Colour Indexj 



(Visual magnitude) 



II 



r? 



(Blue) 



( Photo 

graph magnitude ) mb rv ^>_^^^- 
& J6Xij* mb, mv 
(mb-mv)& e 



e^sa 



2 S * 

tt 



(Sirius) 
(Capelle) 
(Betelgure ) 



(mb mv) 



- 0.85 

- 0.16 
+ 0.74 
+ 1.74 



3$ 



(Apparent magnitude) 



(1) 
io. 

(2) 



f Absolute 



magnitude) J>co^ 



tifl 



o J.5X10 8 8. Sto. 

2^(53^ 



(3 X 10 10 "So. Sb 



8 



1,6 X 10 8 



lation) StfS. 



f> (Triangu- 



1 . 



1087 




, 1 

a,& 



B. Co <&tfo 

R> ^otpfia. BCA 

CBA g^e^co rosp. euS' gfttfsS3; BC 
o& l^coS* A& BCA, CBA ^e^0^ 
Atj A io<3. "fc^o)?^ ofi AC, AB o 



(Paiallactic motion)?3!0 



2. 




E, SB, 

1 2 



3o<*> 



Sf 



1088 



Y 



0.76 

271400 



asfiasj 



(Vale) 



a-S' '^Colb^^" (Parsec) 
^^ ^tftr-Sb^ 0.5 
Ao "fi (^tfo 2 



0.10 



2,06,265 
3.08 X 10 13 8.8b. 
2fip^o 1.33 
2.6 



4.8 



4,8 



68,000 

9.6 X 10 12 5. Sb.oSb s-S 



4S6 



M 18 

22 3o 



d&qptf 



lute magnitude) 



, 2.7 
10 



(Abso- 



14 SS ^o^bSb tffl&*&oa. 2.7 
n 

- 1.4 tf^|5Pofi 
S)acJi?i>, 10 

+1.5 tf^Tj 

10 



. 10 



(Absolute Visual Magnitude) 



1089 



60 



19. 



j3?To 



(Dispersion of Light) 



) oSdo) d^oixofi. 



hofer) 



. -S 7 



( Fraun 



. baa 



(Kirchoff) 







, cjerj 



. 

o 

s5tf;54jo& 



3. 



), 8^ 



83 



(^Photo - sphere) 



1040 



II 



(Composition) 



5*08 



1922 



M. N 



N Saha) 



o, B, A, F, G, K, M, 



o 

B 
A 
G 

K 

M 



40,000 - 28,000 

2,6000 - 12,000 

11,000 - 8,000 

6,000 - 6,200 

6,000 - 4,000 
8,600 



Ojf 



1041 




8. 



compositioos) 
( Russel ) v 



L,a 



9 



(66) 



(Chemical 



egg 



90 w^sS f 



SOS) 



1.5X 10 8 S.Sb. 
^o 1.4 X 1G 6 3.&. 



spfi 






18 X 10 5 S. Jb. 
108 



O oL 



(Optical Interferometer) 



1042 



li 



1.5 X 10 4 8. Jb eoft &> 

2.5 s 

(Ancaras) 

. io. tto 



3.6 X 



500 



Giants) 



" (Super 
ofi ^i5cp?6g 
" -^Dwarfs) a 



JS 



a 



C304D 



- eo 



60 



2.86 



, 1.4 



- B 



(White Dwarfs) 



S$otfo 



Aodaofl. 



A. (1) 



(2) *O* 



1043 



(Hertz-Sprung 



J&oA, 



and Russel) 



|otf 






.u 

I 



+10 



Supergiants. 




(Main Sequence) 

8 iS& (jS^j. 
S'rSjtfcPax). ifiS^) 
" (While Dwarfs) 



Main sequence 



0*0 

(Giant) &ac&> 



_tf& (Super Gaintj 



_L 



B 



SUD 



White dwarfs 



J L 



_L 



K M 



-5 * 



A F G 

Spectral class 
20,000 10,000 7500 6000 5000 3500 
Surface temperature, K 

4. 



Antares (1000) 



B, 



, 40 $g 60 




8.6 
AotootfO ^ 



2-5 



26 



4-1& 



_ 
H-R 



1044 



it 



(Helium 
P-P 



(P-P Chain reaction) &oto*&. 



_. 

O 



B 



G K 



M 



40 



a.s 



1 6 



1.0 



0.6 



0.2 



(Thermo 






(Catalysist) 



(C.N Cyclic. 



Process) 



Nuclear Reaction) 

^i ^SJdfitftftf 1 ^ 
^Hydrogen Nuclei) 



(Einstein) &o-o^o (E = me 2 ) ijS 



10 21 



n 



sre* 



rftf 



1046 



woe!> <y>o&& 



sp<3 S3 



ofi 



(Black holes n 



CPU c&o. 8). "3* 



236. 



( Milky wayteS) 



(Star 



clusters), 

[Gas and dust colouds) 



tfrS 



(Nebulaej 



( Galaxies 



5*0 c 
18,000 s-oD 



(Plane of Symmetry) 
(Galactic Plane) eS 

- (Star Clusters): 



(Luminous Band) "3o<&, 



(Double Stars) 
(Tiiple Stars) 



(Associations) 



sters), 

ular Clusters^. 



So 



n Clu. 
(Glob- 



1. C00 Clusters 



(Galactic Star 
sS^ 
20 



: sS^sS.J (Taurus) 
^_8^ ^ Pleiades , &*& (Hyades); 
^o'o.to'i' c^ ^Cancer) 
(Praesepe\ ^ 
nices) D-9^ 8 ^ 

( Persius ) o*9 cCbc<Sb/Kc h and X 



Bere- 



1046 



II 




1. 



k {Moving Clusters) 



a 



(Una Major) 



Centanrus ). 



(Tucane) 



47 
(Hercules) 



M 18 



(Variable Stars) 



60 



(Mean Apparent brightness) 

c&qpg [Sos'^^ 
(Horlow Shapley) 



gfioO (Spherical Distribution) dBoaS^ 



(Centre of mass) 



3?, 600 



ciioo^rv 



1047 
Iter Buade) 



i (Population I) 



tion 



Populations) n fi 




(Popula- 



(Disk 



1048 

objects ] 



(Nebulae) 



20,000 



(Scittered Li 



(Reflection ncbult) 



20,000 



(uiltraviolet Radiation) 
S'tfraSSii ( lonization 
(Excitation) 



( Emission lines ) 



ssion Nebula) wo^fib. 



(Emi- 



^o M (Forbidden Lines) 



(Orion) 
( Great Nebula ) 



" (Plan- 



etary Nebulae)oo<&. $3, 



^c3-^^x> (Ejected matter)^ 



3_o (Lyra) 

u* ^?6<adSco f ^5^6 Siotfo&o 
' 1 ( Owl Nebula ) 
' (Vul Pecula) 



i3f*o (Super Nova) n, 



(Crab Nebula jss&tfa UJ54 A. D. 



(Pulsar)n* 



1049 



Polarisation) 



30 



(Interstellar 



dust) : 



(Light absorption) 



(Interstellar reddening) 



( Colour 

3 ^sSSx> 



(Visual 



Light) 



0. 25 



(Magni- 



tudes) 



Stofi 



O.C001 7)0. tb. eS 



( Partially polarization ) 
L sS^ (Degree 
of Polarization) && 'esQ&^^^o 4 ^Sb&, 

flV 






i ^(Direction of Polaris- 



ation)& && 






10- 6 



( Gauss ) o 

Aorfbto ^o3 a- 



(Inter 



stellar gas): 



( Stationary absorpotion lines 



1060 



ii 



lines) 



(Interstellar 



G&JO&&. 



velocities) 



( Gas clouds ^ o 

\ / 



tSb. gg ^550 



(Hydro Carbon and Carbon 
radicals) aotfe 

30d&Sbr5^fi. 



^ 



21 



3 



(Neutral Hydrogen) ^. & 3* 



ioisi ( Distribution ) 



(Spiral ants AS> da 
esjD: (1) 
(Sagittarius 
(Orion 
(Pereus arm). $3 ^>e 

26000, 32600, ^aoCco 42000 



10,QUO 



30 



eseso^eo 






(Galactic Rotation and 



Mass 



1051 
(Highly 



eccentnc) 



(Gravitational force} 
2 X 10 rSoi^^JfsSxo s*e>&&8^ 

_a *<*>*>. ^o fu ^ al force ) 

" 10! 



'^2X 10 11 
60 



237. 

(Galaxies) 



25 



x 1 (Large and small Magellanic 
clouds) 



SO 3o 

160 



IOS2 






f &o,f Andromeda Galaxy Wta&> 



31 SS 



1. 



2. 



. (Ellipti- 



cals (E) 



(Spirals) (S) 




i. 



M 31 



&0 



180 



3. 
4. 



spirals)(S.B) 
^d3aa.(Irregulars ; (Ir)- 



fibo, 



Stars) 



(Young 

teller Gas & Dust) 

(Spiral 



E 4 , E,, E 6 , E ? . 

(a b) 

E cr<? A'o nSoffi<? 10 ^ ^ 

a,b e; 



(Hubble) 



Sa, Sb, Sc, 
. E 7 -Sa o3o 



So 



i068 



>EO E* 17 SQ\ 



2. 



SBa , B 

Sa, Sb, Sc y o 



, s 



Bc 



30 



, 




8. 



; &0<3 NGC 1300 



1054 



(Locil groupj 



17 



, 4 



^^ S&oea 



(Virgo) 3 



. 40 



II 

1000 



. 250 



(Coma) 



10 



2000 



c&oesS (Super Cluster of Galaxies) 



126 



>s 

L 

Sotf^sSoDO rtfs5b3o?5o "* 

: ( ) 



>. (2) 

^t (3) 
(Emission Lines) & 



rSo^i *s5cCi?5d &>&&} S&&, ^g8 2&#sSx> - &ea S^*^Sr6 (Red Sbifi| 



> r 
H w&ta c5& ^Soe>o^ 8s 

> 

17. . ^l^^^l .O 6 s^^a ?C 

10 6 



17 9. S. 

- Q>5b&9 SS^SSc^ttSw ( Red 



Shift): 



(Absorption Lines) 



(Quasi 
Stellar Sources) 



io56 saris' it 



A - w (Period)**, 

3 tf <?s5coc 3 S) 



(Red Shift) 3o&b: tf&^r^83A^a,<&^^ cfi Coo 



iSSxi (Red Shift) &r"|j&cj ^^ &o& 10 13 



. &. 
cfijo- a, "3. 



238. 



fa S^Soo 



t 



0.4 



^lO-* Tbo. 



0.8 



( optical 



w 



indow) 6510 iex^ 



(67) 



, ><5S 



0*0* 



S)so 



3BO 



10 



6ci2S 



T 8 ^0 

<\ 



106$ 



if 



2oS* w (Radio Window). j 



clodio 



1888 
Hertz 



"2jCo(Henreicli gfl 

1928 



Janaky ) 
1932 




t S5" 



*0^, 19 

erfi (Sir Oliver Lodge) 
A', ^o&fi, (Vilsing, 
Shiner) ^?i EpA ai^fefl^rSD, 

/ ^ 

&& (Charles Nordman) 



U.6 



20.63 



HZ 



, 1 MHZ = 
3 



3$ a 



Aotf KG cSAdfc- 



1982 






(1) 5 [SStf'&cfif* SSO^S 
o^o 

(2) 



Grote Reber ) 

a:(l) 



(2) 

J f) 

( 4 ) S 



"Ltf&ST 8 31 w&^o (9.45 
SStf ^co6 tftfjea ii 
1.87 iodog (160 MHZ 



1060 ae;sAatf ii 



160 MHZ ><* 

o 



Co 
( Southworth ) 



Q 



1843 

iCET ABoA A w WQUUL>[\JU owojwruj. > n ,/ *r ^^o / ^ A 

n o tU*a * opooa^^oo coooa 



1942? 

S!P f James Hey"\ && ?&& ^^ ^^ ,.*/-=> ^^ ^ 

^ jj w-^ [jS^joSiX) 6S5c53pA^5x)S^ 

3^ "* 

-VB 



: 76.3; 64.0; 42.7; 45.7; 

loo.o 



1061 



eag 



. sjfi 



(Radio Interferometer) 




2. 



JTCM 



1062 0*?5A&S' II 



0.0001 



M " 



&o^8)S 



*- 

ibdoCb, 



u T >f Sofl SatftfSaco. J)^3 20 

Sao L8tfa - ^"SrSfib D>^ (Prof. Mills) 



S<[jfSbi)a) fl (Radio Stars) 
a. sa fSjjecpSsSaofir 1 a>^ 
4 L s"x> aoaie^ 11 (Crab Nebula)?^ 1948 







(Cygnus) 



1068 



600 



. A 5 
(Cassiopia) 



. sjfiS 



tftfotf "loicpeo. )33 H II 



> (Orion 

1950 cSoS^tfSa ^fi9 33 S' Nebula) sjg 

H II 



Aaa 4< 



(Ultra Violet 
Excess) 

2. 



1970 



II 






(Quasar) 



o^ COCO 
^ 

Shears- 



1867 Son 



-*> 



. 
3 



n 

^^ a 



a" (Pulsars- P1 

20 






120 R 

OAQo -a iS+t *f m o IT - >-" .x..y.v < S-f\ &\ t^(bf6 &2j83a oJO oJj*EaD&O3 21 

tUoo cosfoD roaoa 3.7 



: 1480 MHZ) 
0.25 TiS"^ ?*L 



2.0 "Mo^ ^5Sb &fS^_a. * ?5^e3js5 ^=8oa^!0 5^> -A- JSg)^ (Van de Hullt) 

1946 



oS 

1961 



21 



21 - 
. 1963 rSon 

21 



H 



80 



OO On ojDiOcuD 1968 cOQIIifi' 3 SfcSi CF*|| oS^Q^D, t 

H II ^GO(^O f6oboS$3$rS <^O OH 



n 

s-tftf 



"o 

CO 



111 



1066 



II 



111 



JOS) 



a<ft, 



1100 



24 



So^taSfce. &S ( Focal Line ) 



R>AiS 968 



f ' (Electrical Phasing) 



3^7 M H Z (92 Iborftbfcg 











24 



8, -3Ao3cp> 



^D (Aed - SS^^^ 



630 



30 



530 h>btf 



1087 



tf a 



1974 



6" 



2. co (^Sir Martyn 
Ryle), cs-|db ftscj 6 ^ ^rjasi (Dr. 
Antony Hewvishu 



239. 



Coo, r Astronomical objects) 
ifo ^tfjso 
(Spectral Analysis) O 



(Physical 



menon) e??5o 

6. ^X 1 



Electromagnetic Spectrum 






, (Gamma 



Rays) 



tf J tf^soS iTJ 



tfotfO 



1068 



(quasars), 



eo (Pulsars), 
j (Supernova remnants) 
j^<5"'(BIack Hole) 

' 



(Ultra-violet), X 



^Quasars) : 



2. 



(Quasistellar sources) 
1960SS 

(Mt. Palomar in USA) 
(Schmidt) 



30 



(^resolve) 



16 



C 273 



(Bahner series) 



^Pi^^D (Red^shift) 



10 36 -10 38 



90 



8C 273 
28,400 3j 



10.000 

*80S 



, (Kilowatts) 



tftforf S ^SS^ 0,001 ^ooQ 0.01 



tf 



10 13 , 



100,000 



108 



3. 

Stars') 



va 



(Exploding 



Nova). 



60 &oO 200 



, ?5o-?5S 600 



f 4000 



<53i ^^ "^ 

ai 28 dfio 



(Gravitational Collapse) & STofi, aP 
|Jbeo& (Violent Explosion) 



s-ofi, 



eutf 
T 6 ^ 
10,000 



e.S' o3a 1064 A. D 



3eiT-gT'' (Crab Nebula) 



fTaurus) 



900 



1300 



1070 



II 






, X - 



3 



. x - 



anism) 
4. 



" (Synchrotron Mech- 
od&So. 

(Pulsars) : 



(Pulsed radiation^ arn 

\ / n 



"SI 



(Hewish) 



1974 



1-2 



o (Kilo Parsecs) 
&&* 



200 



io 7 



2000 



2000 



40-5000 



(Mega hertz) 



3 tf P^ 7.6 Sbio^ & 8 ^o.b. 

4X>3 CO 



(Optical luminosity) 



^^ (C 



ore 



density) 3x 1Ql4 



IO 16 
Ko ^X 
(Neutron star). 



(Spinning Neutron stars) 



o<3 



76 sStfgb 70 



5, 



: CNeutron stars and 

^ 



Blackholes) 



(Whi 



ite 



1071 



(10 10 A 



(Repulsive Force)sfo,?S, 



3.5 



(Limiting mass) 



AotfdSb. 



DQ 



8 






X ^E 



(X-ray flashes) 



' (NASA) ?6o^ 1976 sS. ?5o^ 

l as' ?r_Mo 33^' ( nigh 

Energy Astronomical Observatory) 



(Short lived flashes) 



(Cygnus) 



X- 



X ^ 



_ 



6. 



-Ray stars) 

&d6S 



1970 



iota 



ii 



126 X- 



galaxies) 



( Super Nova remnants ) X- 



. (Thermal Elec. 



(Bre- 



(Collision) 
(Inverse compton effect). 



(^Acceleration) 
msstrahluDg\ 

2, 



8. 



(Synchrotron Radiation) 



(Electro-magnetic Spectrums of the 
sun) 



pion) ST 6 ^ Sco X~l 



&oefccSa. 



Nova) 



( Y-ray Astronomy ) 

(Antimatter) 



(Nucleons) 
(Anti nucleons)S* 



(^Charged 



Pi-mesonsN 

/ 



(Muons)rv 
FT&r 



240. 



jpfiV 



H, K 



(Aed shift) 
1929^ 
(Edwin Hubble) 



16 worttfs&o fc'tftfa^a *33xcrn>3_ 



80600- s*o8 tfoSStf-Ntfs&o (SptfSbtf 4 ?6ogg/ Hubble Constant) > 

Deo*) fvbsSj'fib 50 



200 eort^&io iSrtf^a^a KiS* ^^"^S" 3. 26 s*o8 

4CO 



o o 



60 Sfl 

CO 



10 

CJ - J 

1. *> $^G :- 600 



< 
&fib&a o)^ifS^b * 3T*gjo Sjaan* 



(Doppler Effect) 

(68) 



1074 



(Upper Limit)& . 

&*1bX fccpotfsSB (Special Theory of 

Relativity) ^stffi 



SeS5 - 



800,000 *&* 



10 11 



10 21 



TClusters of Galaxies and 
Clusters of Clusters of Galaxies) >tf^& 



2 atfgS^Si 5>0o<5&CD (Cosmolo 
gical Theories^ :- 



(Stati- 



stically) jS&r*;S;Sx>rt 53-giou) 



ii 

nclple) 



3*Jo (Evolutionary Theory) 
(Steady State Theory) 



3. SSS^Sk sr^3Sw (The Evolution 
ary Theory): 

1931 S 
[Lamaitre) s?& 

(Gamow) ts^o sr 



( Primeval Nucleus ) 



(Big Bang) 



(Cosmological Pri- &ofl 



107B 



>" (Proto 

Galaxies) <9o&So. rtribo^tfraSa sSotf 
& o*tf&> Sofl, 
o, ssotfS 



4. CJ&Zf&S S3*tfoj (Steady State 
L SS L 3c&o (Nuclear Reactionaries 3os$ Theory) : 



(Bondi) 

(Elements) Stf^A ^^ (Thomas Gold) 

(Gamow) 5<& 



(Hoyel) 

&o& 



60 



stic Cosmology) j 

8, 



a 

-^ O 

L! Constant^ n* ?^So^ oA fe 



(Cosmological Constant) r^ &aoef a>a 



s5otf& 



(Cosmological Constantj 



1076 a**?s&:><f ii 



(Mecrea) 



10 7 
10,000C 



8K) &otfs5ed3Qo;5)cQfo flS^ (Dicke) 
3K )Stfe8&o :(8K Radiation) 



8K 
4 i-Sa 

Aod 
(Micro 






wave 



a. 

^ 

Dicke ) e?Si $*&&>&> SS'Q^O SSd'es^o ^'^/T'^ofl^ac 3K 



! 



. c&o, 



241. 



i/fero 



J3ofi" (Viking) 
286,000,000 "S^So 



''Viking II) 



Technical) 



(Scientific .& 



Sex&^Stfo. ajfi 



090^65 



(Johannei Kepler) 



(Data) 



1) 



20 



I, 3o<^" II o 



2.^5" ( 



Mariner), 



^So<^ ( Viking ) 



ars 



(Extra Terres- 



trial Life) &^_&, 



Sofi" dSa^o (Viking Era). 



1876 



1078 arias' ii 

ap 

&*o[^J 3c$fotf (Intensive Specialization'^, *>tfo 



( New Breed of Scientisti \ 



(Time & Distance) 

o&tfo<?* 



(1976) 



, 



K a>o BF& 

CO CD 



5bEs>dfc 0.06 


5.6 


0.89 


440 


NO 






6[_Sbifc 0.82 


6.2 


0.72 


700 


10.000 


co 2 


CO, H a O 


$a*Sb 1.00 


6.6 


1.00 


288 


1013 


N 2 3 


Ar f H 2 0, C0 2 



0.01 8.8 - 276 NO 

0.11 4.0 1.52 218 6.6 CO 2 CO, O 2> H 2 , 

H O, O 
81 g 1-8 6.19 H 2 , He CH,. NH^, H a o! 



ro 


96 


0.7 


9.68 


H 2 CH 4 , 


3^^" 


16 


1.8 


19.2 


H CH 


** 








2 4 


cBco'SSS 


17 


1.7 


80.1 


CH 










4 



(Satellite) 

OOP tfa^e* 






9, 1 .1976), &5T5' ^o ^^ fPluto)^ 

* c^ \ / 



1079 



/Space Scientists) 



. 1976 



, Ho 






i'o&'o:, 



(Mount Everest) 



(Water) 



Iba 



75 



(Carbon Dioxide^TB 



Chemical Changes) 



ssflfl 



es ep 



20 



(Limonlte - 



O 3 , x 



O A 

Carbon dioxide 



/Dry Ice-Solid 

* 



(Carbon - Oxygen 
Compounds)-&>apgGrp S'tf^rS 
(Carbon Trioxide) - 



( Photo ^oo (Limonitic Surface) <5* 1> 



Combination) 



(Photo 



1080 



flriSte* II 



Stfra Sfrtftf^ tf^cSSStf 
(Photo Geochemistry) a 



( Microbial life )- 



aa. 



(Chemical 



mo. 



del for Mirsj ^S^ 



Maryland) 



SoflcSoo, 
J 66" 
Peruma 



(University of 

$ 
- a^tft 

3a65 ^ 
(Dr, Cyril Ponnam 

?S 
26 



XVII 




242. 



1.0 



CD t) 



sjoi 



do 



2. 
13 



8. 



2.0 



iSo?5 



. 4. 



, 8. CosS 

6. 



2. 



19 



1082 asptf&bS' II 

]a >Se 



3.0 



*>_ 

3.1 _ 

jStftf Sc^ieslSii (Architecture and 

, 19 S S-B'g&oS jW;, Town Panning) 

295 
(s)3 

356 fe 



58.4 Sto4)6), w'SsSs oc!&> _^o^6o 610^0 ^.^Sioei (Zoning Laws) 

102 
876 



/i co Q *. ^N 3 '2 W5 Scs'joSM (Building- 

(15.6 oJD&D^Oj, SBOjJi) ^ 

/-i OQ Construction^ : 
r i23o ^ 



108S 



Sao tf son* 



OCOD ( 



3_3 



3.5 |S5flS i rtgSg) QoeaS)Qo^ (Public 
Health Engineering) :. 



^ir 



Sis' I. 1). 104, HI. 
3.4 



/ 



Ground Water Engineering): 



(Rock Mechanics): 






1084 



_ 



"3 CO 



, cS>#?5 fvF'tf'OiK&DOD, && ISO 



CO 



3,8. S)0^^S^ QoescbSofc (Structu- 
3.7 J$T d$7o^8S' & $3^ ^jScXiw ra l Engineering): 

(Soil Mechanics) 



le/^5 JoOoJO"vO c630fii ^"C^O ")O S*n O*pQ* 

tfS) f Construction Material^ 
^ \ / 



3.9. 

" "-- " T -v ww \*w MM W W QJU W I>JV^ 

10, 12 



CO 

So 



es&eo 



Deve^ 



II IJE 187) 

3.10 Stftf i&o*j& 4 . 

C 1. STfctf ... 

(Urban Engineering) (Contractors). 

*. *S t/. ^ . rr^ *X inr8 X. . /s . ' 

2. 



sS|&oSb, 

cx5i SSc^o'Co - (Con- 
sultants). 
3. 



, 



4, 

> ; "SoLfidSi 5*g SSa^^c^od^ 

ssa 



6. 



6. 



fceo, 

7. SStf "SoieS, o'ft 
Coco, 



. 



v _ 8. fcSco 

Slfl e5oSr0^oSbQOr6i SfiO\ ^Sa ^i> 

o tJ ^_^^ ^ 

iOTl T*)AUA (0<_ ,_ 



lopment Authority) SoVjta esooo?5&. 8. 



243. 



(Plan) 



ex 



Sfc&o (Map) 



e.S' j 



i 



1962 



OJ 



I3*o 



orSD d(23 



Surveying) 



(0 S' 

(Topographical 
Survey) (ii 



(Cadastral Survey), 
(iii) Stees^) o5^3 
(City Survey). 

2. ajQ ?5^ /Hydrograpbic Survey). 

8. yo^Si S^3 (Astronomical Survey) 

^. ^^ &"S^ 

1. ^O 

/Engineering Survey) 
2. dfotf;3ooa#g3rS% (Military Survey), 
8. /ffS)oj5oa)otf^ ^(Mining Survey), 
4. ^P v^ciJb ?6% (Geological Survey), 
6. ^cr^SsS&Soeotf ?6"3^ (Archaelogical 

Survey). 



108? 



1. fPeo&sS&j (Chain survey), 2. 
J63j5 (Compass survey), 3. 
J6^ (Theodolite survey), 4. 
(Traverse survey), 6. [6&a 
rS^j (Ttiangulation Survey), 6 
S^g (Plane Table survey \ 7. 
[n^ r$3 (Photographic survey), 
8. )&p;5&o &o& 3ci&> rS'Sg, /Aerial 



survey). 



(Chains) 



(Tapes), 



(Angular Measurements) 



(Details), 



(Datum) 



sea Level 



(Theodolite) 



Angles) ; o&, 
Angles)o& 



tal Plane), 
Plane), ^ 



eg 



(b^ (Mean 



S3*3tf<3b. ^i 
(Horizontal 
(Vertical 



(Horizon- 
(Vertical 
(Inclined Plane) 



S (Vernier 



Theodotile), 

(Micrometer theodolite), ^ 

3 <5" (Mictoptic Theodotile) 



1083 



il 



eso 



(Earth Work Calculations)&&6c$ 



ftfi 



(Time), wa^o^&o /Latitude], 
(Longitude) 



i, a-S' 
& ^o 
. tffe&coo 
^Aoti 
(Projections) 



(New Developments): 



aS i(j3j (Triangulation Survey) 



io 



(Geodimeter), 
meter) 



(Telluro 



^oej^} (Laser beam) 



20 



oodi 



(Multiplex', fc 
planigraphs) sSodS 



(Stereo- 



rfdbo-tf 



(Scale)oSo 
^b. &S3T 

, faaijfffl* 



1089 



View^j 

) 



2000 



(Satellite') 



iey** (Exploratory)^ 



nA 



90^^ 



( 

\ 



Field of 



244. 



( Soil Engineering ) 



,o (Soil Mechanics);Bo^s5<5 
^Foundation Engineering^, 



(69) 



(Samples) 



(Unit Weight), ^P^CT Osij a ( Void 
Ratio), &<fi^<s> (Water Content) 



1090 



meability) 



nt) 



i, rf^fccSSb cS 



ial Settleme- 




(Mechanise) 



^^o^Retaining Walls) 



Pressures), 
lbtf|o ( Slope Stability ), 

( Shear Properties ) 



^o^o L 3o<a sSd: 






tntmtmt 



1081 



(Bearing Capacity)!* gtf:$ 




|8o2J 20, 30 Jbdotf 

L co 



Aocl 



s-rr-, 



"3 ) \o)3 Co. 



S*. 



245. 



1092 Ss'SfiiS' II 



8T 

tftftf&carr S tfStf&D c3^)_ &#o (Plinth) 



16 



CO 

^feo5o 2.4 
9.5 






1970 
efig' ?So?6 i Indian Standards Institution) 

^fedSb <JS5^ Sicr^o SJ83otfsj55* (National 
Building Code) ij5i&6cOofi. 



, 34, 

tT > !). 
60 "So. S 



M a 4^ ^ .^ ^ s *^ ~s ~s A >^ > )^ vf o rtnn 



246. 

(Structural Engineering) 



05 



o 



9 Soo 

1 HJ L_ 

^65 2& G sSi' OD , Tc3o 



A 



fefl 
tfo 



, SoSSSeo, 
, ?6(^c^ 
(Retaining Walls) 



ba 

?6, atS) Bo^?6D 

&ao> 



f Aqueducts) 

. ^adJb 

_. --- e, - -- 

(*> 



1094 



(ii) dpSS So^S, *3 Boric 



Botfi o-^a wtfsfco. s-a 



[Strength of Materials)" "d> 
aot$&o (Theory of Structures)" 
U 8>6 ^sSS" fono^&) /Theory ol E*a- 

^ <P Q V ' 

sticityV 1 "^fo^i &CTO^^O f Theory 

'/ ot> o \ 

of Plasticity)" 






minate)(ii) 



(i) 



o, (Deter 



n-S' 



(Rolling 



5Sa* 



ing stress) 



s^R), 



Factor 



of safety) 



3ex>i4ofl. 



8DOO 



ooo) 



factor) 



BOO 



' ( Load 



itf Oflotf S^. 



s? 



SflcXfc, 



a|ofc9fcao^& 



1096 



Otf&cr? 



( N 



picity], 



(Slab) Ai 



oOoSb 



Isotro- 



A^SfioS 



a'02oo'o55 



#/v$otf 



Concrete 1 . 



3*0^!^ 



(Trestressed 



1 ]. 5oil 



1096 e*&5:> II 



- N? 

tJ Q 

t e* 
(Ductile) tfca. 



Jff rftfg 



s- a 

~~ M ~ " * ' 

, 6D. 



Mi, 



Aa 

u k. o ca 

(tendons) 



247- 



(Over-bridgc\ ^^cCco, wci er 8 ^^ B e 

/ co a 

&&Pa2J*dJoaS 
^Under-bridge) 



2B & 80 

3R> 



8 tbd)^ &o^ 8 

O C3 



Bridges), 

8 Sbfiotf ^od 20 Sbafctf sser& 

CO 

(Beam Br 



C3 



(Arch) 

S'&'joK rftffio (Bow-String Girder) 
Q65 |_t>> (Rigid frame) 5So3 
(Spandril-arch) 



1098 



n 



So<S 



sa. 



y\ 5 H L 



. I I .. I I 




sol!&o 

^- 




fcCo 



"55 8tf i_ 



fcflS) 



1099 



3*0 L& 



eo 



SQ^otfaaASD . 






2925 



f Spans) 



84 



Sa^sao 1964 ff* 
1875 flf 1 S^p ii9co3o<5. 9800 



afl 
S < 



Sea 




6. 



(Span) 



i. 



2. 
8. 
4. 

6. 



(Suspension) 



1298 



1964 



1280 


1987' 


604 


1981 


457 


1948 


34 


1964 



248. 



(Hudor) 



fefib 



1100 



1)53 



&d (Hydrostatics) 

(Hydrodynamics) 



. 

L 



^ 11. 

CBO 



iii 






. 






ii. rtdb ^?6o (Friction) ^fl?5 F& 



i, 



llCl 



iv. 



AQ 



tion) 
3. 



Q O 



^ ( Soil 



jjSaS tio^o/Fluid Mechanics) 

NO 



(Compressibilty) 



hammer)5 



isco- 



sity) 



eo 



i^ 



tf^rib 






(Continuity Equ- 



ation) 



1102 



4-2.2 tfS^tf 
Equation 



Sbtf 



(Volume) 



(Momentum 



Sbtf jj 



(Energy Equation) 



[ 



5*4^60^ 



(Vapour) L t 
(Cavities) 

si a 



<( Absolute) 



eso 



(i) "ij 
(ii) 
(iii) 
(iv) 

^v) eao ^esgo 



(vi) igtf a?o 

(Vli) 630 

(viii) eio 



8* a 



1108 



1. . 



^s^rfff 1 ^4^ff^ *T *^* "Ss^oi, 12 a gcJ&fioo. 1970. S&fceoSlO- 

oJjrvJOJJ \<L> oJCJOD f\J 5(0^ OOS S 

8 G. 



( System & Methcd ) 2. . $. S. 



1, asSsSQ.fipa^, 1978 $)&&> 76 80. 
3. tf. SS. S. 



t 
^ SS) &, 1978 ^6Dex 66-89. 



4. S'.sS.cS. 



* u i_ 

tfo- ^oS5)d3 66, 53*^0 CI 6-6; s^*^ Sfig' ?5 ^23 5, 6o>^ 2 iiiff 75 






75, Sfceo 161-167. ^tjeo 53^55 

5 vQ oJO^5 I OQo^) 83O 

6, 



eao ^o tf 



4. 



, SDcScfsp, 60<5r*r 3 2, Sjjbff 76; S^dito 38-42. 

('d&. iS. ^ 1957. 



249. 

( Irrigation ) 



<o. 

Ao<3dx O'Sifu'tO^"^ o$O5J*t^O OC7* 
9 A 

SCT* 5*oo5^oi oJO&CO o5tfo5) fofi"S) 63Q*tf 

*^ 3. * 

&C& t&\ .^80^ 



1104 



II 



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(Benefits of Irrigation) 



2otco (Commercial Crops.) 



of Irrigation.) : 



( Methods 



0* 



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fctfoo- 



Water') 

/ 



(Canal Irriga- 



ion) 



tion 



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sifi 

to 

canals') 

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f Inundation- 

v 



*i^scoSSoSb So^efSbo 



canals) & 
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tion) : 



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(Tank Irriga- 



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>& "fttfjo 3dipeo"3> 



1105 



co 



fi i 
o L 



fiS5g 



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tf o. 

' 



ell Irrigation): 



fcfl 



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(70) 



--*-- 1* 



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ase tfitf&oo (Water wheels) 

(2) 

^8 5*oS$JO &&& ^^8D(2& 16 



fofl 






ij (Til be wells ^ ss&ftS' ^oSS^cCb sStf&oo o*<?cr 

\ / e> Q .} 

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(Level Plots) 



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( i)^ 



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tion). 



(Sub-surface 



(Sprinkler Inigati 



baa 



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V 



Irrigation) 

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spg<5i)exi 



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251. 




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tfotf^otf 



fcfib tffl^otfn* fS 



. Sio^fcfi 



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, S'oo*, 



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o 



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1111 




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(Aeration) 



(Filtration). 



S&tfasoo 



SSo 



ea: n 



(BoriDg wells) 



(Waste Disposal): 
ibc$ S'S', 



SSx>8 



a rf, 



120 fctotf 

CO 



1112 



aiofiofiS 



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g'oo, 

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Chamber)^ 1 



(Grit 



wg'^S (Inorganic) 



Sae (Bacteria) 



(Septic 



?3c?6?i 1868 



252. 

(Environmental Pollution) 



1956 
S'on* 



fib 



L 303 



1968s* 



1113 



, &ojofi" S&tfea&co 
fctib e?SooCp 



(Water Pollution) 



tforv^S 
(Synthetic Drugs Factory) 

(^Waste) fir 8 



70 



cyoe 



1 

L_ 







ej)^colio 



. jfc, 
tttftf L?&orr tfft 



(Air Pollution) : 



(Chimneys) 



, So, 



1114 



dSoo[rc ( Internal 
Combustion Engines N j 



So^SO, 5*55" 



(Mask) 



0.05 

D*OCT 0.71 eS 36 
<o 

2 



1970 8^0 
160 



690 B& 
cS 3l ^dfc o& 3 D eo;g5*d'S' 

/n AVT \ .x-3 sw-'v' C>& <p ^E5*CO 

/r.f\.rN.j ^roocs <Oo4<x)CT* 

^ - ^-- -'-^ ^^-^- S5.57>C^O^O| 



-o^er s*Co 



C3 



1116 



SgcXi 



CO 



253, ^sj^ SbSSSwew-83oejS)8ortb $0*2 esSSooew 
(Earthquake Engineering) 



(ion- 



Sb<58 



fijosafctf Oft, 



C CO 



wowofl, 



1116 



ii 



/Model) 



(laertia) 



t>o auS 



a 







mation 



(Defor- 
JS|S:A 
(Breaking) 



fcozrO, 



oe:>0 






i^o (Vibration) JSi 



^Theory 



of Vibr- 



ions): 



ations 



cfl 



(Oscillation), 

o 

5S_tfS s*oo (Period), sSe^oQ (Ampli- 
tude) sSjCb5roco. ejg 



(Frequency). S^jfio 






Sou) 



( Fundamental Frequencies ) 



(Mechanical Vibra- 



tions) Son-a 






(Seismograph) 



SOtf ^sSrf S*CPCO 



(Displacement) 



(Response Spectrum) 



(Designs)^ ^5? |j<o 



*^ 
1. 



tf S) 



(Liquifaction) 



2- 



Hit 

(Soil Dynamics) 
(Ducti- 



(Brittle) 



3. 



4) 



( Connections) ^D ^ L ^_^ 
(Framed 



Structures 



5. 

(Plans) 
cal) 



io (Symmetri- 






iiis 



)&jfo a.g' 3ooc&ShL (School for 
Research and Training in Earthquake 
Engineering) fco^ta) 3&o<5, stf^-A ifc^a. 3e3 

i^ar "aa, 

I f\ ' 



CO 

. 1962 5 



(Code)^) 5-rtdS L^iprag' or6 (Indian 
Standards Institution) 



XVI It 




-S 



254. 



, gfi 



(1) *T_8 4o^tff v^&3 (Power 
Generation). 



^Design) 
SgcCb^^ 
(Productivity) 




(Technological Era ) 5* |_8 

(*) 

c5oc$>S S^^foS^O. u^^) |O& ( j 



1120 



255. ^J 

( Power Generation ) 



if 



2. C^S 

of Energy): 



(S 



ources 



cS)ot> 



1. ^W^sSaflf* ofioti 
(Fossil buels\. 



2. 



(Hydro) 



8. 25 ex a^rfS (Fission)WeaD 
^Fusion) 

4. c&rtfja S^esroi (Solar Rays) 

5. ^sS?6sSxex> (wind) 

6. RSSbaitfSbo cSbo^jp <afc> a*dooc 
(Tides) 

7. Scp/f^ * (Geothermal) 



(Gas Turbine Power) 






(wind mills) 



1121 



3. 

tions) 



(Power Sta- 



T JS 
(Transmission) 



(Distribution) 



3,1 



(Steam Power Station) 

j 

. 1 SS 




X 



@(gj; 

7^1 ,, 



1. CPCODG^ (Boiler) 2. tog^S" (Tur- 
bine) 8. tfoB^S" (Condenser) 4,3A^e3 
e?2) (Hot Well) e.is'So^ (Feed Pump) 
-6. e*?S3&o (Generator) 7. 
fofib (Circulating Water) 
(71) 



ure Vessel). 



(Expansion) 



fiasco tfAorf 



(Device) 



(Condensate) 



0-00006" ^*as 6 

s:5" iff io^ (Boiler feed Pump) 



3.2 



(Diesel Power Station) 



(Deael) 



(Cylinder 






* Sd-S tf rv 



1132 



(Products of Combustion) 



SVo d&pSiu (Por- 
table Generating Units). 



2. 



>^ (Stand by Unit) 
S)(S" fPeakload 

V 

Unit) n* sp^sS^^o. 

3.4 *t>S>&gT "S^S^W (Hydro- 

Electric Power Stations) : 



(Stand. by Units). 



8. 



4, "5>S 



(Peak Load Units) 



5 ) 



sac 



(Primary source of 
Power in Large Power Plants). 



fcfl 
. 2 25. 



fcfi 



(Head) ^ 




4- 



3 3 3-cSfc <f J S&gS" ' 
(Gas Turbine Power Stations) 



(dam) 

" 



dj*g 



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Tank) 

(Penstock) 



*,$ 



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. 

(Potential Energy)^ &>^ 
^D CVanes) tffl, w 

V > 



(Furnace Oil) 



S ( Mechanical Energy ) n* 



1128 



3.5 S>tt a&glT "3oL#S&> (Nuclear 
Pov/er station) : 

w^ &| S&gS" *3oLtf2So (Thermal 
Power stations) "*& $o#?5&:<i; (Fossil 
fuels) tf-o 0-30* 



(Reserves) 



(R 



esources 



' 9 (Atomic Energy )- 



reac- 



tionsV 

/ 



, 5*6060, 



(Radio- 



active materials ) o 



f 8 , 

* 



eseso 



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(Co 2 ), 



(Organic Fluids, Light Water, Heavy 
water) anl 



(Heat Exchanger) 8* 



(Boiler) 



(Shielding) 



(1) ^07^ S)d3 6dfr!<5' (Boiling - 
water reacton, 

(2) & dS fefi aoS^lS 1 (Pressurised 
water reactor), 

(3) [tfsSg *JpsSio3 ^ootfefeflb 
Gd5j^6" (Liquid metal reactor), 

(4) sjc&o$3 rfo^tfA> adfr|S" 
(Gas Cooled reactor). 

(6) L<SV^ adBWtf (Fast Bree. 
der reactor) 



D, (Fuel care) 
(2j L sS?fS>S'sSx> (Moderator (8) ^tfSS 
(Shield) (4, ^QsJ^g'^ (Reflcior) 
(Reactor Vessel) 
(Control rod) 
(7) fttfa dSStfsSa (Coolant). 



1124 




(1) ec.fr.rs- (2) 
al< (6) & 



(Coolant) ()**> (Shielding) (4) 



(10) 



(18) 



(14) "3(5 



(11) 



mills) 



(Wind 



untries) 

oa*&s^ 

Collectors) 



L 53f &W& (Tropical 



Solar 



(Discs). 



frgSa 



a 



"34. 



256. 



1. 



180 ss ?$o.?s 



(Pompei) 

j* 3dJda 



(Compound 

Steam Engines^ "Srti^ wtf& 
19 sS *o'>&># 7 S-irr 1 . / 

o L ' 



2. 



ofib ^ 



area 



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(Efficiency) 



3. 



, 2. 



3.1 



155 



(i) &oi 



'; (iii) 



co 



3,2. fcfiS 



1. 



CO ' 



(iv) 



1123 

6.1 



li 



(Loco- 



motive Boiler) 





(Babcocfe & Wilcox Boiler). 




(a, a,) 



Ibfib 



1129 



3-SSiF 8 4. 



|So<2> 
i- 



8. 



(Accessories) 



8.1. 



(Feed Pump) 



B5oooo 



(i) ^ft 



(ii) 



(iii) 



8 2. 



(Economiaer) 



8.3. SB" (jb-SntoSi (Air Pre-heater) 



(Super heater) 



9.0. 

20 
(Steam turbinesWSljd) 



(High Pressure Boilers 






(Eenson), (ii) 

(ivj 



S)fl 



Fission) 



3 (i) 3S" 
(Velax) : 
Lamont) 



(Nuclear 



(i) [tj*o 

(Trombay), (}i) frcr'^5' (Tarapore) 
(iii) ^) L c3?3o (Madras) 



5 S3*Q2>o& 



113) 



^Science), 
ertfsS (Technology) <DoS* * a^V^A^ ^tf^ss, * H rf. 

m \ / oj Of O BQ pJ OuQ O lO o3O J3 o (O'viO * 3 "Of 

L j B 



5*3 



(Power- Plant) 



257. < 

(Turbo machinery) 



. r. 1894 fir* 



Aotfc ^_^^>. ^ _ u. 

^Ou) 3*(S)^a, SD^O 1989 T 
4000 



(Steady state continuous 
flow 



f Efficiency 9* r i cCca^)?S> Sbfio^i ( Com- 
v ' ~ . 

pvess) 

&*& 



1930 
( L S ". 1791% 



list 



2. 



8S) 



C3 tJ 



ii. 



(Service - Lifej 
.^. 

SjS) 



id. 

[Fuel) 



iv. 



(Lubricant) 



(v) 



v. 



^Vibrations) 



rvOO 



5iT 



_53 a, "I i^aa (Constant Pre- 



. 

ssure/^ 

ii. 
stant volume) rf 



(Con- 

t&ici 



lifts o**s&s>$' ii 



Si 6 sotfc6&c&> SOBS' 60*30* Ste^S 



_ 



^e i 



^ 

CO 



5. 

^i 6B ^ d&ojjJaao s*tfgtfXtf (Effi- 
ciency) &ed& sio^?i2i P& f_8 (Fuel 
Economy) ^^^g d&o\J$ztio& 



(Simple-turbine) 
(Accessories) 



(Kinetic Energy) n* 

dfctfo* 



CO 

^ " to3 

& "" 



4. 



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1188 



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\ 

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(N. J. Cunot) 



(1769). as. a. 



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(1885), 



(1886) 



1908 




EL GEfi#S 



1184 



IT 



2. 



(1) 



Bflofifrfo 



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81083 



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(S&fSSoO 



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; wi&f fc^dfoe 



,000 



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pJ 



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19 



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t?cr 



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wtfon- ' 



s- fib 



57^ 



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18,000 sStfSo* o 

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o 

^^c^^ 

CO 



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CT'A' 

rk 

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Si 



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ofi. S to, rHtfSb, Jto^Cb 3oo^9 

* CO C3 CO * 



(12 



CO ' CO 



12,000 - 20,000 
12 



1186 



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^[5*0 



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S'OR) fiOSo- 3c&0. 



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ab/T 



118? 






9 - 



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i 



r 



, ao^)oi5S 



(72) 



259. 

(Workshop Machines) 




(i) 



(Welding), 



(Casting), 



[Precision) 



(ii) 



J . 



^Lathe) 




(4) $-$& (3) ar 8 
Bo& ocsD^es 

tfcp;$a,$afoe*) 



(chip) 



2t 



D = 



|*^ (S) 



(L>8Dj 




1189 



eo&Co. &SS 10 o &o<3 80 o 




6o &oA 16 P 



3. 





4. 



i 



1140 



(Drilling Machine): 




(2) 
(Helical flute)* 



(1) 
(2) 
(8) j3 



^tf as 

O (Table) 





\\V\SM 

^ " r^p- -^ 



6. 



tfco. jag) (4) 
(6) 



(6) 



(Lathe) 



(Milling Machine): 



1141 



(Cutter] 



(a) 

(b) 




7. 



(Horizontal) 

sS 
5 




(c) 
(d) 



Cutter 



(Cutter) 

(Work-piece) 



(Chip shape) 




1142 



ii 




10. 






TGrinding 



Machine^ : 




(Tools & Cutteri) 



(Hardness) tfg 



S). 40^ 



J 




^ 

12. 



(1) 



(2) 



CPU w. 



260, 

_ o e Q 

( Workshop Processes ) 




1.1 



nS) 
(Pattern)^ 






&PI 

p u o wvw ^ w u luv-uju-uiau vw 

iao &6 



1 S^^SJ^dSoo sS<J58 (Casting) S'CicS sjoSo^?6: sSiflotido (RammiDg) 

* Q U \ 

2. ffS^ ifiSS (Forging) 

8. "SOorib (Welding) 



a 



(Machining) 

Q 



1. 



1144 



W II 



n-s', 



#06*80 



^ 



eg 



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n-a 



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forging) 



fl 



eo jfcssoab ae* n-a, 



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iwa> 
L 



(Die forging^ : 



(3) 



cyfi 



SbtfjS 



"ifl 



3. 



OB 

fi ajfl. 
* o 



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3. (2) 

(Arc Welding) : 



1146 







rfg 



3. (3) 

Welding) : 



(Resistance 



3. (4) 



tfo So-tffiaoS* 



4. 



^Machining) 



. A 



(i) 
(iii) ^ 



(ii) 



(Tool) 



1146 



(i) 
carbon steel) 



(High 



(ii) a& 



(iv) a 

(v) ^ L ^Si5 (T 



- 
1000 



2. 
8. 
4. 

5. 

6. 



odofi" 



1560-780 
126-75 
616 
26 
876-250 

760^260 
60.0.2 
60^0,2 
6.8-0.2 
60.1.8 
0.8-0.1 



(Electro Discharge machinog), 
StfS (E C M) &QcJ5co 



^Ultrasonic Machining) 



. i. 



XIX 



jgf 

261. 




_S (Solar Energy), 3 
* (Wind Energy), #&>[# 3oo * 
(Tidal Energy), &* tftf^ 6|^J (Geo 
thermal Energy) 



(Primary) * J 



(Universe) 



mercially) 



^<) 



(Efficiency) S* 



^$ (Luxury)ir 



T J ( Activity ) j6 



1148 



it 



ption) 96.5 



(Per Capila Consm- 



SecSofi, 



( Theoritically ) 
(Electricity),*? !^ ?r^&o (Phy 
sics^ aitf S5?tf 

/ 

S^gS"^ wrftfw 
S"o(Practical Way) 



ied Electrical Science 



. ftc3otf Seng 






, 20 



0*30* (1000 
(A.C) 



(Appl- 



(D.C). 



t&D 
o 



rfl, 



aso 



(Steam turbines) &acS:o 1)2 

tf\g s3a^sSbew5x>( Water wheel turbines) 



e^u 

B J 



< (Natural gas) 



Lines ) 



( Receiving 



Substations .) So 



o t ^-^(Distributing Stations 
& Lines") cs*oa latf 

/ O O 



1975 



6,00,000 



10,00,000 



(Transmission) 



650 



800 



10,00,000 



(D. C, Transmission) 



1976 



sS S$x> (Maximum Size 
of Single generator) sao O^gSS'&oer* 
100 Sjrrs'da (wSn- 100,000 

CD \ 

160 
00 



830 



200 33.53-. 65 
ItO SD. 53-. 



600 



^Seao (Designs) 



1986 



1976 
220 1 2). 1980 



400 "g S. 

403 1 a 5 



J (Applied Electricity) 10 



(Elect- 



rical Engineering)^ 



1149 



a- 



1. 



( Principles of Electricity 



2. 



(Electricity Generation) 



( Electric Transmission System ) 



4. 



( Electricity Distribution 
6. S)&j6 6^ ^g25S. 
( Electricity Economics) 



(Practical Experienced) 

^ (Electrical Engineers^ 



- Sofia 



a-A, 



1150 asr^fSSS)^ ll 



0*0 



ar 



262. 

(Electricity Generation) 



axo & L^SJ-SP a&gS" (Direct Current) 

e#g&a3:? i^^SbS" sfSbo S6S (Alternating Current) 

&do& SexSSeaA o3co?6^(S. 

(Very 



High Voltage T^ SoOdSbg 

(Battery Cells), e$o&r5> COP 

\ * / 






SfcSCbeo, no 



iiei 



^Nuclear) *_g 



tftfotf&oo 



(Geothermal 



Energy) e 



Nuclear 



Reactors) 



^)^ /Breeder) 



oxto sSofi 



o-o 



Ao^db. e.g' 3tf;&>rv 



fca?T J(Potentia) Energy) 



^o (Experimental rj (Kia ^ iic Ene rgy)n. 



, 



Water Wheel 






Turbine)^ ^S 



(Steam Tur- 



Sdfcto SeS COP 



ii 



rfr Soccer? firS, 



(Friction), 



&tf?S (Windage) 



( Efficiency ) 



n* 



(Thermo Cuoples), 



(Photo-Electric Cells) 



1676) s^o; 



fl. 



3\ 6 



ftrf 



fc^tfb 



(Steam Torbo Alternator) a,t 

(Speed) 



(Horizontally) 



1000 
(Level Difference or Head) 



1163 



(Verti 



cally) 

L, eras 

a. ia 2 
160 
). 1000 



800 



(Speed) 



. Horizontally" 



(Idle state) 



oj8 ^Operation)S 



Load) 



30 



18.8 



400 8. 



9. 



11 

i 
f Transformers 



( Transmission Lines ] 

(Receiving Stations) 



263. 



(Electricity Generation Methods) 



(Matter) 

(Atom)fiT 1 



S^D^ (Negative) 
(Charge) ^)A c$fcodfc&. S)e3 
(Positive) a 



(73) 



(Oxidation and Reduction) 



ff 8 



(Electrolyte) 



a c? 

-^8 iDoS* 



1154 



li 



( Conventional ) 



(Prime 



cor 



ao^oeo 



cor 



OXP 



eafib^ 



(Efficiency) 



tsSfirv 



T S v 
(wo* 



8000 ^ 8600 



10. 
2000 36^ 



o-to 



(1000 



Turbine\ 



(Capacity 



UOO 



coj* 



(Gas 



(Reactor) 
(Controlled Process) 



sSoa 



^o 0*30* 



1156 



II 



Hydrogen)^) 



& (Mehing Point), &tfe (Friction) 

(Heavy (Alloy) v$ 



8 A 



fin* 



(Magneto HydroDynamics) 



tion) S$o<23 



So6/S" 



( Super Critical Temperatures ) 



cm* 



ooDoS' 



(Fuel Cells) 



(Atmospheric Pollu- 



630 



264. 

(Hydro-electric generation) 



& (Head) 



o o 
49 fotiS) ao 



S '6 



pose) Stf^&oaDn* &*tf* tfr&*oaotf*a. &^o so t>tf\o&e> A-OCP 






*eToi eso 

OOO" ^J'Q, 

rs ^ ^ e~ -^ 

fea 



3. 830 



1168 



II 



(Potential energy) s 



62.g 



62.5 



fctf 



62.5 



0,^3 



(Kinetic Eenergy) 



fea tfc^ r j, 

hanical energy )n- 



(Electric Generator)^**, <&*$* f J 



, fea 



(Windage) ^o^, r #fj 



(Efficiency) 



a f z& 



(Power in kilowatts) &>(Discharge- 



(15,6 fca'o'&3 (Constant) 



4- 



830 



bcorv 8acr>^ciSb&oe>?5b 



a o ej 



cfi 



MR), L 9o<S 



830 



1169 



S'Cfl 



of the 'river Power Station) 



(ii) tf 

(River diversion Power Station) 

(iii) S 

^Storage Reservoir Power Station) 

(iv) sSQS^fcdi 3^ ioSS) 83^^^ 
SdsgSj.o^sSa. ^Reversible or Pumped 
storage Power Station) 



(Weir) tffl, 




- 1 



(u) 



5*6 

oL co 

CO v 



0*0 



1160 



2Se>& SdSbgSj-ojSsSboeo cos* 



[Pen stocks) 

firo^ & 

(Water turbines) 

oa Sitfc 

Sirtf^co^ Sdb^>. ^i Stf&or 
6^^&, 
/Geaeratori^ 




oofi", 
880 sSboeo OOP 



(iii) 



fla 



n* 



"Sbtf 



Soeb 



firt>S5 
(Penstock Pipes)& 

3 



(Down Strean areai)^ 



. 2 



1161 




- 8 



8so 



tftftfS 



(iv) 



wo 



fedon* sSStfo 



s*sSodbo& S),^? 
(Thermal or nuc 



lear) 



is?Sn 



(Electric power) 

cor* 



*, sycjg, 



6. 



(i) 



1162 



(ii) &&# $ SPeoJS (P 



ower cana 



l) : 



(iii) 



ocooSS 



4. fc^8& &*tf otf&o (Pressure Tun 
nel):- 



5. 



(Penstocks) :. 



0*0* 



30* 






S 



/Power House) 



(Inlet Valve) 



(Regulate) 



(Water Wheel) 



[58 L c& (reaction) fea 
BS'^o ItoiJ iSoipfloSSaaa, i$\gx> 



( Kaplan ) 
100 



830 



1163 



UOO 



fefitfotf tf &6d&> 



gS 1 (Pelton) 



1600 ?ioa 5000 



(Tail race) a* 



(generator)^ 



11,000 



is.ooo 



o (Switch Boards) 



(relays^ 



_ttee (Transformers) 



132,000 &r 2,20,000 

oS); Stepped up) 
v 7 



(High voltage yard)?^ Sfl, 
tf&o (Circuit 

breakers) cr^cr aatf (iS^^o^ S*$ 

(Transmission 



265. 

(Thermal Electric Generation) 



(Matter) 
^?6 (^Natural) 



1164 



II 



Point 



(Boiling 



ccog 



, &p3tr, 



(Natural Gas) 



(Matter^ 



mas' (Furnace) ff 

j fWater vessel or drum) 



pand) 



( 



Ex- 



(Pressure) 



(High 

Pressure & high tempreature steam) a 
(Steam turbine) 



COP 



S 



SSjQ\, 



COP 



(Generator) 



(process) 



ney) 



3 fii 

& oc&fi 



s^^ OOP 
(Efficiency)^) fipfc 



eon- 



sStfSb 



1185 



(i) !bfl L 1 
Vessel or 



(Water Pressure 



Steam) rv> 



MOi3*^sS (Saturated 



(Dry] 



(Super Heaters) 



(iij foeS L t) 



. 

S3 

/Sb 



(iiij 



a3&<*b&. 



COP 



(1) ejofitf SgSg (Fuel system), 

(2) BO So^tf S<gSS?6 (Water 
Treatment System', 

(S) 830 zr^fsteXx (Steam Gene- 
ration or Boiler V 

(4) exp3tf SK5tf.!S ^Sg (AshHao- 
dling System), 

(5) flaeea-^ So6(j&E3 (Steam Tur- 



bine), 



(6) SeSfeg'^es BO s5g^ (Cooling 

Water System), 
(1) a&ge33$f&3 (Generator), 

(I) ^o^S 3 & SSS (Fuel System) 



20 



oL 

40 



45 



li 




io<33 



l[ srtfS" fig?" (Waggon Tippler) 



sS #5 (Hopper) S^^ 

a^SS ^DOS ^^& 

er&a (Rubber belt Conveyor) 



(Bunkers) 8*b 



^oSS^ (Stock yard) 






(Pulverising MilIs)So 



(Crusher)* ^sSo 



1167 



on 



(2) 83e 

Treatment System): 



(Water 



(Dissolved salts) 



rities 



f Suspended impu- 
(Fjl- 



(Boiler) S*!5 






(Co* 



rrosve 



(Acid) rv $S^ 
Sx) [Corrosion)^^ 



s?&ocr> (Neither 
acidic nor alkaline) 
Neutral 



ralised Water) 



(Demine- 



3. o ET D ^ttSS'S5w (Steam Gene 
rator or Boiler) 



(Water 



(Bad Conductor) tube Boilers) fc&Sc&a, c3o#sS 






(Fire tube Boilers) 



1168 



II 



(i) 
(ii) 



(i) 



( Pressure Vessel or Drum V 



( Super Heaters ) 



. 100 
40 Sbtotf sS^^b?^, 2GO 

C3 

60 



(down comers) & A 



(raisers) 



Con- 



vection Currents) 66^4, 



[Natural circulation) 



Natural Circulation 



Boilers). 



r Assisted or forced Circulation 



"& 



(Super Heaters) 
(Dry) 

(Turbine)SSb 



(Fuel gas path) 6* 

(Economiser) 



1169 






(Furnace and fuel gas path) 



(Mechanical) 
/Eleccro static) C30afi "Sa^tfswo (Dust 
or ash collectors) 



(Ducting), 



2% So 



(Induced draft Ian). 

S, oo^^ 
(Suction) 3 



4. w&^ S5^c5 SgSS (Ash-hand. 
ling and Disposal System); 



, 

L 



(Forced draft fan) 



(74) 



.8o(3 



5. 



(SteamTurbine) 




2. 



1170 



li 



(Heat Engine), 



(Nozzles) CP^O* 0*0- (Jet) Co^i 



j (Kinetic Energy)n* 



(Rotor ) ^ 



S8[Sc& (Reaction) 






eaction 



/Fixed nozzles) QV>D 



(Axis) ^ 



ular) 



n- 



flow) do3 ^5" 
/perpendic- 
<53btf .as (Radial) 



|Sfi L 3dfib (axial flowo impulse reaction) 

060 



(stages)^* 



(High 



Pressure Stage), e* 



(medi 



ium 



ssure stage) 



ssure 



Stage)^ 



Pre- 



(saturated steam)T> 



(condenser) 



(Hot well) 49^1 e$Q&co. 



[Ij^. rSo^s5coo - High and 
low pressure heaters) 



tfsSu (Fuel gas 

feconomisers^i 

\ / 



eao (condensate) S 
fefl (Boiler feed water) 



(reheaters)&, 



(reheated) 



(Gross efficiency) ! 



6. kti&Sti 0S$|Si3 (Cooling 
Water System) : 



(Condensei) 6* 



creo* 



eo* o I 

J L 



fcfio 



tfooA 



(Open Circuit Cooling) 



oo 



ajcr- 



(Closed Circuit 



Cooling') S 



(Circuation) 6* 

edido 



Sfio^fib 



rNatuial Draft Coolicg Towers) 



oo 



(Forced Daft Cooling Towers^ 



(Con- 



cave)^ 

&Q 

(Thioat) 



(Suction) 






/Beaiingsl 



(G 



enerator 



3 ^S>S (Three phase) 
60 jSo 
(60 Cycles per Second) 



1600 



1172 



8000 



60 



sooo 

3/*Co 
^Speed Reduction gear) 



f\ CJ 



60 



or 



Stator) 



(Static armature 



260 63*r? 



^Hydrogen) 



(Physical 5ize) 



200 



(Cooling) 1 

ll,t)00 S^ 13,800 



(Transformers)^, * 

400 S.5*)& eS5*2poi (Stepped 

e>A, ffitf^u* ^0(&^J^^xio f Transmission 

i ri v 

Line) DJJD* ?3oijv5*^ (Receiving) "Soj^J 



rr 



( Calorific value ) 



II 

( Colorie ) 



30 



Koto 860 



Thermal efficiency) 



(Gross 



860 SJ. x 100% 



idsSjes>lx) 
o ^ 

4000 ^>o<3 4400 esoeb ?3Kto^ 4200 



(Full 



0.6 



(Gross Thermal efficiency) 



0.6 X 4^00 



20 & A 25 



1178 



d&oitf SOJSpesSio 1000 5. 53*. So 



/ Friction ) 
(Windage) 



CO 

^fibn* 



100 5 60 



a. a. "34 



a 



266. 

(Nuclear Electric Generation) 



(Molecules 
and Atoms) : 

f5sS>_?S [tfsSg&o (Matter) wesos^o: 
(Molecules) & *$S f&*^^a^ S'a 

"S e5c3*tfc^ e^eao s^cB^^x^ Sic^25j*es^o^sS^ (Atomic Nutn- 

(Mass) 



(Atoms) &o ^es5ooc (Fucda- 

mental Parheles) g'ocoiS'^ )tf^&i!fcf$^a. (Neutral 

(Element) c^^^ tf ^*|,g^ 8 ^ (Radio Activity) : 
'o"^oi2S^5S?5D J$3j*o r^i'<?^ao (Elements) WaS^ 

Nucleus\ f)/\cJiioo&rSo. A^) tii^JSa* SDDCS o23^ /Periodic Table j 






1174 



n 



(Radio Activity) 



(unstable^ 

(Radio active Isotopes)^ 



(Rdaio Aetire 



DisintegratioD) 



' (Disintegration) 

(Chance) 



(Radio Active 



Radiations) Sg 



j (Energy)8^ 



ervation of mass & Energy) 



. 'otf s5oa^ ceo* 



(Cons- 



(E) 



= L tf X 5 2 (E = m c 2 ) 
T 5 (Energy), ^ (m) 

(Mass), 3 (c) 



J Jtfo (Ergs) 



3 X i 10 



IX (8 X 10 10 ) 2 = 9X 



(Units 



for 



Nuclear Power) : 

ioitf r ' 



(Charge) 



(Unit) 

(Resista- 



nee 



ft-tf 5* 



S*<JT 



ao. 



1176 



('Nuclear Fission): 



Stffib 



ODJ 



(Fission) 



200 ^. i. 5*. (aoOd&S" 



1.6 X 1C"" 6 ^ 



3.2 X 1G~ 4 



g 4 ^ ( 1 X 10 21 ) ci 



3.1 X }0 10 



25,0' 30* s(S~ 



26,00,000 ^430 r a aotf^ 

CO ^~ 



Reaction): 



(Chain 



ion) 



oxr* 



3$ 



(Chain Re 



action) 



1176 asrJS&SbS' II 



'Isotopes} 

92 

> 92 



(Controlles 



Chain Reaction\ : 



tfe 



10,000 

d& a 

838 



cab 239 T 

^5 UO 



phite) 






o, 0*0 

cCb 238 

*>u 

c&> 234 . fi^tf 8 142 &r'2|dr>&eQ &o&^). ^ 9 



148 

&> 



140 - ^ 

OS^pCO O 



dSco 235 



1177 




1178 



ar Reactor) 



(Nucle- 



J (Nucle- 



ar Reactor\ : 



(Design) 

diS 

(shielding) 



(Moderators and Reflectors) 



& (Moderators) 
SSrj JJ-&CB oo^Cf [IP 



^Sso (Reflectors^ 



, cop 



(Hydrogen ^ 



pes) 
18 



(Heavy water). 



^Oxygem 



1o 

18 



sSboiSCb. 



wctf 



(Fuel) : 



0.7 

**8 
2535 



99.8 

^^^ 
ciio 238 



rv, 



1180 



:> ii 



Ao* 



team) 



830 



fat tftfrt (Coolant) a ofl 



(i) sydSo i^o ^^6" SdCo^tf) (Gas- 
Cooled Graphite JReactor) : 

S*/<) ^COr^ 53d30Q$ 33 JpOdio 5 

s^ Itffctftfrfrp ^^sS L.'Ssa^er 8 (Low 
Pressure) s^^o^^. & tf$ Sdfr^eo^ 6 
Sfiin* ancfib id [_#& dSbojisSa (Gas- 
Turbine) & 



(Boiler) 8* 



&&&* ?5^fi3 (Natural) 



(i) 



00 



Pressuri- 



sed Water Reactor) : &&S* 



(Thermal Efficiency) 



2.6 



fc^Soo _, 

Q V 235 

d8oa'3ad6o4> 



(iii) 
Water Reactor) 



(Boiling 



(Heat Exchanger) 



(iv) 

(Sodium Cooled Graphite Reeactor) 



a Oo 

(Corrosion). &o&3 oaj*^ 



a. & 
(Heat Exchanger) 8* tf&c&o 54> -g ^ 23J 338 



, cop 



?T 

/"Fast and Bree- sS3*fio^. aa dio 235 SsS SMSiftS i^ific^ 

c*i 



5d3j2'5b fFast and Bree- sS3*fio^. ga dio 235 

c*i \ 

der Reactors) : 



|<5b (Breeder reactor) [jS& 



^6:) (Fast Reactorj wodatib. 
s^ e 
aS [Fertile) 



228 



. S. 



26T. 

(Principles of Electricity) 



tfo 



cxofl 



as 



r ja 



Q. 



xDo6" 8 



rxSocS^ff ScBrASGOO * tf &&10 oCr&ofi 



_ o L S^ ^^S5o> 624 

d&c& ^otffl S^ cX3coS^r 35 jj$ 



lid* 



CO Q 

(lB40-lB08j' 
(De Magnetej 



ceo* h ^ 






S^ofi fia-tfSsoi ocxigrftf 



tor) o?0c&) 



^Conductor) 
18 i 



85, 



18 



(1737-98) ^53*^ 



s*e>&o<gr*;3 



?oa* 



(1799-1875) 



e 



(Generator"; 



1184 

' 
(Charge) n* 



5", 

' 



( discharg 



i 
O L 



Conventional 



\ 



9 



(Contincously) 

foe 



It 



n*exico 



& : 



(eloctr- 



t 
JL 

. doSb 



CD* o sr 

_ l _- - u - -----QL, TCj 



WODD&O 



fSoSb 



\^ C3 _ 






^5A 
^ : a ? *i 

Q 






(75) 



1186 



fi 



6oO ^*S" (Gauss) 



sooSSx 



S^oS, 



Dielectrics) 



. fcfl 
otS^ 
Jb^^^,335 1> g?6o(5 ^0(3^3, So fl 






116? 



(Closed) 



(atoms) 



iasS 



(Electrolytic Conduction) 



(Resistance) L i 



(Electrolysis) 



3 [C& 






(Eletroplatingj 



(Nuclear reac^ 



(Electric Furnaces) 



1188 



ft 



ft^ifito) wcSfi^^-otf 








(medium) s<5>; 
a rfa oo&S (soft iron) 
, cibtfo 



ooSio 



oooSSxin 1 a-g' S)igC3*pS5'fix)?5o 



ooodiorv 



(Fleming's Right hand 



Rule) 



1188 



1 



\ fc\ 




\ a '\ 




( Sjdo&D 3 ). 



5) 



's' 1 a 




STS'tf 



S>oo 



1179 



0-30- 



235 



(Coolants) : 



oaotfS&o 



(Medium) ^*^ 



(Heat Exchanger) 
cor 



(Super heater^ a<jo 
(Dry) nSo 
Turbines) ftocr 



(Steam 



IPO 



l^fe^tfes* 
(Containers) 



coo* 



. Jrffctftfw 
(Closed Circuit System)^* 



(Heat Receiving Exchanger) c 



1190 



ii 



B ><&!" /Altern- 
ating Current Electricity) , 




So 



8SO 



^Degrees J 




'*" ut &> jAt far* 




100 



16 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 160 166 180 
25.9 50 70.7 86.7 96.6 100 96.6 86.7 70.7 50 26.9 



BO 



1191 



(Phase Sequence] a, S, fc 




1192 



II 



les per Second) (JjdS 3ofi 

3gx> /Frequency) 



50 



. 8 



80UO 



3000 



'S, a) 



^J 33^.0^83(5 65 



60 



tTcSi 



(Commutator) 



l r l 


2 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


16 


20 





40 


8,000 


1,600 


1,000 


760 


600 


600 


876 


800 


200 


160 



3000 



SOOgb 



5j pel), aa 
(Multipoles) 



tricity) : 



( .Physical Size ) 
j^ *3)tfa ^o&&. 
(Direct Current Elec- 



irect Current) 
6 SS 




'&><&\Ctok^ 



lies 



(Carbon Bru- 



shesV li 



o-a OStfo 





N^VVVV^v^^^ 



10 



fContinuous) 



(Resistance) : 



oa<3 
ccoo^ ifto^b SotiSn&cSfi. 



cfidfio, 



(Potential) ^girg^^ |jSofrsSaS* 



ii ** arias' ii 

(Induced 



back electromotive force) 



gnetic Linkages) &9 

^07? 



Linkages)^ 
tfg&E (inductance) 



S*eo; 

* " ***& (Practical unit) 

V \^P*N ^v<^ fc x'*<:>. \ ~Q ... ^ . ,-!. e~ *r.. JQS 



CXXP 



SSfroCfi 



v . _ CS QCi^ilO, Ont^OG !e 

s\ CLiSo, ^ tt I 

(Ohm's Law) > 



(Inductive reactance) 

fcX*^Ai^r* i: 
^Inductive reac- 



._. ^. _ (Frequency) '!r' 
tancej: v ; 



CT 

2 ^ ^* x 



3.1416) 






So Stft2bfcir sy^^ idsSj ^ff*<jSco /Material resista - 

co o u e v 

6 &?^ nee) 



tance) &aofe> [S 
tive reactance) 



(resis- 
'Induc- 



(" Impedence drop 

' 



(Condenser)e3o<&&. 



(Condenser discharg 



1196 



(Discharge) 



wol> 



S&gS" 



5*^4 

(Condensers)^ 
3&&. 
(Capacitance) 



1196 



ii 



( Indu- 



(Resistance) 
ctive reactance i &6c&> 
&oo(Capacitance reactaDCe)?5oc&> g 
S&& S5od^) esfcog'tf (Circuit Impedance) 
wo&fio. si(3 



(Electrical generator): 



spSSS'sioX), 



OOP 



SOTS' 
(Prime mover)3 | 
<&o$x 
o (Stator) 
(rotor). 



(field coils) & 



(armature) 



or axle)^ 



d&<3 SeigS" 



(shaft 



gftfrfc. 



(friction contact) 

8Dti<8 S5od6^a (circui 

s^efc 
(armature) ft 



(alternator^ 

(D.C)^ 



(Stator)flr* 



rame 






phases) 3(31)4^ esc&dSS 
S'ccxoS' 



(three 

, oo&fi ^c 



(Commuta- 



(Electric Motor) ; 

oo'4 f 

a<S)g" 



li97 



Q 



cap ^SySSS'sSxG^^ cifiao 



8 s5d Three phase System 






(Difference in degrees or Phase (Units): 

oiiierence )o5o (Oospaj5' loJojSjpotjbo^ob^o /:\ c\*s- ...... / vr -* cHJ-dss* /\7^i 

/CD I > I 1 I QJ QJ CJ O^ "\ "S 3 EDOouOOOS oJ O3 [ V Ol 

tage N : fitS J)goS'sSbo <^co; 1000 
/ u 

a.S' gS^^ex) (K. V.) 

/r> + * w T- u\ v ^^ (ii) ^^J^ ^NSPSS'SiD (Current) : 

(Rotating Mengnetic Field) i^s^^^a V / e- J v y 



(iii) ^<ii.g" ^sSig'jSb (Power) 



ooofi 



1000 5^to)uo fiu^3(?* 5Ftx>; 1000 






So, [jJsiESfi^ ?6oS5^^ ^ocX5b^ (Closed 



Circuit)rv W - JW w ^ w .^ ^-.^-w (iv) ^J (Energy) :^^ 



"i^SSa, 



. rfofc. 
rfodo 



(1) 10 to&^o Q66 1171 

^)&S 

(Power) 9T"eot) oy^abiDol)^ S)i5 

^Energv^i T*ex)i> 536"-wsS5"-iodoCb f2\ 

v -' / \ / 



(3) 111 

661 ag SsSjS 



(4) 
(Motor) 



(5) 40 53fc r*&tfgs$x> tfe 25 

i^ tfodo ki*b&&. 

(6) 17 3>og SfiSS 10 



100 







. CP. 



268. 



(Electricity Transmission System) 



(i) 



(A. C.) S 



S^ j-o ^ 






j6 (Transmission System) fc$ 



Godownsj 



(Central 



(Retail Dealers)^ 



S?6 [Sotf, &e&ET 
o ^- o */ 



(Receiving Stations)^ fefor' 

Stations^) 



g&oo (Transmission Lines)rbcnr 



o*ox) 



(Voltage) 

5*g* 11,000 
c^ 

8^ S^CGCO 



11 8.5*. 



66 8. <3* 3 rv!0 p 182 "V. S 



220 3. 



Voltage 



*|E (Extra High 
. si<23 ^tfS$ tpficr) 
*^^OD (E.H.V. 

n \ 

Transmission Lines) asi SS^S ^^ 
*^_i "loj^SaoJi, rfoijrSpg' (Recei- 

ving) "3o|tfs^o& sea ss^^g tfa*&r6' 

S (Main Transmission Line Net- 
work)^ dpTo&&. e 

(Sub) 



(High Voltage) 



. esig 



(Grid) 



(Interconnedionsj 



t Ib^b-o 



(Regions)n 



(Ulcra 



High Voltage) 



(Extra High Voltage) 



(Indian National Power Grid) 



ScoS:e)&?ij. 



SsSdsSboeo 



a-OS 



( Electro 



Magnetic Induction") 

/ 



( Transformers \ 

"Sp^ 

6x1) 



, t)<S 

<fid&, 
o 

Sftfctf (Power 



Capacity)?^ 

?. S), <^ (K. V. A 



(M. V. 



( Potential ) 



(Spark) dtf o*:$&o (Arc), 



1200 



it 



iffy 53if:SSSb &&&. 



A - O 

(Insulator Strings) 



(Different Phaies) 



(Elec. 



trie Faults) 



O&gS 
Circuit Breakers 
(Automatically) 



(Electric 



Arre- 
sters) iSSspSj* &6cJfo tftf^ SpQ^eaoeo 
(Current and Potential Transformers) 
3x)<3o<*o 6"^?3* ^p^?6sSxcx) (Protection 
Equipmentj 



268 A 

(Transmission Lines) 



Transmission) 



ofl 



(Power 



L3sp^ g (Alternating Current Sy- 
stem) o&odi 



(Transformer) 



SgSSS 





A 
\ 



f 



\ 






f^ 

<D' 



V 



> 



- 



cS 

T 







x V > 



> > N J 

I i 



> > 

351. a 



1261 






(76) 



Sfcsfc* L SfibiSbv 



Stfcgf 



1202 



II 



(Voltage) 



(Generation Voltage) 
f Stepping upV 



^sS"lo[_S^)ofReceving and Sub- 
Stations) 6* a a&gn^eS'oosSafi fiQA 
^aoe5j (Stepping 



gSSx> (Electric Power) 
(Voltage), 



(Current) 



= vxi) 

v P) wtfn- 
w'V) 

S5 (I) 



(P) 
(I) 



(R) 



(Electric Power)& 



11,000 



(Volts) ^ 
J 132,000 
(Step up) 



400,000 



5 230 &oa 415 



(Selection of Voltage) 



182,000 



4CO 000 5*0)0 



(Power), 



(Conductor) 



tf&rtb 



tfolfe oSi'dftS 

*- Ck 



120& 



(Copper) 



(Aluminiun) 




(Conductor) 87 



STEEL STRANDS 
QTRAU 




61 

i 
SS 80 



54 
'Spiral^n* 



(Supports) : 



38,000 <S*ex> 



(Towers) 



(Potential) &rieo 



Sootfrfo 
( Steel Towers ) 



1000 



1400 

bfiS o^sa 
(Indian Electricity Rules) 



5 



70 &o<3 100 



(Insulators) 



(Zero Potential) S'OA 



(Insulation) 

^oSte&otfSb 

(Insulators) 



.' si S> &r>&j*ex>n Sion-eS (Porcel- 
ain)^ n*^, rres* ( glass )3 4 rr*a r 



1204 



glass), |.|>F (Plastic^ 
LiSb (fibre S565ae i6ifi SB ff 1 




1206 



2>d&fio (Lightning Stroke") 




STRING, OF INSULATORS 



o5<S .Lightning Stroke) 




1207 



(Induction) 



Current)^ 



es 



ooo 



, 0*3 



Alternating 



49 

(Induction) 



( Coils ) & op9?6S 



coj* 



^ ( Primary Winding ) 



dbdo (Secondary Winding) 



COT* 



(Electric Equipment & 
(Transformerj <5 



&Qcj&> 



(Alternating Current System^ 



", 000 



1S2,000 



66,OCO 



220,000; 

1)00 



1208 



(Receiving Stations )&, *s$\ 
(Sub-Stations) 
83,000 &ec& 11,000 

ir 

L 



415 



280 



g> (Pri- 

mary Winding) ^>6cC5b fi*e 
condary Winding), 3a^R 
o^sS (Soft Iron Core) iSbtop, e-S' 



(Current') 



(Magnetic Field) 



(Induced Electric Cu- 



rrent 



dtt>so&f5. 



- K. V. A.) 



V. A) 



& 1209) 



I, 2, 3, 19, 20 
4,6 

6. 

7, 8. 9 

10. 

II, 17 
12 

18, 14, 18, 21 

IS, 16 



1. 

(Core): 



(Insulator Hustings) 
S^ff ^tC& (Conser 
vator) 

*|> 5 60-^ (T p 
Cover) 

a S tf en GO (Radia- 
tors) 



(Tempara 
ture Indicator) 



(O. L. T. C.) 



(Main Tank) 



Drain valves) 



1208 



(Insul- terials)&> 




2 fert Cfctoeo (Windings) : 

12) 



TCore) J 



OAoO, coj- So tf 





(Insulated) 

&&>, rTe 

w ' 

(Dielectric Ma 



18,14 



(Jack) 3 ^& 



1210 

<5o26)do5o #?o^ 



8)& 



4. 



(Radiators) 



7 8,9.) 



rrS 

. a a 



(Radiators) 

COF 



tf 4j 



"3bofc&So&, efe'aStfesoo 



9 9 



^tf 



(Conservator^ : 
4,6 Sowgeo) 

no^S"^ 



(Insulating Oil), 



B g, 



(Cylindrical) 



(Conservator) 



II 



So tf fc ja 



(Breather) 



6. S)&gi"oos: 
tor Bushings) :^ 



(Insula- 



1,2,8) 



srA 



fla 



cction ) 
7. 



(Conn- 



(OX.T.C): 

a) 11,17) 



1211 



ttte.1 


28 4 5 


(i) Sco^o 0&S& (Total 
weight) H. . oJ* 


(U M.V.A. 


1 M.V.A, 


10 M.V.A. 


100 M.V.A. 


1,000 


4,000 


40,000 


115,000 


2?~ ^ 


1.2X 1.7 X 
0.9 


1.6 X 1.6 X 

2.1 


7.2 X 5.1 X 
4.0 


10X4.6X0.6 


(ill) 3&gl> eotf^ 
Sj-^SSiST' ra &o (In sula- 
ting Oil), 1. A. oS* 


2^0 


750 


18,000 


40,000 



268 C. 

(Switch Gears) 



C, System^ 



Gears) 
^^SsS 
Breaker) 



ioisl 
e^SSS^ 
(Circuits) 6xr 



3cc& 
cuit Breaker) 



( Circuit 
(Electric Cir. 



. Asa 



So 



1212 



II 



n-S, 



(F 



aultf 



S_a (Fuse) 



n*S) 



( Accident ) 



(Control) 



(Fault Level) Is 



(Phase] 



(Fault) 



(Fixed Contacts] si6diic tfotf (Moving) 



6 



tftfO&fcrfb, 
& ^ 
(Arc) 



(Insulating oil) 

o, s 
(Gas) rr 



i^(Bulk Oil Curcuit Breaker) 



1,2,8. 



(Bushings). 



(Arc 



Control Chamber) 

5. tie>?S ^ooSd^pd (Moving 

Contact) 
8. &rI3 S'spfc&o (Valve For oil) 



1213 




OlU \MMERSED CONTACTS OF MODERN 
ClRCUVT BREAKER, 152 K.V, 2j5OO MVA 

L e$ 



7. 



8,9, 10. (Tank) 
11. 



11,000 



(Operating Mechanism). 



220,000 



, ^0^ 



cJioo^?6o. 



BreakersJ&, 



(Minimum oil Circuit 



(Air 



Blast Circut Breakers) 



Sr-3, 



(Medium) 



cpo<3 



(Steel Tank)g 



Switches) ; 



Sfo^. wto 



( Circuit )& 



Sb&eo (Air Break 



(Lever) 



bution and Utilisation") 



269. 

(Electricity Distribution System) 

: (Distri- 



132S.<5*. &ao& 220 .,5* 



220 



Ci 

132 . 

33 . 



220 . 



33/11 3. 5 s . 



(Stepdown) 



300 (Transformers) cr^o* 



Switches) 
88/114. 



(To control) 
(Circuitbreakersj 
Ibfioa) /Air break 



88/11 



SSolcXib 

& " -adb^) (Load) 
. ^a ioieS 



Power 



(Over load)?$& 



r_^ 38/11 . <sr 8 . 

sS, 11 3. 5*. 



(Heavy 

Load Consumers) tf2tos3&o;$& ax* 83/11 
4. 5*. 



1816 



OXP 



tfa (Ring 



(Neutral Points) 

S5 ^ sS^i^ (Low tension 
System)^ 5j-tfeD& Sdo?3 tfoiS (Neutral 
Wire') 



33/11 5. 
11 3. 5* Aorftffc 
11 .<S^. 



. && iPhaie 



, 416 



<6co (Safety Fuses) 



n.4. d/ 



-rfVVVN -^vLn^ 

t m t t f t t TTTt 

rT^TTTTTT 1 J] 



-i 




t .t t f t 



(0 



(System) ^x> rf 
o^o* S^_a3c6aa f (Spa)8cpr6jf^ (Zero- 
potential) $&ribo*a (Return path) r? 



1216 



ii 



11 . cST 8 . 



119. ,3^/416 5*. o 

Sb^pi ?f ^ (Low tension) 
. 505. 5j. ^ 3jf 75 
J ( Horse Power) sr 9 ^^ ^e D^ 
11 8. 5*. 5* 



112. 



50 S.5P. 



4. 

O 

(Three Phase)lj 

230 



415 



4 . 



(Single Phase Supply), 



(Three 



phase Supply) ajsS^ 



33. 5. ,3*. tfojfe ^^ 






(Tubular, Rail or R,S, Joint poles)5o 

dj-5^3 

. 116. 



90 ^o<5 150 Sb&tf 

o 



75 &o<S 80 S3o6^> Ao&Sb. 

(Low Tension Lines) 



o$o&oo 



45 &o& 60 



1 S. 5*, 



6 iofcOS, cootftf 5*t 4.6 



<e, 



43 & 
(vertically j 



8.75 



2.5 



n 

1.25 



(horizontally) 
1.88 



(Stranded Steel Wires j^b ^ 

O^^x)?6 ei 

^j-^e^ 

(Stay Wi 



1217 






11 S.^ 6 2SptfsSno"i, 11 8, 5*. 415 

r 

100 S^. S (K.V.A) 



Switches) 



Sb&exi (air break 
a&o (fases) 



5) (distribution box) 



phase ^wi 



phase 5 wirejir 1 



3 ^Q 5 

O f * 



45. 



(Insulated service wires)3ciie3& 



(aerial fuses) 0*^0* S'coS3g)2fc?6b. 



836 button board) 



! ironclad cutouts\ 



(energy 



meter 



(main switch) 



^oD (section^fuse8\ 



(^Sockets) 



( Earth \ 

\ / 



(metal bodies) S) 



) tDoj s 8>8 

* ^y 

(single phase service connection) 

S>8 



ofts 



(insulated\ 



ii 



(Loadj B)fl rS 
(Sections )n- 



(Sockets) 



t 



Jid4, 



r 



O^vieC!^ 



: 



L~<.. f-o 



4 



U*"^ 

f&3^A ** 



vl 

V3 



v -f 



S\ ~*. \ 



2. 



ioieS 



1219 



(Wiriag) 
(Insulation), 
(Capacity) 




1220 



XI 



3 (Short Circuit) 



(Earth Fault) e3 oc&db. 



(Resistance) 



_6 (Safety Fuse) 

-S&j^o 
(Faulty Section) 



(Resistance) 



tfo. ( 

L 



(Three Pin plug)& 



(Resistance) 



, 033 a $ 6 



(Earth) 



fcfi 



6^?^ (e.g'tf 



D(b 

CO 



CDJ 



(Sockets) 



1221 



j J 



5s 






oootftf 



(i) 



S* 



^ 6s3^x)co 6, IB, 26, 40, 60, 
100, 150, 200, 500, 1000 



(h) *&*) &S5^ ( Mercury 
Discharge Lamp) : 



Hourescent- 



Lampj : 



1222 aefiS>5 II 



(Hot Plates), 



, , 

CD > ^ F O 

fib, 

C3 



(Ultra violet raysj 



og 



1. tf&c&*tfo (Electric Clock) 3o& 2 

2. sS> tf^dfisSbo (Coffee Percolafor) 8 
8, iojp (Fan) lf 7 
4. atfrf (Radiator or heater") rtot>& 1 

(Domestic Motor) 3o& 1 

8. esj(^ "S^l) (Electric Iron) ,, 6 

7. Siiaoo (Lights) 10 - 16 

8. 3<3c3j> (Radio) lf 7 
9 S^fe ^gB (Refrigerator) ,, 86 

10. cgc ^to dfcojftfco (Sewing Machine) 51 ^ 

11. GT|> s*ex e?*g5" (Bread Toaster) ., 3 

12. rta Itffctftfd (Air Conditioner) 40 



1298 



- 


IT G rofi' 

CD 


^rrr 


1 . S*6^ 4 


4, 80,000 


240 


2. ov&eo 8 


I 9 00,000 


460 


8. SPrrSb 8 


9, CO.OOO 


450 


4. SeaSb 10 80, 00,000 


1600 


6. <stf<3 12 24, C0,000 


1200 


8. ^tfn-d&OD 6 


18, 00,000 


900 


7. tf&o^&eo 36 72, 00,000 


8GCO 



* a 


^i 1 /"^ 


1. ASb^ (Stell) fc& 


V& 100 ^oA 200 

oL 


2. o& ^[flT&o (Alloy Steel) 


600 


8. *&> ^TdjsSxoo ., 700 - 800 


(T" o 




4. ^L?* sSj-o^fc?i 


2800 - 8600 


6. "&I5 4 S>s*5 


8000 


6. WOTg^So 


17000-18000 


7. GJ?^)^O 3$beo, ^6S^ex> 


6000 


C ' CJ 




8. $ L a>d ^fib^tu 




V / JCD o 


14000-16000 


ill t Si fu WC3*oon* 


8800 


V / n 




Tiii^ 3v* ^cj'^c'n* 


2700 - 8000 


9. &fcSb\ 


tOOO - 7000 


C9 O f 


' 


10. 33* O* o^'oS SiiOO 


660 


n^x 
fOBiiN 


200 


12. s3ofcvP^ 


80 


18. sS^fS^Q 


220 


14. 3S> 


800 



1224 



II 



16. fca>o<5" (Cement) 

16. JSr-eo 

17. 

18. 

19. 

20. 



1C 00 
10. < 
10. 
1000 



SO. HO 

487 

200 

8100 

472 

80 



270. 

(Electricity Economics) 

(Load Factor) 



1. ^^>^J (Power) 

2. rj (Energy) 
(1) 



3, 



(2) 



010 c& 



Curve) 



(Daily Load Curve) 
(System) 



cSb 



(1) 



1225 















X 


:o* 


10 


cu 


#w 


ro 


FA 


1A\ 


rw 


/A* 


V 


M4 


Nt 


> 












V 






























































































































































600 






































6C 


62 

























J 




/ 


"**, 




















/ 


V 












t 
1 












/ 


\ 


/ 






\ 










4 


/ 






' > 


^^ 










Szv; 












/ 












s 








/ 












X 








S 

Q 












/ 


































\ 






* 

* 




X 


X 




^ 






































\ 




5*a 




















































1 
















































^ 




1 




















































'SO 










































































H 


tx 


R f 












a n 


z 


2 


r ^ 


a a 


9 ) 


t 



(5} 
\ / 



(Genral Reserve). 



(Optimum) sS|dSoS* 



1,2, g 
(Fixed charge) e^^) 3,4 o& 



49 



(1) 



(Depreciation 



aso 



(8) 



(^Consumables) ^ 



tftfg&wa 



830 



1226 



Ji 



J 



two part 



Tariff) 



3 



Sgc&SSxi 



fitf 



SgdSoo 5 



1227 



(Fuel Surcharge^, 



XX 



271. 

(Electronics and Communication Engineering) 



(Emitting) 



( Absorbing 



C7 63 



( Applications ) fS 



So^sa ArO'^sSa (Ray emissionj o 



(Spontaneous) 



o 

be 



1887 



cor 



)SPc#o' 



2X083* 



- (Diode) 



1908 



, So"" 






L todajS' ^ (Triode) 



1948 



( Satellite ), [jod&*es 
( Space Craft ') 



1229 



1. 

5" S)^ ^Electronics including Mo 
dern Advances) 

2. 
3. 



5. 

6. A 

(Satellits Communication's 

7. "eb>^5>, "SOJ^Ibj 
(Carrier Current) 

_5c$s55co (Applied) 



272. 



7^6", 3(6" 



1668 r tfo& |_ 

^ ,oX^ ^^^ 



^5" ^cdb Atf (Dash) 



U S"O 

^ 



1280 



it 




[4Qtf 



tic) 



* 59 



fAutoma- 



24 



2. 



Scxio 



1281 




; 6. 



8 
a.S' 




8. 



1. V 



. S- 



053*5$. ra 



:- (t) 
director)- "I Dififisoeo (2\ >|^ Director) 



(Exchange] 



Sg'&oA 



3. 



(Carrier 
v - 



Telephone System) 



^Modulate) 
(Moaulated) 



f Demodulate) cSofi, 



o i Band Pass 

\ 



1283 



Filters) 



(Repeater) o&> S5 



(Coaxial Cable) 



(Power Line Carrier Telephone System) 



1. Telegraphy by J. W* 
body. Pitman Publication 

2. Telephony Vol.I-by J. Atkinson- 
Pitman Publication. 

3. Telephony Vol.II-by J. Atkinson- 
Pitman publication. 

4, Carrier Current Engineering 
by P. N. Dass - Modern Book 
Agency Pvt, Ltd, Calcutta. 



2T3. 



5> 



(Radar) 



. w<S *Radio 



Detection And Ranging' 



ff (Hertz) 



(Scatter) 



(78) 



(lonosphoric Layer) 



il 



(Sri Robertson Watt)& 







oxifi 



eifi acr i Cb 



1. SCCPJ D'crS" TPulse Radar) 

2. Stfotftf tftfo^ 83^^ oop5 ^Con- 
tinuous wave radar) 



(Frequency modulation radar") 



(ii) 

(Frequency Shift Radar or Dopplcr 
Radar) 




&*&&& , icxi^ (Pulse) 
2o$ 53i^ ^s ^SS'^'J ^^ 
,<y.a ur) 3rfeo^ (Pulse.Width) 
oS ^^g3j 
'Pulie Repeti- 



tion Time' (Td) 59^)0200, 



2. 



IT 



(Pulse Repetition Fre- 



quency fn= - 



Duty Cycle ( T xfn ) 
2 



)0 



200 



10,000 



ooofi 



_ 10 K.W Soi 1 M.W 

Peak power^o Sec^cen sSre 
(Antenna) n^o* f*^S) (Space) 



Receiver \ 



rvofl, 



COP tf 



(Indicator) 



200-400 



^ (Peak Power) 100 kw 



J (Average Power) oo ^ 



2. 



(Continuous Wave Radar) : 



(Phase) 
ier) 



(1) 6^0 (Amplitude) (2) 
(Frequncy) (3) 



(Carr- 



AJS^fiS 



>. (Amplitude Mo~ 
dulated Wave) wo^Cb. &&&> 8 



Modulated Wave) 



f6 (Phase) 



4. 



Modulated Wave) &> 




n-, 



Frequeuey 




fctfotf 
sSbo' (Phase 



n 



(Frequency. Modulation) 



(Frequency Shift Radar) : 



Ci 

^^ 



(Pilot) 



Reference : 

1 . Electronic and Radio Eng.by F.E. 

Terman (Me Graw Hill) 
2. Principles of Radar by Reint- 

zes and Coate. 
8. A. B. C. of Radar by Alan An- 

drews Foulsham-Sams^England) 

4. Introduction to Radar by Dennis 
Taylor, Newnes (London) 



274. 

(Television) 



S5" 



SCPOT* ^ 



3&d3rg'oei> 



54 

to 61 MH Z 61 to 68 M. H z ; 209 to 
216 MH Z ; oj 



64 to 88 MH ; 174 to 216 
z 

M H_ ; 470 to 890 M H, 





(Bands) 



COP 



iG 



(Line of Sight) 



1003. Sb. 



(Repeaters) 



CDJ* 



(Sattelite Instructional Tele 
vision ExperimentV 



Zone ) tf& 



&&> ( Broadcast 
, w^ "BOaaS" "3o[tf 
* (Channel) 



1959 



o (Video Signals)^ 
(Amplitude modulation) 



(Audio Signals)^ 
(Frequency Modulation] 



1238 



li 



COT* 



* (Amplitude modulated Trans- 
mitter), tr^s $?5g gatf |6^tfd8bo|jJsS 
(Frequency Modulated Transmitter) 



, SCPQT* ^odj^Co* "BO 
s^oSO S^^bg^iT 
(Black 



and White) 



(Four way Beam Splitter) 
&S> db?SThree-wa Be- 



am Splitter & 



(Lenses), 3 dx> 

\ / ^ . C5 



: 1. S>& 2, ^ S. $&* 



(Persistance of Vision) 



1 (Picture Ele 




1239 



'(Visual Information) 

^3S 
38), 



(Sampling) 3R> | 

D' (Scanning) 



(Progressive Linear Scanning) 



(Inlerlaced Scanning) w& S 




2 a 



iS 



(Field) 



(Frame) 
2 (a) (b) 



25 



O Q 



625 



Leo 



1240 



o^as&'(Composite Video Signal) 



at-600 v 



e35otf^e>4 



^S ttS^n* 



IV 



(Distribution), 



(Deposit) 



126 



/ 



6oO, 



(Elecsron Mulsiplier) 



Modulation) 



(Negativ 



Aotaofi. 



7 
j 
6.5 MH 



tfoS- 



Devia- 



tion) 60 MH Z 
8 



1241 



tf So 
(Picturetube)b 



275. 



rtfiou) 



(S'ecrecy) 



waves), 



(Electromagnetic 
5" 



(Video Recording) 



References :- 

1, Electronics and Radio Engg. by 
F.E. Terman (Me. Graw Hill) 

2, Hasic Television : Vol I and V. 
Alexander Schune, Joho F. Rider 

Publication 

3, I.S.I Monographs on Television 
Transmission 



1242 



II 



t>> 



T i *-** 



50 



^0 



2.). 



sa-fioSs 



a* 

I - WSA/ 



/ 




.tf" 



Scfio 



jjSo ^cfibon 1 
atfW s*D^ 
(&: ojd;^ 5,) 



cm* 




~^ 

03 



** 




"34 



dual field) <s5ofcr-&. 
"Sapexi SSex>fo& o^os* 



(Resi- 






Electric 



Ckts) 



OGJ 



- is 

L 



3 



ag 

(Short), w6 
Short) 



,* 

7 . 

COP 

Scrfe, 



"I 

__, 

0)6066" ^aod 



afl f 



(Medium), 
, (Very and ultra 



260 



1244 a-ciA!>3 II 

ar 



&p rpS) S' 



Sofl tfeS, 
fi8oJ3 



(Layers) 

80 SorFSj'S eo 



a 



50 

'a 11 cor* 



6^?5sS)d3b? $R^ tftfo/TO) ^ 
t$ 



j^SSx Sic <3 ijS^ifo e$di>g 



-tf?S SoS S?cS^tfg&o "ifib 16-6000 

(80 X 10 6 



1246 



%i? 



///yy^^ L 
*j-* 

>O[C 



L 



$ * p 

tn create- 51 * 
e^a*^.^ 

X <**1Tfc>W 



**<*4 >] 

^**' o 
trTAI 



3 
i^<T 



GO 



3000 

* C3 

3c&gcr3 
3000 



(Wave Lengeh) 
60 %. 



(Modulation)^ 

Seid^s*^ 840 

a es^aj 

840 S."2j*. ^o* 



ier Frequency). 



cor* 



^^ (Modulation) 





> <5 



i>s.* i* 



> s? 3 

oL 



(2) 



^ea (Amplitude) 



ceo* 



(Amplitude Mo 
^tfa (V ) 



^tfra (V s ) 



BOO 



Ao<bJ-o<3. 



1246 




124? 



(Product Device) 
(Output) 



(Filter)^ 



(Amplifier) 
art ad" (Output) "SdgEQa" (Input)o, 
(Gain) n* 



(Amplitude) 
Sofiou), 



StfotfS&eo 



s^rr, 
(Modulated Amplifiers) 0*00* s5:r 



( Medium wave Broad cast) 



Sofl, 



wave?r 



" ( Skip distance ) 



Aotoofi. 



i/<frou)S 



termediate Frequency) rr 



" (In- 



(Frequen- 



cy Changing ^ 



1248 

8-aS. 



465. 5. 



_ 

840 S.t^. &&* a. 



840+ 455= 12955. ^. 
770 5. & \Xfro3 
770 + 



456 = 1225 8. "a*, 



. t9o"& 



oxr 



466 S. 



_ 
Irs i 



cor* 



$03* 



a-;Ss3^ (Sb. Ir 9 .) 



COP 



? _ , 





J)o 




1249 



1 1 



rftf 



(Datum Line) & 3otf 3 



(Demodula 





CDJ 



t K\/ ** 



Aotoofi. t Oifij&Sb 



tf jffiaeSb, 



0*^0* 



, SS)<23?6<3 



AoA'B 



1250 



600 9. 



1760$, ^. 



tbtf 



cCbodjocD. 



^ to CONGO 



rftforro 



(Skip Distatice) 



cor- 



22.5^.1^.0 
^0(3 90 
Sfofi 



2.6 3 
(13 



(Overseas Communication Series] GOJ 



6joa3^6o^T?5o 



(Remote Control)sS& 



1251 



276. 



&oixio<3, 



on* c 



9 5. 



(^Semi Conductor Techno- 



logy) W 



c, dtf 



(Program) |jSstf&o 



" (Control Unit) 



(Arithmetic Unit) 



PROCESSOR 



on 






MEMORY 



JifWiryi | nnfcvtrt 

D-tHH 



Memory 



Control fc 
Processor - 



ii. 



(Secondary 
(Magnetic Tapes) ' 
(Magnetic Tapes) 



(Drums] 



ity)3 M &*SotfgS M (Capacity) 
(Accent time^SSpes^) 3 : 

(Kilowords) 
(Micro seconds) 



Hiqh$pd dram 



L*dlumipd random accc5& bu/k 



Central Processor =- -joitf 

S^tfo; Semi conductor ,cr 
. - Q 

g'Sbo; High speed core -sieg- -gx^) 

Low speed core w'erJ'SX'SS r*f ; High speed 
drum-2- $r*3>r;j) i -crS; "Sequential (magne- 
tic tape) bulk storage 



Card Reader) 




cJbo|&ce (Magnetic 
Inter Cha- racter Readers ) tf\I" 



1253 



(Optical Character 



Readers )/^ 



(Card Ponch)^ 



_ 

" (Line Paintar) 



Tape Drive 



Unit) 

x 



fi^fib 



(Prog 



ram s : 






stfg 



(Sub-roniineV 



SB Sb 



'exr-S 1 (Loop) 



.tf 



o&oa 
( Debugging \ 






gnostics^ 



8 
coo 



(Fortron), 

(^Cobol) 
&SSdbflocJtfo 



eo 



1264 



( Assemble) 
pretation & Translate) 



(Inter- 



(System Soft ware) ^ojfio. ^e fo 



(By sharing time) 
o ( Terminals ) 



AoA, 



(Communication) 



s5{T (Close coupled Com 
puter Network) wo4jCb. 



I fROCESSOR 
* - -- -- 1 



\/ 



23- Control ealht 



^---.- -<' 



4. 



Processor 



; Memory anSr Sv^fibj; Control =2 



['Soft ware'](ExecQtive(&o^)[Monitor 
). Super vilion 






dofl, 



J256 



(Specific) 



( Peripheral ) iatfs 



(Applications') : 



^Process Controls), 



(Artificial Intelligence) 



?6D 



(Informa- 



tion Systems) 
( Data Reductson 

f Retreival)e>& S)^ Q 



260 



cnn S. S 
Bibiliograpliy, 

1. 'Taster Than Thought 1 ' B. W. 
Bowden, Pitman (1969). 

2. Basic Machine Principle, J K. 
Iliffet. Macdonald, 1968. 

3. Principles of Digital Computer 
Programming. V Rajavarman. 
Prentice Hall, 1970. 



ellites) :- 



(Orbits) 



2T7. 

(Communication Satellites) 

(Artificial Sat- ( Monitoring \ 

$ (Periodic) 



tfod&f 



&*0caofi" ' 



ooj 



(Space) 



(Emission) 



19, 1975 



^data) ic 

L^f^ L 3*6S*fc, 
(Bear Lake) &>8d)o 



Jff 



,( Artificial ) 



( Radiation ) 



( Nasa ) 

1960 



" ( Echo 1 ) 



O.OOOE 



_tfS ( Reflecting ) 



(Electric Signals) 

r 



igo 

soo 



(Quality) 



SiotfoXo ecj*gcac&o 
I4 i*,2 w [S. IT 1964 



125,7 



^o (Comm,- 
unication Satellite Technology ) 
!$$ (Active) e&toff (Repeater) ASS 



(Tclstar) 



(Nasa) 



, |_5.iT 1982-0* 
(Microwave) 
Commumication 



6800 

(Frequency)^ 
(Electro magnetic) ?So"^ 
(-Sign ah j & |nStfo (Receive) 3& 
88A oa* ?6o"lo*o^ 4 170 "2on*"S^5" 
tT^s^^g^ (Frequ! 
( Transmit ) S"fca. 
10 9 Bto (Times) 
o ( Amplify ) ,^1) tfe>?6 
( Travelling Wave Tube ) go 



5i 



S * (WideFrcqu-: 



ency- Band Channel \ 600 

/ n 

(On* way) sp-^jodfiSD (Voice Circuit) 
Q&, f,tf dfi?tf^a^a ( Television ) &$ 
60 <>&. (Two-way 
6g^( Narrew, 
ency Band ).?6o^er 
(CapalbiUty) 

(Re volutions) fir* II .' 
^tftfg^ (Television) 
( Relay -)- 



(Orbit) 



ofiofi. 



(Synchronous Communication 
Satellites & ?&^ S^forocrsSa. 
rt^ [IX 1945 Rj-a 1 ! ^5". ft. 
(Arthur C. Clarke) ^^ jj)<3& 



(Space Craft) ? 
^2,800 



(Equator) 



^ Jfr&tfg cJ4>^ a^oorj(Stationary) 



120 



(Nasaj SoS 
tfj^S>&> (Syn- 
com Programme)^ 4 |J3c5ajVvo5* 5Jj"S 
'( Watts) f^o-tfoS fc 
(Travelling wave Tube) 
(Tfansforrtier") 



-Satellite) 0[p' 

(Fascionile^ ^fejfV (TWo- ' 
way) siS" So3?T (Voice message) I;SSr 



(New Jersy) 



(Data Signals) ijS 



1259 



(Commercial 



Satellites) : 



. 1964 

a 

(International Consortium) 

i. *. 1968 



60 3reo ctto&^r 8 (Intelsraf) 

9 * j 



6 06"" (The early bird) 

(Intelstat n '3 
6, 1986 ^^ 1S 13d 



:Tele- 



vilion) 



il. <", 



1967 



8DAi6a. sofcfi" &ff U eS "4 do 

a 
^i^Sie 56 

160 

(Synchronous) 
240 (S^sSptf 5 
circuits) L i^cT f JS> 



(Voice 



1966 
III 



, [l.f. 1963^ 



1200 ^aj-tf (Two way) 3-tf(godS> 
(Voice circuit) {TJ^ S 



j 



Television 



( Telphone ) 
(Data - Signal) 



(Channels) 



(Satellite Instructional 
Television Experiment) 



(Naia) 



. ^. 1975 



(Application Techno- 
logy Satellite AT, S-6) <rjg 



(Television) 



"l 



o n-co 



(Receiving) 



2500 



10 



(Antenna) cc 



^gsSa (Frequency) S* 



1259 



68 SOT 
^ f ijSoS" 
end Converter) 



(Future Syscems) : 



53-0 



278. 



(Televis- 



(Front ion) 



(Computer) 
(Stored) stf 
^Efficiency) d*, 



CO 



(Electron Devices) 



[tx3j<f( Vacuum Triode)&6dtfl 



[I. ^T. 19 a 

(Fleming) 
(Thermionic) 
diode) 



20 



(Vacuum 



vers) G* 



(Radio recei- 
& (Crystal diode) 



|4. ^ 1948 6* 3< 
(Bell Telephone Laboratory) oQ<5 

(Transistor) 



1260 



II 



(Thermionic Device) e>* sS 1 ^ (Silicon Planar Technology)' 

^TransistorS ^*^1 .'^^9^^- 

(Discrete devices) 



; I'ffBO 336 
(Thermionic") 
jSg' (Transister) 
(Semiconductor) 
(Power) 



^Minimization^. c^ 



cofldctor) 



: (Switching) 



(Power) rio |jfSj 

freqancy) i S6i 

/ ^ * 



ton) Do i ?5o5* #d 
W 



Ston 



(Inherent) 
facc^aiBsivatJ6n) ^ 



[4. ^J960 



Semi- 



urizatios ) Sc , 
miniaturization V& 
(Integrated device) o 



(niiniaU 
(' micro- 



Audio. 



(Continental Devi- 

CiS, if\>b- ~ oij&fi^ OSolsbS" fSemi COD- 
/ o \ - ' * 

ductors Ltd U pSj\Sos^S&^ , >Sip"S)5. 

(Bharat Electronics Ltd), ^o5^5"^ esS 

^oJi*gdoCb^ OS)D"&5 (Electronics of Com- 

_, puters Ltd), r^os^"\ ser\"3^ ( S' s^ 

aa oJ J 

sjoacacp Di"S)(5" (Electronics Corportion 
' 'bf'lndi^Ltd) 



(Semi 

\ 



emicon- 



fDiffu- J 

' 



sSjfl 
'' * 



'_Sg^ (Sur- 



-/ Electron tube") o 

C V / 

os A^Soi, c5j3l 6fr 
ft2P& (Foreign. C6- 



, -COP, 



(Electron Tube). 






>&& (Solid State) 



s$S6~ 



/High power 



Devices), 




i*? (Microwave) 

' &*tf-tf^a (Television)^* 
(Pickup.) ^ 



(" Electron 
-Optical Device&V ' .. . -^-^ 

Sfib fGas Lasers") fi^'s^tx) 

o V , J 

dis 



charge devices), 



(High power)'" 



r (Display) 



Display Devices) o 






beam)oS* 
Current densities^ 



(Electron 
(High 



(Colour Television display device ) * 



3. LSStftfj$ (Display) 
[*Sb5" (Cathode Chromic), 
(Thermo Plastic) 



(Electron Beam'i 

5 : ' ' ' 

(Scanning) jfir* I&*^P iar^oS" 
(Vacuum Tube) *& ie^^&D, b^(b 

Vc?' ey -- - - nro 

(.Targets-)^ tf sj'^g' -(Semiconductor) 
*$ Se^sS^aW^,,'? ^cTfi$a^. (Tele,. 
visipn), sS (pickup^ d 



arge)o; 

d&^sS SSS" 
(R ange)fi^ 



power ) 



'o 1 Hydro-Dynamic Generators 1 ) 



range) 



aff*' (Frequency 
& (Gun doides), S 
" 



(Microwavej 



(Reflex Klystron) o" 



(Solid State,, Deyice^V ibrgcpa^ 

Sd5 (Narrow Frequency bapd) 



ii 



2)^*6 tTtfs $Sj* (Broad 
Frequency Band) &>A;6 tfocS tftfort 
j*& (Travailing wave tube) 



(Magnetron) 
(Klystron) &6o&> 
(Travelling wave Tube) ejcfl 
(Micro wave) 



i 

L 



tfs- (Hybrid Type) o 



(Slow wave Stru- 



ctures) t, 



CD?* 



(Microwave) 



(High Power Devices) 



(Supersonic) 



(Targets) 



Tube) o 

S&So 

grated Devices) : 

^0^,5 
Epuipment) 



(Power) & Atf^fi 
(Microwave 



(Inte- 
(Electron 



(Metal Chassis') o"3b, 

v. y _ 

board; o 
(Component) 



fi^Co (Tae- 

^ e 



(Circuit) 



o (Integrated Circuit). 



(Size) 



(Weight) 5* f tftf (Cost)flf* 



(Medium Scale Inte- 

gration), "ifi rftfrfa S^S'o^ (Large 
Scale Integration) A^j^ 

S8BSj-Sh, S 



1. 



2. 



film hybtid) t 



(Thick 
(Thin 



film hybrid), 

8. g^^cr-S" s^c^CSf (Bipolar Mo- 
nolithic), 

4. 6*6* v'L^ &6&fr3 (Metal 
Oxide Semiconductor) 
(Manolithic). 

\S*g CfipiS'ojS (Design) 
gaS (Precise) idfr 

(Integrated 



Circuits j es^c (Complex' 
fiSjf (Discrete) 



Scale Integration) 



(Large 



Devices 



2. 



^ 



(Openended) 
^Monolitbic) ^j-g^ex) 
(Arrays). 

3. a,"3 ^SSj'g'e^ ioc&^^Individual Ic) 

4. iex) ^^fi'c^ ^oci&^o^ f Multiple 
Ic f s, ' 

5. SjtfjsS) 
(MSI) 

6. 



(More Cir- 



cuit Complexity)^ 



1268 



(Ic's) 



grated Circuits Votf 
ductors), 



(Inte- 
(Semicon- 



ductor Junction) o^ 
(Optical), >*?$ a&jff (Piezo Electric), 
(Thermo Electric) 



Transmission) _ 



(Signal 



Dk.de) 



(Light Emitting Diode) 
(Phoio 



: C.V.N. 



XXI 

279. 



2? 



^p^&, 
;$ iSBfSSr " 






280* 

(Fertilizers' Technology) 



1. [**& R2?^ OCisfew (Natural 
Fertilizers) : 



/m v^ ,, ^ thetic Fertilizers^ 

(rlants)So ofo 2r^ Scr^fiaeo fNutri- ' 

*\ vv'i- //nt. 

ems) e9jaotfScd&>&. S^g'i o& ^Stf rS(JJa (Nitrogen^, ^co^o^a (Pho- 

sphorous), rtctf^Sfo /Sulphur), ^ " 
(potash) 



'( Fertilizer s) wo&&. dfiWft "Bfio^ett (Chemical Fertilizers) 

, . . \ / 






16 



1. 3"> (Carbon). 

2. &fea (Hydrogen). 
8. <9&e33 (Oxygen), 

CO 

iXSzF^S S^sl^ SSo-g&oeo (Primary 
Nutrients): 

4. S^eaa (Nitrogen). 

5. 55*?S^^o (Phosphorous). 
gTdj'S (Potosh). 

II. BotfsSStfKS 
dary Nutrients) 



(Secon- 

^ 



7. 

8. 

9. 

III. 



(Calcium). 

(Magnecium). 
(Sulphur). 



10. 
11. 



18. 

14. 
IB. 
16. 



(Micro Nutrients). 
(Boron). 

(Chlorine). 
(Copper). 
(Iron). 
(Manganese). 

QMolvbdeeam). 
(Zinc). 



8,3" 



(80) 



1. 
tilizers). 

2. 
tic Complex Fertilizer) 



1266 
(Nitrogenous per- 



^L.^ 83 ^ (Nitrogen) 
^ (Hydrogen). ?6 



(^Natural Gas) : 

(CH 4 ), 5 



60 



90 



" v Coke Oven Gas) 

(Coke) rv 



(Naphtha) 



(Dis- 



tillation)^ 



(Boiling Point) 215 



'?5^ 



Aotfdfi. 



1266 



t (Petroleeum Refi- 



nariy) 



I. 



(Electrolysis) 



(Electrode) 



(CO 3 ) 



rv 



: 65 



II. 



(i) fcS 
ming) 



(Steam 



(ii) ^6066" wS^tfaSSa (Partial 

Oxidation). 

(iii) n&S)^aiS ^5 ^6* (Gasifica- 
tion of coal\ 



c3o3ofia 



(Catalyst) 5* 

0*00* 
o 



CH 4 + H 2 -* CO + 8 H 2 
C 3 H g + 3H 2 ^ SCO 4- 7H 2 
C n H an + (2+n)H 2 0-* r CO + 

(2n+l)H 2 

C f H m + nH 2 -> n CO f ( -+-L )H, 
CO -H H 2 > C0 2 -f H 2 



985C 
III. 



(CO,) 



(CO 2 ), 



1267 



H 2 



T*<3 



(Below 



IV. 



S3-CS&S&& 15,20 
(Methanolamine^ 



80GC 



CH 4 +H 2 



V. 



= 2NH 



Scojg (10CO) e*flb&o (Atmospherei) 



1. 
Sulphate) 

2. 

Chloride) 

8. 



^fi" (Ammonium 
^S^ (Ammonium 



x Calcium Ammonium 
Nitrate or CAN) 
4. dSb6c^ (Urea) 

1. 



(Sulphuric aci 



(Chemical Reaction)5S 



2. 

Chloric Acid\ 



H 2 S0 4 ^ (NH) 4 SO 4 

( Hydro 



NH 3 + HC1 = NH 4 C1 



1268 



it 



(Nitric Acid) 

2-10 



& 



(Piatinum) 



NH 3 + HN0 3 = NH 4 N0 3 



c&o 



( Nitro Chalk ) 



(Granulation) 



2l 



4. 



(Urea] : 



(C0 2 ) oox^^ c' 



2NH 



NH 4 C0 2 NH 2 



2- 



tic Complex Fertilizers 



CO 2 NH 2 

: a co NH^O 

(Urea) 

(Thospha- 



j 



o-ox (Apatite Rock) &* e 

o*o*> (Flora Patite Rock 1 flf* 



(Rhodium) (Chlorine : 



2xd6o, 



1- 

Phosphate) 



(Single Super 



3[CaH 4 (Po 4 ) 2 -H 2 0] + 7CaSO 4 + 2HF 

18 



2. 

Phosphate) 



1^ (Triple Super 



HH 3 P0 4 -MOH 2 



10 [Ca H 4 (P0 4 \ -H 2 0] + 2HF 



3. 

Phosphate] 



(Ammonium 



(Mono ammonium Phosphate) 
P0 4 + 2NH 3 - H 2 P0 4 (NH 4 ) a 

(Diammonium Phosphate) 



4. *i'3j*&d&o 

(Ammonium Phosphate Sulphate) 



6. 3 

PhatT) 



1269 
f Nitro Phos- 



(Nitric acid) 



2H 3 P0 4 . 



(Urea Ammonium Phosphate) 



. CPU 5*5$ 5 



281* 



O 



<{> 



(Ceramics And Refractories Technology) 



"^ "ioSseo, 



(Ceramic Technology) 

<b?& 

(Keramas) 



&>& (Potter's Clay) 



tfotixft 



(Mixed) 



(Ceramic Products) 



&r>o&>ex> (Elements) ^^. 



1270 



II 



(Silica) & 
, naj* (Glass), 

1 (Glazes) titf&tf e7&;6) (Enamels) 
J>oZTe8 j*e$j*&co (White-Wares) ^cSo 



[4. ^. 5000 



^^D (Nuclear Cera 

mics) , e&i^ S8*tftfJS&^e (High Te 
mperature Engineering Materials), 



I. 



(Structural Clay Products) 

^^ a6*doaa 

(Refractories) " 
d 
f Glass 

Ceramics). 



5. 3o 

(Pottery Whitewares) 

6. vtf^ /KgsSdfo sSo-tfsioeo (Cements) 

7. sS^iS S'eAotS) sSc36"&De (Abra. 
sives) 



(Structural Clay Products) 



(Shales) 



S, 



800C - 1260C 

baa foas isj*oefiri 6.6 



2, 



ies) 



(Refracto- 



ries 



1500C 



: ndSo0* 



Bricks) 



(Fire Bricks) 
(Silica 



3 : Satfjlbff &6o3cD 
(Magnesite & Chromite Bricks) 
& : esSi es^tfes sjta^exi (Pureoxide 
Refractrories) 



("Fire. 

03 \ 

Bricks) 

(Plastic Fire Clay) 

2>o<~ &fl (Flint Clay) 
1250-1400 



J6-20 

(Porosity) 

(Alumina) 
r dutyj 



Bricks) 



(^Silica 



r??S5" (Gannister) 49^ e.S' 
2, v^sSxi &S^SS5* 
fo 1500. 1560 



(Megnesite & Chromite Bricks) 

leoo 



(Porosity) 20 



18 y*o SS 



ro 



1271 
Oxi- 



de Refractonies) 



(Zirconium) 



80 



3. 



Glass Glazes and Ena- 



mels) : 



(Glass) 



16 



10 



, 75 



^Os^ (Silica) 



:500 



o 

Furnace) 



, (Pot 



(Blowing) 



1272 



II 



( Pressing ) 



33$ 



(Glazes) 



n-a-. 



(Boron) 



(Melting Pointj 

&^^) ^^sSao^ *^^ ^rciio^ (Prote- 

ctive Coating)^ AsScSj/\oaeJdb. e 



fcff (Steel) 



(Iron) 



Zinc oxide), &<^ ^s^^S" (Tin oxide), 
l^S" (Titanium oxide) 



(Coat) 

800-850 



10 

3 



4 



(Modern Ceramics) 






(^Nuclear Ce 
ramics) 

5. 

^Pottery and White wares) 
sfcotfoa (Pottery) 

Whitewares 



(Felspar) 59^ 
(Silica) 



(Felspar), 
(Ball Clay), 



(Bolin Clay),s3*5"J 
(Flint or Silica) 



1200~135G ^ofli^S" 

L. 



6. 



(Ce- 



ments 



SD^O&MDD 



Portland Cement" oo 

$ s' 



sv 



^fi (Lime) 



(Slurry) ^S 
CD^ (Rotary) 
1600 



6*4 
jfis 

1$ d 
o<- 

, tf 3 



^S (Gypsum) 



(Calcium Silicate) 



(Calcium aluminate) co 
7. 



Abrasives: 



(Powder) 



(Sharp) 



(Silicon Carbide), T<3b?65b (Coronum), 
(Sand) 



(Ceramic Frit) 



Process) : 



(Ceramic Fabrication- 



1273 

n ' <P e? 

L fo 2i^5* ^dSb DtfsSao (Soft 
Mud Process). 

3 O ^ 



Mud Process). 



3. 
4. 



(Dry Pressing) 



(Slip Casting). 



eo 



(Soft Mud Process) : 
stftf 



35 



(Thixotropy) 



(Moulds) 



2. 

O O 

Mud Process) : 






* 3 



1274 

3. 



II 



Pressing] 
14, COO 



P. S, I 8>^SsS (Pressure) 



5,6 



^Binding Material) 



4. 



(Slip Casting): 



50 



282. 



Slurry x , 



('Pl 

V 



aster 



of Paris) 



feflS) 



cojS" ^00:06" ^Yield Poi 
'^esi (Gravitation) E*QO* ^Si 



(Oils and Fats) 



&eo (Proteins) 
/Carbohydrates) 

. A.D.E, 
(Soluble) 



i Water Insoluble) 

\ / 



^^D (Triglycerides of fatty acids) 

S^ iJ5 
, (Semi- 



solids) n- 

(Fats) 



(Oils) 



95 

(Fatty acids' &, 6 
cerol) ;& 4 |_3o<3 
cQboi^)^). 



(Gly- 



1276 



H 

I 
H __ C- OH 

H C OH +3 (RCOOH) 

H C OH 



H 

(Glycerol) 

* 9970 



( Fatty Acid Radicals ) 



(Unsatisf action) 

(Melting Print) 



^6" 3 oSioco (Fixed Oils) 
^ \ / 

(^Essential 



Oils) 
gt 

sSsSoS^ 
Oils) 



, A^SfiS", 8"3> 

O * 



(Toilette 



(Lnbricants), 



(Saturated Corbonates) 
H H H H 

I I I I 

C C C_C_ 

1111 

H H H H 

oSotfS tf S JT w & 



H 

1 
H _ C __ OOCR 

! 

H C OOCR + 8H O 

i 

H _ C __ OOCR 
I 
H 



of Fats and Oils): 



(Composition 



unds') 
/ 

55tfo 
Group) 



(Monobasic", a 
3 (Aliphatic Compo- 



(Carboxyl 



C5 

ijo 



Fatt^ Acids) 



(Uniaturated Fatty 



(Double 
^ SS && 
Acids) 

/Unsaturated Corbonates) 
H H H H 

I 1 I I 

_ C _ C _ C C 

I 



1276 



II 



(Double bond) 



9, 10, 



, 12, 13, 



18, 



Bond) r*3cb 



(Hydrolysis) 3: 
(Saponification) 



ted UnsaturatiorO 



jSfif (Conjuga- 



^Potassium Hydroxide) 

) ^^ <5 
(Sap Valuej 



SeoSS 



Property) 



(Drying 



(Absorb) 



(Saturated Fatty Acids) 



Melting Point C 

4 5 



^ n CO 

(Saturated Fatty Acids) 



( 2 ) 
( 8 ) 

d 



(Butryic Acid) 

" 



(Palmitic Acid) 
S>6l" e^^> 

CO 

(Srearic Acid) 



4 C 4 H 8 O 2 



12 C H O 48.5 



18 C.,H. O 62.9 



18 C 18 H 36 2 69 ' 9 



Milk 



40 



^ CO 

(U nsaturated Fatty Acid) 



18 9, 12 6 &&& jSr-^ar 1 76 y.; 

45 



18 9, 13, 15 11 !b &*3a" 8 60 

66 



(Conjugated Fatty Acids^ 

J8 9, U, 13 49 dbc^ _ 

(Eleostearic Acid) C lg H 3Q O 2 ?5p^ (China Wood 

80 *v 



(Dry- 
ing oils) &j>a "^er^a. 

(Chemical Analysis) 5oc6 sp^d" 8 ^fc ?3o^D(br6^Go (Composition^ 

\ / 



(Relative Proportion) &[&'& 30c& 

1. 4tfjSoo^2?S5 L^^S^ (Milk- 



(Qene- 

v FatsJ : 

ral Classification of Oils and Fats;) 



egS) cS)3t5b^D. saS) 



nn , . BDOPJ ^^ e525oS5LX) (Butric acid^ 

(Non drying oils) f 100 ^oA 140 
o5o^o no rSj^Oroo rOoJd i QoooorT ( SeD3l 

Drying ojls^ rfj3o. e 5)e^ 140 "i?S 
1 y ' ^_ 



1278 

2 cr-ef S5b 
m 

Group): 



ll 



Laurie acid 



50 
18 



(Saturated fatty Acids) 



5) 



vatives 



SScytf sioo (Deri- 



(Vege- 



table Butter Group) : 



, * 



( Coco 

V 



Butter 



14 



18 



60 



(Confections) *&, 



mal Fats) : 



16, 18, 



(40 &o& saturation) 

8,10,14, 



(Plastic)rr 



5. LSI", 

(Olic and Linolic acid Group) 



20 



^ &v> (Tri Saturated Glyceri- 





des) 



e?o 



(Sesame) 



6. 

ro 
cic Acid Group) : 



(Euri 

^ 



40 ^oA 60 



/Lubricating Oils) 
T. <S*eai" 
Acid Group) : 



Drying Property \ 
(Surface 



Coating ) o 



8. 



ated Acid Group) 



(Licanic) 



9 

Group}; 



/Marine Oil 



, 18 



16, 20, 22 



( Whale) Si5c^) 



(Linolinic ( Fish Liver Oils ) * A, D 



10. Ur^S^ ^SSi 66"&M fHydroxy 

a- i- cJ m o \ 7 

Acid Group) : 

3oz a,"! a. 
(Castor Oil). 



g> (Recilonelic 



(Dehydration Process) 0*30* 



(Lubricant) rv& ^ 



(Extraction) : 



& (Pulp) 
(Tissues) - 



( Proteins ) 

(cattle fodderjrv* 

Soi^fraS* (a) 
(Processing of oil 
seeds\, (b) 

(c) a^ 



(aj 



Aoeao^* 



1260 



(Kernel) 



AoaoSb 



( Cooking) ej&^^i, 



I) sen Aoe& 



(Extraction) : 



(1) 



(Open Hydraulic Presser) 



AOSJO 



(2) L o^s So|sia (Solvent Ex- 
traction) 



(Fractional Dis- 



It 

tilation) 



(Normal Hexane) 






3. 



, es SSo"6 x Sioe;-^ 

(t> 



eo (Edge 



Runners) 



(potPresser)^ 



'55' (Virginj^pS 



(Marc) 



Claves) 



^4>^ f Auto 

o \ 



(Kettles) 6* 



(centrifn- 



ging) i 

(4j 



(Rendering); 



(Whale) 



(Wet Rende- 



1281 



(c) 

of Oils) 






(Refining 



(Free Fatty Acids), 



So a 



(Blaching) 



Fatty Acids) 



^&Sno3 (Free 

o^ dT' 
(Hydration) 
S"o^o^ 
(Soda ash), 



3j5 (Ethanol Amine) 



Sod ^d&b (Steam Refining) 



(Steam Dislillation) 



(Liquid Liquid Extraction) 

(81) 



(Strong Sul- 
phuric Acid)^ &<3 Sc&)d)^._SS^cpe3 S^o 
e3?6 id (Standard Method ofBle- 
te (Bleaching Earth) 



( Adsorption 



S'd 



(Cardinoid Pigmints) 



genation), 
dorisation) 



(Hydro- 
(Deo- 



17 



(Sesame) 



6 S. 



(Saff lower 
Seeds), SPrr^ Ao&ex (Tobacco Seeds) , 
SS>^8)5 (Poppy Seeds), 3_X& 



1282 



H 



283. 



(Sugar Technology) 



(Carbo Hydrates) 



13 y-^^ TJ (^Energy) 



a 0^0*6" 



1T61 



(Continent)^ 



11_15 



B^i 



90 



10 



fS 



1. 369^^^ 2 fecS'^r'?" (Beet-Root) 



8 &o& 16 

&o&&. S 

^5 (Sucrose) 



(crusher) fir 1 



con* 



(Beet-Root) & 



1870 



98 



(Ca OH) 2 &> 



Sofl, 



IT & 
o 



^Rotary drum vaclum 



SOS 



porator) 



^E 



va- 



85 



40 



(Three Single Effect Vaccum Pans) 



Saturation"^ 



(Sugar Crystal 



Sttfi 



n v 



I0 



(Crystalliser) 6^ 



(Cooling Pipes) 



(Sucrose^ 



(Centrifugal Filter) 3-^0* Jti!T. 



3c 



(Affiaatioo) 



(Centri Fuge) cr? 

& (Sugar Cake) J 
tfoxb (Spraying) 



^o S-jf(Melter) 



fcaa 



1284 



(Minglers 



&> 



(Defecators) 



(Solid Impurities) 



i & f 



PR 7.0-7.8 



j6" (Diatomaceous-Earth) ^D 



(Percolation) 

lt)8F 



8 - O 



3e3& (Crystalizer) 



(Granulator) <5*S ^ 



(Steam) 



70 



(Steam) 



2, 



Beet-Root ) 



*>v iSTrt) cS(Bone Char) S 



18 



(sMces)T 



835^ (Diff users) C3^) wc&fic, 



(Tem- 



peiaturc) 160 & 



1285 



(Driers) 



Jbd> 



d3bo|JfsSe> (Oliver Filters) 



0,5 



(Plate and Frame Press) 



( Calcium Ions ) 



(SO 2 ) 



12 



60 



boa)^ 



10 



d&oj^25xio(Evaporators) 



S3&. - 

(Active Car- 



(Vaccum Pans) 



284. 
(Pharmaceutical Technology) 



1286 Sg'fSA&S' II 

a 







(Manufacture 
of quinine) n " 



. tf Jibs' 



a 55*0 



_ _ 1)OfcC" &ftff 

C3 a . 

85^^ SSiJ0 ftf 



sy a 

(Limits) 



(Monograph) 8* 



(Dose) 



1. SotfsS 

(Impu- ^sSo (Dosage form) n 

rities) ^o^ T6a*a5 Sa tfo^S^SS). (Tablets), 






1287 



o?5o (Formulation) 



(Granu- 



les) 



b. &e OtfjoS ^ Sg^jo ( Uni 
formity of weighty, ^fl^So 
o (Disintergration) 



sjos* 



(Coating) 



(Sugar Coating) a* 



gL&> (P 



ress 



Coating). 






^Sterilization) 
9b^o ( Dry heat ), 
heat). ?6sJ- & 
ing with a bactericide) 



( Moist 
(Heat- 



) (Capsules) 

(Extracts), S)^^^OD (Ointments 
^es (Syrups), L^SPCD (Solutions) 
^pgex> [Eomulsions), esooeii^o? (Suspen- 

sions) , 



fctfo (Stable j n- 



(Container) 



(For- 



mulation) afire 1 o-a^ Stf aw 
iSX (Stability Study) o^b 



c es 



1288 



> 

^Sustained Release 
Drugs] & 



^oflf* rtfeS^tfiSaj^Sa Aodaofl 



285. 

(Metallurgy) 



(Alloy) So- 



(Minerals) VQ&&. ^d^eo (Components) n- 

fOres^ ^sJ'oci) ^6 _a^ . ^- / B- A / 

V . / coo. <^c3s^OE3C) aj oa (^5*^0 80-80%, 



20^40%) So&, (s*So5" 75-80% 



1289 



fcff (Stainless 



Steel) 



(Reactors 1 ) 



('Metallurgy) 



(1) 

ctive Metallurgy) 

(2) SSdfcjf ^SJ' 
tive Metallurgy) 



(1) 

(3) 



(Extra- 
(Adop- 



e?)o3 



(Percentage). 



(Ball Mill) S 1 



38), 



(Flotation) 



(Smelting) 



(^Furnace) 



dfioo 

(Electrolytic Cell) !& 



(1) ^^^ &*& 

tallurgy) 
() dfro^ 

nical Metallurgy) 



(Physical Me- 

(Mecha- 



1290 



II 



(intrinsic Char 



rtes 
acteretbic) 

( Meatllography ) 



(Grain Size), 



^o*^ex> (Mechanical properties) 



graph) 

(Electron Microscope^) 



(Equilibrium, Temp 
erature, Composition) 
(X-ray) 



(Structure)?^ 



(Mechanical Properties) & 

L *ffaoff f> (Heat Treat- 



jnent) 



J (Strength)^ 

a8 &P&N 
(Adapta- 



(Mechanical Testing) 

dfifOLaS" tf^Sxeo 
&o (Mechanical Forces) So 



(Strength), &&& (Hardness), 
"BS)"&5^ (Impact Resistance) , 
ft 5 (Fatigue Strength), &9>$ (Ductility) 
(Tensile Strength) 



( Alloying) 
(Casting), ff^ofi" (Rolling), & 
(Drawing) 



(For 



(Mechanical Metallurgy) 



cfibo. 



LOCATION MAP 




1298 




1294 



II 





ro 

O 

rr 



3C- 





Q 
V2 

V3 

X} 



1114 

A? ^ u wucrcog5xet 947 

409. 411, 412, 416. 417 **g3-S o& (tf3u 1180 

v OO 8J 

44 O K 

6C5 wo* r &o vffVaog ^sjjfc 10S8 



1078 *3 5^*035 sj- -TWr^ Soatf^tfSto 56, 

1077, 1079, 1080 94 



852 *>otfTp8o& ^ctegaao 1109 

H8 - wod^^o^ sr'-^sstfet ^gas 950 

118 



662 ' 978 



416 
843, 1001 ' 940 942 



446, 447 wotfgr*tfnf ocfio^uo 986 

65o^'cr.'\^ "fofiJJlXii 84*7 

641,668,586,690,598,606 *^ L 

fc?o8^ S'tfixo 6S 1 
644, 661. 806 

)r*.r 825 ' Motf8*-5r>reo 208, 680. 1257. 12E8 

Motf8*&o- 457, 1002 
608 
4?3 , . wo*8 ss-8g 1088, 1088 

41g >* S Cptftfu 721, 726 

* wo&* s"tf ss 586 

807. 410, 412,.,417 ( 418, 420,461, ^^ #&> 409 
483, 464. 487, 469. 472. 473, 476, 476, \^ - 

650*^ Q<^^aw 1280 

477, 478, 688, 607 ,, * 

"""^ "->'- ^ 12 g 



... ^_ 824, 894. 481 

410, 418, 417, 607. 688, 699. *^ ei3 SottfaM 48 

60e - 6 7 ' 682 ' .<* 157. 874, 1088 
744 ^^ 



J22. 128, 124. 202, 206, Wor aaffo ' 91g 

218. 214 



ea*tftf oUc.Sw 84'4 ' _ / ^l g&o 680 



126J2 ; , 

887 " wr*\ir*aw so 



1298 

788 ecfcuntfibo 264. 272, 1277, 1278 



* noa 

888 tJtao sfoc T3""oflooT?"eo otfo 



324 oeaoofioortSfoj 27 

gig &cao 8o3j" o 113 

spS.e^fi 61 wcso 33}J3 1165 

' 6Q 9 ^ c8aO*jtftfa 1120. 1128 

< x "^ ssv) 940 ocaoOdofjS^ "Soi^JJweo 1120, 1123, 1149, 
786 1200 

QQO t>C30 SlS&?5 30 

OQo . 



834, 888. 837, 872, 901, 909 wtwO^a 80 

88. 125, 185, 167 176, 177, 188, 

762 184. 202, 228. 226 t 227 252, 268, 270, 

i^fTto 887 275 28 - 285 ' 28? - 82d 328 858 ' 865 ' 

836 367, 360 38 , 888,489 495, 662, 1001, 

102P, 106", 117S. 1167. 
ecao_5 24 34^, 869. 993 

679 880 VC3 A ^ 3 ^ ar * ex3 8 ^ 8 ' 8 ^ 

gOs ec^fT^ S"is^>o 89l 

>"3> 7r" \ -r'C^^'SaiSo 788 eea^ ?3 o Sr ^iw 1120, 1128 
228, 22i9 

1144 ^ 

^o to i> r & i Sbf^^JS 494 

f 812 wcagd'^eo 460, 866 

'^^ / 

888, 975 
1116 

824 w^tftf i^o^d 667 

422. 461, 452, 465. 458. 816. 824, eOc#fc 218. 808 

078 e> $)?) tf6o7Veo 808 

0l ^*^*S" 290, 899 eft 6o^&tf -r*o$ 267, 258 

KS9 t9^ &) ***}**{ "W^o fifi^caSSoo lo 

U"u 

_er **_ fin * fi bo^ir*^ fitfc3fix> 60o, 1222 

CS%J JLJ T\ *J \J 

1D9P 0dlbo^ <r *S>* % d tfcJorvco 179 

4l/uC> 

289 efi!be)^&*tfaio 188. 178. 300. 302 

448 ^eibe^^d ^fi^n&oSll, 492,900, 1000, 

177 "" 1068 

810 



1288 



66 wfcSfc 18, 627 

449, 607, 685, 666 w^fc 780, 781, 781 

Wo o^pJOnw I Aoqid uO / ^>"iQr*s VcOoSbo 727 

200, 208 &&*\3& S)TT* tf:k> 188 

Q 

i 200, 204. 205 wJD^etf (rotftfsfcoea) 18 

688 eS^r esssfco 416, 417, 418 

781 eoa'&r g^tf^jj 88 U 882 

162 e>&S'oS37T<'<3oeo 587 

e$fi eSjjetfS' (ultra-sonic) (jSffl&JQ tffljfc 666 w&g'oSS &&'*tf6 > 'aboeo 687 



642 wSb^e'^b S3(tf rCfg'o:Sbo 408 



}0 874 wSS)|jfab r*tfg'o&>o 406 

649, 818 es^^Sb fcg^T 218 

619 w&(8oefi 216, 419 

41 f>SbSo^e)j5*3oj 814, 816 

~ 

1145 wi5So<bvco 218, 220, 81 



o 

233, 266 ^JEL&S tftforfsfcoeo 

o 

tfjffttfo/fico 245 
o 

1QO WiO)^*d SJO 62 

J O w 



1090 wjfSCX) B'aa 828 

728 



m7CO "'l^ OfSbfiJOCj c3oOO(K tS "S'Cf T^l RlijSw 721 

, ICO, i 4a xjjj' 

7AD wj3oco$S'Swco 65l 

I v O 

YT'g ^b'3(p?5'^ S48 

^j^ -d wSo^o^g'o 447, 462, 499, 662 

Qoft Q97 e^SSo^S' eJKt^Bo 286, 460. 464 

0^0, DJ ( 

^ffi r&tfu 788 w&Sa ' s ' ^L^**" 497 ' *" 

0^- w ^ *<,* ^ rf^ K' EDO 

,-,. eSbS c 1 ? ?3o!5cJ s O^c5 

246 

1266 



481, 482 

61 9 f 520 eSbs5 8rf ^^^'^'^ 47 



WQ "^ 

481 482 >3bo5 8 $$ 'sr*ir w S5^w T*t^,iSoo 868 



610, 619, 620. 626 3>sS jte *^^ 8 ^^ 948 * 9 ^ 

828, 883, 888, 868 sl&;3tfe 47 

1Q78 e&tfOeSctfo 48 

X w I V 

74 wl^rVSbo 502 

24" toa^tr-ar^r 608. 509 ? BlO, B20, 621, 
r 812 ' 680, 727 



isoo Sfi^ii^ it 



114, 116, 126. 162, 168, tt>skr-_KcStf;fca 99 

c8. .0 1 t35bj"*e>o tf"*JS"*co 882 

tfj- IP*^ vi&o 917 t>"3oer-Jf 796 

88 "3o*^5" l3^S 421 

889 erSaSr* eSfcsfco 442, 614 '& 



CP 

n^u 886, 889 e>-3o8v- 116, 2 J6, 229, 260. 421 694, 

12 789. 775. 802 840 841. 843, 876 961, 

899 964, 977. 982. 1010, 1C20. 1026 1086, 

108 1088, 1060, 1061. 1084, 1071. 1080. 



202 1094, 1187, Ii57 t 1161, 1258, 1 82 

82o w"e3o^"s~* r5oo&o Jf TT^C*^OG 826, 1256 

688, 672, 637 *-3r* aafr* 24? 177, 184. 193. 197 226, 



)Q 

662 289, 24e. 241, 309 310. 390. 891. 469, 

621 614, 102l, 10-2 1023. 1268 

&4 **"=^T-^r,/v<v oAmi*<i 176 



- 8 1001. 1002 rt5*^cSr. r 1 ^^ 246, 1267 

1009 "=^T-fc^^rtKV j*^x%r-tt^,irf\x r*-pi-.< j^ 1266 



12 1010. 1164 120 7 

14 1010 



' 239, 1-67 
" 16 1008 Tin^artf "~A 

1 ^ 478 I^JoBbI d>^ Sel^J'iaeg 

eSj^^fOolir* "3j<b5 176, 1 T, 1S4 
871, 374 20 

888 

10 ^ C3ft ^g^ 4^8 S tf 7T-X> 488 



887. 889, 868, 869. 889. 921 v<X>X^o* **t$u 29 

&> 127 ed&ss ^ v 962 

127 eoCLftg-tfcaabo 166, 167, 168. 1001. 1221 

, 11* 
900 



182 too&Jfceo 1184, 1186 



^ W 12 . 

oo j wcDow*^oo eSoA'iotJO 94' 
2o4 cr 

108Q oS3d* A _o^S'<^ ^.qoiioSSoM 181 



894 398 cS>^ ** 1262, 1268 

182. 196, 848. 1001 



, 8ii9. 868, 859. 8^9 921 

930 



1007^ t0oQod*i_.o^ ^Tr*jf3o 947 

614, 671 {-tfr, tJ>*3ay l &>ax>) eoCbd*j.o^ ^saooejo H9i, 1192 

862' &7 V 898* ^48 eo&fr^otf Tp-do^> 918 

89? 



898 



* 



874 



IS] 
180 

.0* ^tfc'Su 897 

otfsfco 199, 897,904. 1014, 1188, 
118*. 1186, 1208 

888 

897. 898 
otf o&tfSg- 199 
180 

**&* c&o|jf;b3ea 1262 
874 

lo 888 



182 



91 , 914, 916. 916 

181, 182, 169, 174, 
181, 182, 19o 199, 208, 204 849 897, 
901, 914,91?, 924. 947 1001, 1067, 
1066, 1070, 1164. 1186. 1186, 1188, 
1189, 1190. 1194, 1196* 1197, 1206, 
1207. 1243, 12 i4 

C&3^ rt _0*"lL(*"3%>CO 1188 

eotfr- f 2Tr*TT'eo 227, 229 
ooOo 205, 224 

224 



226 



181, 227, 229. 808, 1222, 1244 



220 279 288, 494, 616, 617, 
878. 1276 1277 
Z)co;5 1278 
xio^g 272 
640 
8 



717, 1088 

9, 27,68, 488. 717 
S" 9. 1012 
* S86. 414 

1056 1066 



612 

33fc> eJibj 826, 860, 867, 890. 
942. 960 968 



66 



201, 202, 208, 1280, 1268 
202 

^jSfca 1261 

186 
i086 

18 

S5TrTTco 24 
<P 

828 
978, 991 

7S9, 802 
726 
4?0 

467 

1281 



>fi" 681 



220, 227, 882, 1290 



w ^^ 197 

296 



189, 208 r 228, 281, 282. 
284, 808, 881, 868, 819, 885, 889. 921, 
1129 1208, 1228, 1226, 1258 1 1288 



lJjjS" 281 



1802 



II 



46, 49 
62 
864 

820 



718 



470 
689 



721 



610 



812 



323 



888, 909, 910 

leco 888, 889, 848, 84.4, 879, 
882, 886 

858, 887, 869, 985, 941 
847 
jeo 487 



206, 207 
266, 670 
612, 841 



632 

715, 719, 720 
sr'o^eo 720 

1212 

720 
812 

224 

61 
688 
272 



777 



1*277 

779 



841, 842 



"3 & 1187 

- 

899, 724 

S79 

666 
678 

674 
609, 629, 616, 865; 722,724, 



574, 675, 577 
724 

578 



) S)r?5S>3 121 722 
> B^ f 

721 



ft ^ 678 

bj'CSoew 1047 
17 
447 

250, 421, 451, 281, 774, 784, 
826, 828, 862, 868, 920, 984 
808, 804, 1268 

9 * 

48 



188 

186 

21. 22, 26, 662, 658 ? 652 
So 20 

183, 128R, 1288 
24, 158, 172 
171 

446 

595 
507, 619, 622 



111 



I 

545. 587, 671, 694, 8*4, "68, 
684, 886, 686 701, 789, 740, 771, 739, 
806. 821, S28, 824. 826. 880. 863, 854. 
868. 860. 865 s 880, 887, 1082. 1098, 
1106. 117^. 120^, 1258. 1291, 12*2 



881 

878 
"Ssftfca 882 

* SoStf 880 



S88 
? 80, 



771 

oic p 



858 

5, 188, 1194, ia08 
1208 

219, 260, 261 

126, 147 
f 5 6 . 1042. 1164 

' 

a>oCSbt3o 6 18 



1 6 

756 



756 

447, 7ES. 766 

V 76, 878. 882, 88, 886, 898. 4U. 
440, 442 452 



719 
g 262 
1 98 



15, 24, 189, 19? s 198, 218 220, 
22', 228, 26' 268, S*70 f 262, 288, 294, 
808. 809, 8^2 848. 86^ 868.869, 8681 
87^, 614 628 k 686, 886 
ei&g" 294 



isos 



800, 881, 407, 408, 418,416, 746 
261, 264, 272. 282. 287, 288 f 
290, 824 t 67, ^568 t 69,860, 861, fc68, 
487, 87S. 876. 87? 



269 
801, 1118 
> 23, 998 
64 1, 542 
581 

889, 345, 478, 



1188, 1186 

,^ 1188 

469, 470 



482. 



1028 



612 



101 
7-8 
788 
714 

822, 82S, 880, 882 
98 

124 

787, T87 



610 

1088 
1106. 1112, 1169 

ov-^g-^ ^_f aS* 107 
1216. 1217 

341, 848, 815, 461, 465, 466, 
470, 471, 472 495 

848 



4, 346, SSi 



464 

197 



1804 



282 eTr>sr "stb&S" 19 

1068 esTT)f~ S5TTTTeo 17 



A 

717 w^Bo^i^- 294 

78 tf fieo 18 



298, 421, 812, 848, 975. 97V 1082, |sS*. *a&r*a 841 

1287 e8g' f^ffVY^SM 797, 798, 800 

866 



827 *8r v^&o 811 

881,682,088,771,778 ' - ^ -s^a 785, 800 

e&ifco 414, 748 . a tf 4<.'8?96fi 

oj 

429 

966 
443 

8 ' 4 8^5 1013 

1197 



728 . *{ 



222, 228, 226 

285 

etfgtfk 1266 

287 efroeu 719 

167. 666,742, 1019, U56, 1261, 

** j es o lOu 

1256, 1288 (xr. wS^wS ) ^> 

m/ v. v-=3~'' ^ " B "3 \ft)s 154 

{or*. efly5*x5 ) ** 

393 



742 

269, 294 



-0 249 

248, 297 598, 594, 602, 1276, 12?6 e^^tfc*;^ 252 

0*3 619 



1 eo 1 1 rf K 

n cc Ctr t3T\S C3SOJ loo, J. 1 1 

ol t oo, 07 ^ 



1 OQpr tdT % \ftfi'c5!Sbj CO 162 

* UWV jj 

&s)^J06i5 656 

, 718 eaco^rioS" 662 

. 35". j. 280, 284, 285. 291, 885 ^^^ 826 

646 uXt'n ^gs5|o 421 

827, 851 eszto'ca ?3og eo 990 

840, WO eSSJtt -s-oabo 191, 192 

9, 12, 46, fiO eS8 112ft, 1127, 1180, 1166, 1165, 1167, 
Jfctf*ctfoKo 860, 861 1163. 1169. 1170, 1171, 1178 

(to) co 880, 850, 864, 880 3e o&c^&o 1166 

827 eS8 *_8^ SoitfSw 1121 

16, 224, 808, 845 8 1019, 1079 esD^-x, tf d^C>^eo 2 



1806 



726 
fc*:to/818 t 882, 410, 411, 416 

16 
283 

296, 795, 808. 951, 962, 975, 977 
182 
o 610 
168 90 
826, 843, 945, 951, 977, 1060, 



ST 883, 871 
eSHtf -gr^cc 786, 787 

683, 727 
Sfco 272, 294, 295, 405 

613 

270. 238,293. 296, 17,319, 
388, 892, 499. 777, 778, 780, 781 
301 
300 
488, 434- r 794 

737 
800, 782, 738, 792 



168, 289, 684. 689, 610, 800, 
1060, 1G84,, 1167 
fc 1287, 1288 
1134. 1135, 1138 
1134 
120, 125, 628, 821, 860, 1081 

863 
11S8 
801 
610 

21 



87 



466, 848. 844, 871 

[jfo 818 
174 
250 

414, 416 



681, 683 

1178 
1286 

1182 

251, 262, 287, 1113, H14, 
1123, 1126, 1127, 1128. 1133.1152, 1166, 
1157. 1165, 1178, 1180, 1181, 1236, 12*8, 
1227 
j$$ 3o3 1166 



497, 681. !Ub2. 1090, 1126 
2, 1270, l^'l 



4. 231 



831, 848, 859 



218, 221. 228, 289, 279, 288, 300, 
644, 6oi, 567, b&9, fc02, 616. 617, 742, 
. 871, 899, 908, H16, 9^0, 921, 988, 
, 1018, 1027, 1050, 1096, 1186^ 1188, 



1265, 1288 



298, 299, 461, 547, 548 
r* 275 

669 



720 



25 



1306 



II 



eO-B'S' 1388, 
1*118 



691 



966, 962. 975, 1008. 



881 



20 



652 

3) 6], 610, 716, 717, 719, 840, 1082, 
^ * 

1270 

-enorbS 44 

7 



15, 84, 148, 144, 146, 147, 611 



143, 144 
72S 

962 

982, 968, 989 
610 
f 294. 296, 298 t 846 

s" 421 

6U7, 608, 682 



228, 229,868, 1096. 1118, 1125, 
1128, 1148, 1218, 1228, 1288, 1289 
1096 

1096 
oSJ) 598 
r!fiw 612 
1092 

893, 894, 1006 



863 

248, ^4^, 461, 826, 88, 1108 
1104 



1005, 1052 



886 



176 



787 



119 



119 



767 



849 



291, S04, 825, 826. 827 t 
842, 486, 488, 4b9, 490, 491, 49^, 494^ 
497, 981 

489 



766 

62 

256, 290, 810, 811 t 812 
10, 1195 

784, 1065, 1066 



168, 172, 178, 178, 48". 614, 742, 
9^9, 1019 1021, 1022, 1028. 1024 f 
1(40, 1044, 1050, 1084, 1156, 1172, 
1265; 1266 

1155 

1281 
244 
692 
520 

^K^tftfM) 609, 617, 
694, 721 
tf'&o 619 

92 
610 

etfgoaortfeo 596 
848 

895 
595 

127. 129, 189, 140, 1068, 1070, 
1072. 1228 



law 



961 
428 

, 693 
748 
748 

788 787 

60 
voftfu 167 

167 

619 

24. 264 

688 
(fctfjfc) fi-tBeo 984 

982 

Ad *& sfaotf-erux) 884, 428 
A3 etenCoeo 962, 964 
128 

) 1198, 1199, 1202, 1206, 
1208, 1214 
A3/C* (^oObco 657 

Aa^^co 469, 8^6, 851. 968, 969, 996. 
1006, 1014, 1016, 1017. 1022, 1023, 
1067. 1078, 1089. 1228, 1229, 1287, 
1266, 1257, 1258, 1269, 1264 
1089 



SSQ, 831, 882 
425 

626, 527 
986 
eo 677 



1263 
127 

487. 488, 498 
88 
763 
738 
768 






Atfi 



_ 

(sequential sampling plan) 
728 

861 
898 
47 
nlbflC) 601 



617, 618, 721 



209, 864, 996, 10U, 1024, 1028, 
1027. 1067 
762 

^r ) 826 
129, 180 
1288 

1147, 1162, 1168, 1186, 1167, 1168, 
1189, 117u, 1172, 1177, 1187 

SijSoa 217, S:53, 887, 991, 994, 1170, 1188, 

1193 

& -sr*ex>^nabo 994 

a /rer v^&o 802 

14 

1222 



^ 282 

97S 
j^ 808 

428 

(co) 384, 421, 42S, 456,871, 
9*9, 96], 964 

5TTo'TToeo 421 
*x e> 

cJg 288 
230 
428 
sgss 1179, 1180 

1164, 1188, 1164, 1186. 
1166, 1169 

oies&x) 1226 



1808 



229 



, 1171. 1178. 



U78, 1192 



849 



' 201. 202, 2C6, 858, 857, 430, 



974 



, 192, 187. 198, 199. 200. 201, 
204. 238, 298, 826, 377, 378, 387, 
400. 481. 492, 443, 458, 439, 628, 644, 
66r, 741, 320. 828, 8>9. 848, 870, 874. 
909, 910, 912, 91?. 945, S5, 968, 9g7, 
959, 961, 982, fe88 f 970, 971, 972, 
973, 974, 987. 988, 989, 99^, 1000, 
1008, 1020, 1024, 1080, 1C 39, 1040, 
1141, 1042, 1057* 1074. 1078, 1129, 
1181. 1182, 1146, 1151, 1164, 1155. 
1188, 1164, 1167, 1208, 1287, 1270, 
127 1*. 1272, 1278, 1278, 1278, 1290 
965 



802 



J 18,610, 611, 6 17, 631, 647, 653, 
564. "677, 578, 586, 629, 681, 6?fi t 636, 
640, 643, 725 



777 
724 



718 



81 



H 



188, 1160, H92, 119B 1197. 
1280, 12.SU 1242 

tf ^ oar-rtSi 666 
181 
1154 



1184 



181 
1184 



3186 
669 

lg'ai&0 699 

828 949 



982 



964 

828, 96 U 972, 989, 1005 
600 



19, 27", 280, 28?, 288, 28", 295, 
812, 822, 823 828, 347, 348, 852, 364, 
868, 86*, 364, >8, 881, 401, 40\ 417, 
488, 442, 449. 601, 528, 982 
689, 67*. 811 

"3^)SbSoo 290. 823, 861, 862, 
n o 

86e f 871, 471 

aj-a^abo 866 
899 

^1^001 "^S" 652 
266 
1071 






271 



641 



1072 



492 



Btfta-e 



640 



1809 



-Cr. oN-'S 

477, 478-487, 494, 
476, 477 

"3 cw- cc 15, 135, 187, 189. 217, 
826, 46, 449, 492, 493, 496, 665, 666, 
611* 638, 6&9-641, 1084, 1068, 1070, 
1072 

sefretf 594 
-3 sfl.fi; 108, 578 
;3_ StfS 479 
jy* st 477, 479 



290, fe23, 857, 368, 



c 422, 42S, 841. 984 



424 



588 



; S*^ *rga 608 



668 



fc 228, 746 
26 



5" 17 



888 



549 ? 568 
v 287 
5 SOI 
8L 105, 106 

5 12S8 

* 166, 1082 



" 27 

?) ^ ^s^^o 17, 270, 2"1, 284 3 296, 
810 8^7. 849, 69, 880, 890, 891, 406, 
407 



189 



188 
6S 3 



18, 450, 503, 505, 506. 576, 677, 
579, 994 

eo 578 
cg 

tffil? dioclb 577 
^"S O5tf^ 676 
269 



1264 



. 307 

97, 105, 215, 219, 238, 743, 750, 
760, 761, 856, 869. 1228, 1284, 1285 
244 



12Q4 



Ob 1174 

A 

L CM V caScu (o'_Sbo^^) 274. 288, 862, 
868, 665 668, 6,6, 559, 691 
ftfSo&A "gtoeo 768 

568, 569 

88. 86, 125-129. 181, 184, 186, 
187, 138-140, 142, 144, 148 149, 158. 
158, 169, 165, 188, 171-175, 177, 180, 
182-188,190, 196 800, 202,203,206, 
222-225, 229, 280, 267, 269, 261, 267, 
861,6-9, 1001, 1088, 1070.1072, :076, 
1168 1184, 1185.1187, 1222, 1240, 
1244 

S'tfgco 129, 140 

1228, 1280, 1281 
1262 

1154, 1168 

129, 180 
185 

S: 861, 870, 874, 875 
188 
1174 

w |Soar?vco 180 
, 1280 



1810 "S)S&J>S' II 



& 302, 471 Sg-tfo&tf 437 

141 tftftfbaSbo 818, 412 

(*;$ oo(jBreo) 74, &r SQLSoOo 79 

, 190 $sf I S80J-S3 oar-^^5 118 



126, 212, 802, 881, fig- S&atfcStfsfca 80 



1082, 1229, 1269 68o&f 207, 03, 2vj?, 1237, 1240, 1248, 

Di-s^sF 3ectfj*o 185 1245, 1247 

s-^r SLr^B-"o 189 6"S>^d5> 824 

81, 185, 188, 1228, 1260, 1261 



588 

, 348, 547, 568, 

(JL^ KAo&^&o 198 sorotrejg 3Do$ 851, 964 

IfcAJ lifts p ^. /> j 

sD^ab, eo^S 137, 189 f 148, 144, 147, 

492 148, 152, 172, 1082, 1174 

157 OSS' 808, 414, 886 

18 SD65" 580, 681 

433 oeS" wotfbeo 582 



226 ^i^-x, 1258 



796, 812 O ^^r8g~ )f \ 5o"n i Sfifi ) 987 

565 ~* 



165 

17 01^65^^ t3o 126, 128, 149, 199. 460, 987 

142 oar^jaff 27 

1062. 1054, 1062 oaf*s^6f sSiofiwco 899 
268 
249 

5" 246 * 

1188 juoA^co 881. 832, 890, 1027, 1028 

l! 9 6 M r 881 

^ * a^dio R)tro^&o 467, 458 

388 fi J 7jtrS' VJ5S 860 

Ofl t - K~ a * 

818, 816, 822, 382, 861, 397, *ed^ 229, 248, 461, 821, 825, 854,.68 t 

408, 488, 967 fr 872, 1*68 

a lf "^o^fi^ *^8 408 a.&parCIO 108 



isii 



16 



ooo, iiu 

.). 809 



1194 



sio 



1278 



625 

168 



874 



fib 8 



1287, 1288 
584 



lx> 684 

15 f 219, 245. 274, 276, 534, 
686. 562, 65J. 1278 
721 



440 



228 



680 
c80 



671. 724 



o 274 
. 607 

632 
660 
Cu 676 
401, 508. 609, 6i6, 884, 640, 



16, 1121, 1128 
^eSo5 eo 256, 266 
778 
668, 672. 689 

941 
768, 757 

1279 
210 
140 
208. 209 

210, 211 



800 



123, 188, 190, 209, 878, 952. 

1255, 1269 

1251 



10 ^sfrora Stffibew 1254 
1254 



186, 195, 469, 1037 



181 



131 



428 



480 



29, 680, 681, 998, 1089, 1288 

729 
1094, 1095, 1096, 1105 

2S4, 286 

818, 8^2, 888, 861, 854, 868, 1260 
5gs5^ 8SO, 851 

^cS5S loco 881 
> cp 



889 



679 



698 



580 



282, 823, 866 
287 

286 



1812 



II 



jf 

fi'ca anc&o 385, 377, 382, SSS, 401, 408, 
404, 405, 418, 417, 419, 4JO, 449> 556, 
668, 589, 571 

fe eno Stf Jfcfco 379, 382, 414, 415, 417 
Ef* (tfSgsL 282, 849, 351, 354, 856, 371, 

875, 438, 471 

-sr^co 397 

880, 397, 398, 419, 420 
138 

187. 140, 148. 149, 158, 159. 160, 
162, 1ft?, 164. 166, 168, 169. 173, 184, 
186, 195, 221, 284, 286, 265, 281, 284, 
285. 286, 283, 239, 290, 291, 308, 812, 
814. 322, 328, 388, 841, 43, S5 1, 352, 
853, 54, Scl, 56, 861, 363, 368, 890, 
891, 92, 897, 402, 404, 410, 414. 420. 
436, 48, 44^, 449, 465, 466, 470, 471, 
472. 475, 476, cG5, 554, 870, 1000, 
1002, 1010, 1168, 1176, 1187 
to cfl&ojttfcj 284 
tfet C&o 620 
to Stfatf 385, 839, 340, 346. 349, 354, 

876, 879, 381, 382. 471 
rw 3t*3Sbo 402 

tfct -^gfi^SM 879, 380, 861, 382 
*a Soootf -tf^g 291 

^97^ 401, 402 

29, 132, 136 137 



849, 350. 852, 353, 354 
o-"sG[ 

L. 

171 



293 
115 
588 



682 
^9, 580 



580 
o 580 
580, 580 

^fiwoo 581 

680 
1210 

526, - : 27 
589 

722 
894, 529, 687, 648 

6S6 
523 
764 

v^&o 762 
ill 

755 

CO 

165 
^opg 84 

823, 813, c58 
185 

S*j 582 
1029, 1030, 1081, 1032 

jer 174 
648 
581 

Tn& ^Sba 731, 747, 821. 825, 861, 
853, 868, 885, 963, 1268 

823,880, 838, 851, 56,916, 
1027. 1028 

gssg 830, 881 

1S9, 151, 186, 201, 222,228, 
224, 841, 842, 844 

161 

1019, 1079, 1286, 
1267, 1285 

844 

4, 149, 165. 291, 421, 422, 42S, 
437, 742, 834, 1014, 1112, 1148, 1276, 
1286, 1288 



cs 



219, 220 
248, 260 
842 

983, 1113, 1148, 1198. 1220 
T;*- 802, 808, 804, 844, 978, 079, 1114 
ifetf rtrftfifco 45, 49 
79B, 797, 798 
r|otfS$xcc 1095 

275, 544, 645, 822, 846, 806, 990, 
1110 

tfes 741 
748 
SfcoJxtf war-Stfcato 299 

s-95- <T 189 
& 

188 
158 5 1181 
981 

61S 



1188 
397, 398, 437 

579 
638 
667 
660 
698 

.o|Jto 189, 282. 286, 1090. 1081, 1095. 
1096, 1097, 1216 

1C95 



742 



'6 760 



1277 



376, 877, 878, 881. 883, 425" 

^^ 762 

60, 182, 188. 186, 187. HO,- -, 14S/ 
148, 170, 171, 173, 179. 268, 302, 80S, 
368, 877, 878.. 886. 886, 688, 998, 1004, 



1318 

1006, 1007, 1048, 1049, 1060, 1071, 
1147. 1183, 1228, 1240 

TrT;5$ 384, 385, 886 

fitfr^exD 182, 136, 208, 209, 630, 
1086 

188. 134. 176. 179 

18S 



182, 136 
404, 480, 481 
582 

1084, 1036 
1054 

TT-08 ^^^00 182 

978 

137, 188 

18 

140. 1039 

TTOQ* "3K^o 188, 184, 144. 146. 168, 169, 
170. 171. 182 5 1004, 1068, 1074, 1174, 
1248, 1247 
TT. fi rj^ 178 

905 
259 

ro 170, 1045, 1046, 1049. 
'1082, 1038. 1073 (rfr*. 

13, 138 

^oo 814 
~ 63 

167 

$0^^bo 189 
20. 718 
4S? 
417 
821 

1128 



888 
442, 448, 768, 7oS 



8 



l&U 



i 



151 



612 



717 



245. 789, 603, 804 
231, 299 305, 441, 656, 641, 843 



r 279 

4 745, 784 

747 
754 
758 

reo 115 
5, 115. 844 
445 

641 698 
448. 449, 607 
o 248 
591 

582 

284 

^S" .7, c!8, 220 228, 229, 246, 267, 

68, -70, 279, 28^. 808 309. 811 

v^S" 2_ Z^ ff 16 > 24 ' ^^ 9 8, ^38, 

i84. 286, 287, ^B f 240. 241, 60. 268, 

287, ^90 309, 810, 318, S64 888, 888, 
9', 430, 4S1 469, 681 



267 
228 

17, 218. 870, S78, 282, 
SS'i, 2G. a94. 8lO t 822, 363, 8f8, 368. 
g59, 60. 8rf 1, .363. 870, 875. 428. 65 1. 
813. 614 

^ODO^&O 8. 5 

1152, 1170, H78, 1178, 1180 
1187 



166 
169, 170 
SS^fi 146 
624 



987. 



509, 
658 



668 
154 

1110 

978, 979, 9SO. 984, 9F6, 986, 
988, 989, 990. 991, 993, 1114 
655, 656 

623 

272, 278. 274, 390, 891, 460, 
621. 523, 625, 646. 554, 666, 556, 
665. 596. 665. 726, 727 
554 



284, 289, 279. 808, 875, 401, 
, 818. 617, 681, 667, 866. 1078, 



1266 



2_ (Jfcto 241, 244 . 



i 



238. 294, 240, 241, 841 
242 
236 



242 



890 

B27, 828 
fc 685. 858 

612 
e 61 
ficca gtiaDooo 1067 

326 
, 1040 
1089 
188 } 



1079* 1080 



1815 



fitfw atfo Sooar'atf [Soft 309 * S1 * 
366, 64, 366. 868. 870, 376, 377. 378, 
888, 405, 428, 430, 481 
Stfw ejtfg 3ooaratf tftf&eo 791 
fitfra tfo(tf 61 

871 

905 

971, 1009, 1067, 1174 
3r13 261 
723 

761 

289, 807, 820, 889, 898, 400, 421, 
427, 443, 466, 462, 478, 477, 479, 480, 
481, 485 9 671, 712, 762, 842 
784 
o 582 
747 

62 
411 
584 

643. 549, 567 
"^^ 678 
508, 606, 576, 577, 616, 723, 724 

268 

~dftex> 442, 445 
O^^&o 675 
714 

20, 548 

838)0^ 623 

613 

fc55Q^o 5d 1019 
458, 459, 1014, 1(117, 1019, 
1029, 1078 

o 782 
611 . " . .- : 

r TTCO 816 
gcC3c>&d 80 ^ 
681 - * - - " 

694 < :'/-'. 



&u 666 
199 
-' 576 

656 

548. 668 
564 
275, 6S8. 622 

1112 
205 

746, 762, 777 
784 

^S 1181 
660 

r^ ca 227 
x 

1188 

904 

^o-tf^o 604 

22, 156, 878, 892, 89S, 
899, 997,999, 1002, 1013, 1018, 1020, 
1244, 1266 

687 

457, 463 
914 
502 

681, 682, 68S 



592, 595, 596 . 

669 
428 
1007 

138, 189 

> 827> 8SO> SS1 * S81i 
o98, 1104 

828, 1099, 1110. 

177 . -; . 
17 

" *% HI : 

229, 825, 971, 875, 1060, 1157, 



1181 



IS 16 



II 



1259 

-rag" -r-ofcJT 889 



1018 



(Sjrweo) 12, 18, 

U J 

. 1018, 1017. 1077 



1289 

*u 12S8 
l &87 
978 



"So 3 dg' woS5'O"-tr*eo 420 



3 
L 



!o i -^ 9 

lo L 

1187 



166 

117 7 , 1178 



1161, 



i26, 127, 128, 184, 1ST, 102. 
169, i72, 178, ,99, 221, 222 228. 226. 
280, 289, 814, 822. 887, 388, 8S9, 340. 
842, 861. 854. 866. 871, 410. 411, 417, 
4i8, 49, 420, 438. 472, 620, 6^6, 849, 
1 78, J76. iI7Q, 1177 

1179, 1180 

1173 

e64 f 56. 866, 471 

tc d^aSM 310: 842, 864, 890, 408, 488 
126 

618, 628 527, 686, 
7 2 5. 726 

ss 664 



151 



476 
11T6 
626 

xso& -883 



1174 
60 



18 

12, 88. 1240 

828 

-8. 77-. sg. 666, 567, 698, 669 
-fe^eb 618' 68, 5 9. 667. 687 t 632, 684. 
636, 686, 6fc7, 640 (air-. T-^to) 

^er? 596 
633 

684 



697 



688 



421, 747, 825, 868, 968, 1082 

-a a ea 

537 

18, 611. 612, 618 
409, 411 
2_JOS" 408, 4 8> 416, 416 
fcOO, 746 
811 

^ar 1022, 1028 

rv53)fibtoeo 637. 648, 647 f 558, 669. 624, 
692 

618 

886 
819 
698 

44. 881, 1172 

t 
17 

12, is. 29, 1012 

76=5. 779 

670 

6, 426 

766 
677 

tf 67? 
278 
680, 680, 68$ 



848 

087 
6 

18 

J-87 1188 1189 
14P, 1144 
2r :88, 401 
401 
822, 828 



416 



822 



649 
o 17, 27, , 278 



248. 249 



1265 



747 

244 



847 



695 



877 
6?9 



678 



127, 18(, I89 t 160 



68 



S" 88 

114. 6 . 289, ^79, 616. 688. 7*2 
k 789 

J117 



4S9 



6 8 
70. 



loos 

" 24, S:46 >47, 249 
it 24. 119, 248. 247 
563 



695 

A^ ^sfi 697 
69-. 774 
696 

784 

687, 8g4 t 697, 698, 774, 



775 



778 

+sfriXo s^g^bco 698 
694, 696. 698, 699. 707, 710, 776, 



776 



418. 718 
447 
294 

1060 (cSr 

122 
AT3-gfiOL ttf 748 

8S9, 851, 863, S98 
102, 104 
e 84 

rfd 110 



- 825 
isai 1006 
1089 

i T$S" 660. 688 
^fi Co Sog 1097 
Lr 847, 496 497 

15, 224, 018 

274., 3a7, 456, 616, 618. 645, 647, 
652. fe 8, 669. u7l f fi98 f 605, 691, 842, 
1112 

25 

, ^o^tf-r-co 978, 982 
827 



1818 



II 



3o[jf&>e*&o BIS, 516. 618 
c6otf*tfTr>ea 295, 800, 689, 626, 706, 
752,760 

o-^oQo-sr-co 114 
218 

s5tftfoex> 945 
o 

780 . ; 



840 



211 



210 
I ITT> atPotfsSbo 120 

U Q 

ftf 688 

tfea&Sbo 869, 380, 361 
647 



288, 290 727 

288, 270, 272, 654, 557, 
607, 613, 615. 654, 67J, 702, 777 

1274. 1276, 1876. 1277, 1282 
o 1278 

SoxkibS" 561 
, 341 

17?. 228, 881, 859, 871, 988, 
1222 

920, 1271 

270, 280, 286, 301, 804, 8fi6, 
326, 327, 388, 384, 885, 836, 87, 888, 
9, 840, 841, 542, 344, 845, 348, 864, 
S56, 397, 402, 404, 418, 447. 449, 460. 
471, 472, 478, 476, 481, 48. 491, 494, 
495 

472 

825, 490 



478 482 

CO 9 

^TTJO 342 
5 

846 

888 

490 



385 

258, 269, 260 



141. 158 
446 

1267 

iOg'^" j"o5j^~^S)oS) ^ 299 
Scn>rt" 6fi 

I lbT 

1? JT lio fto^S 340 

-a -, iF~ QQO 

O (J l BJ Ot/0 

w 

207 

519, 623, S24, 856. 716, 727 

524 

' 16', 197, 218, 220, 221, 224, 279, 
', 742 
276 

290, 851 



o en 

238, 290, 370 
315 

278 



14 



187, I60 f 168, 167 



. r -5r"5r 198 



21, 129, IBS, 



140, 141, 142 



rtf5bo 148 ^ 

s^oko ?3o|jg 123, 128, 130, 181, 132, 134, 
166 



6, 128, 129, 130, 187, 
140, 175 

129, 130, 182, 139, 141 ^ 
1065, 1056. 1064. 1068, 1069 . 
868 ^ . 

60 
40, 197 



1319 



, v Jb-cr* tf&o 188 
880 882 885 



879. 



6 0, 666, 614^ 61?, 778 



27* 



;|J_) S" 2e, 276, 1288 



28 

674 

18*, 186. 189 
C eSgSS o '48 

^ 299, 642, 6- , 664, 5^8. 687^ 
677, 578, 808, 612, 623, 84!. 649, 864, 
666, 665, 712 

387, 864 

Stfstf 388, 886, 888, 841. 846 f 
409, 4,78, 476, 473, 479 
542 



578 
588 



.48, 607, 



fi72 



Jxtf 



(^^S) &o 319, 820. 821 ? 324, 358. 
^ .^91. 896. 401, 431 ? 468, 478, 848 



1277 



. 1019 



902 

^ex: 888 

^67, 868, 869, 942 
ftc% ^^pS* 940 

T^^ 867. 868 ? 940 
847 

VO 1008^ 1009 ? 1016, 1018, 
1019, 1021, 1U22, 1023^ 1045. 1Q78 

,^ 997 
1087 

188 
209 

9. 13, 18, 27, 158, 811. 
847.^48. 996. 996. 1084, 1057^ 1067. 
1071, 1072, 1077, 1^68 

^ l^oskj 165, 884, 1165 

798, 876, 877, 916 ? 90. 949 
SI6 

OSTTCO 818, 817 } 887, 869, 404, 
661, 607, 618, 616, 696, 701, 7<6 
1155 

884, 886 

790^ 824 3 881, 866, 367, 859, 
880, *85, 884, 886. 918 
Sr-^aci 886. 872, 873, 877, 889,891. 
923, 9*8 f 928 

^anco 116 , 822, 794, 799, 884, 8 6. 8^6. 
838, 889, 856, 8&9, 865, 8^7, 87^, 8^4, 
68. 918, 982, 98^, 947, 9.7, 1188 

8vS, *^8. 880, 832. 838. 8t8, 889 
*wj 831 

X5o6o 1108 

785 ... - 



1320 >*&&& II 



rforr* ($&} 826, 828, 984, 1169 w 



26 

> E)43i6"* 5jra rt"ofl 71* 

128 

27, 156, 239, 280, 445, 616, 618, M a f^ tftfoK _ tf g ^ 2 5 8 , 2 66 

920, 1280, 1285 tfoJrV ;fcr>tfo 600~^ 

284 tftf^rV&o 472, 699. 601, 802, 80S, 805, 

&tfc)eo 851 607, 635 

761 tftf\rV&G5^ '3tf i y& 636 

1Q 1 1Q 9 

iin ' JWt ^tf^TTtfc 800, 601, 60S, 808, 805, 809, 

*4Sj--3 247 618,656 

o&Gjv>t)G 189 K'x'^-r^K^ ^^w<^ 602 



12-3 
62 

51 



u , 

68 ^^T^tfca 80 599 

8 



. 688 
j 98 v 

E0 ' 72 ' 94 6 ^^oT 3 ^ 8 

tftf^so-a 6 GO 

K^^^&J 688, 602, 712, 718, 773 

5, 7, 32, 99 ? 101, 128, 140, **oSbo 608, 699, 682, 633, 856 

470 

tfe& 9*&g ^^0^" "3 tf o^jo 268. 269, 260 
62 * " " 



145 " rtff^887 



r 162, 183, 230, 86? Ktf\Jto$>&> 85?, 868, 857 

"Tl70 ^ raw 682 



^ & 839,840 **8xr.eo 632 



gjg ri^ijooo 636 

880" ^ ^5^ 782 5 783, 785, 798 

254, 269 n-oe* 00, 237, 268, 1018, 1271, 1272 

3 873 rp'*'*otfr'8 287 

>co 797, 1188 n^ rs5o|^D(g) 590 

277, 808, 821 ^^ ss^aao 1089 

212, 213 
212 

8 68 " rr-Xr* fiCTn^ 188, 160, 162, 164, 1, 856, 

m ' 492, 633 3 639 3 649, 877, 988, 938, 987, 

ar 182, 163 94 4> 10 7 Sj 117 g 



IS21 



987 

fltfa 988 
939 

rr*oSr>eo 602, 687, 570, 718 
884 

986 
448 

7T-C 819, 892^ 484, 485, 441, 581,682, 
644, 1008 

674, 675, 690 



627 



rvf) fc 



628 



429 



610 f 812 



861, 852, 358, 868 

471 



15, 802 



1184 

904, 980 



14 

24 
886 

771, 781 
flfc weoo^ 624 
Aft tfcrS 624 

118S 

983 

". J?T 1228 

808, 898, 899, 499, 610, 518, 664, 
686. 640, 841, 660 

667, 588, 685, 7?7 






649 

428 ; 686, 781, 826, 868 
868, 920, 964 



o 879 
758 

150. 116, 117 
119 

116, 117 

428 



468, 1014, 1020, 1021, 1022. 



102S 



gtf* 917 

60, 185, 148, 147, 174, 809, 
629, 881, 874, 886, 888 3 889, 890, 892, 
896, 917, 918, 919. 920, 947, 974, 1018, 
1014, 1018, 1020, 1021, 1024, 1082. 
1042, 1044, 1071, 1075, 1144, 1268 
874, 894 

(&r-|J*3x>) 148, 898, 



997 
jen 



982 



724 



S3Tr-tr>cx) 992 
711, 7)2, 714, 719, 724 
907 

| ce> J5j T rr 8 co 61 
1098 



282 



644 
69 

129 



41, 146, 109, 170, 171. l7, 174 
11, 12, 14, 28j 47, 49, 191. 918 
187 
387 

^)o 669 
261 
1076 

1188 
1239 



1832 



261 (^r 
261, 262 

Voiatt 167. 873 
168 



1124 



654. 686, 687 
641, 643 
4, 6^6, 690 

. 8 6,927, 106, 1111, 



687, 702 

j 6S5 686, 687, 638, 6"0, 
. 701, 702, 704, 7,2, 778 

689 
1175 



1087 

862, 853, 854, 866, 880, 882 
S5g*| 85 1. 852 



861 



861 



1U3 



1180 



821, 823, 827, 868, 881, 887, 
1098, 1099. 1104, 1167 

831, &88, 844, 868 
851, 860, 883 

1091 

8, 97, 4'2, 422, 442, 445, 493, 
670 731,733, 761, 776 
j3o#!fcae>o 1208, 1206 
6 12 

244 
141 
670 



17 
72 



3, 76 

830, 480 

* 

)fr-Ax>o 62, 63 
229, 8 6, 858 
1 9 

67 

67 
606 



j 



129. 130, 



6 50, ; 1, 65. 67, 76 99, 1188 



TS ^-cn tf Jfco t86 

Q 
c^T n~o|A& 671 



606, 608, 657, 66-, 686, 687 
s3 728, 727 

84. 1029, 1082 

Ltftfgcr-Sb> 1017 
1014 

133. 148. 228. 809, 458,884, 
990,997.998, 999, OH, 1015, .016, 
1017, 1018, 10-4, 1025, 1067. .087. 
1071, 1077 

>eo 1016 
1014, 1024, 1026 



12 



1 7T*SS>56*icr 8ioocoo 598 

Ln-^dT to 836, 837, 879, 9 , 922. 928. 

932 934 

M r^^^T 218. 824, 833, 868. 869. 889, 
922. 1179. 1181 
796, 79^ 
e8 tfg&a 783 
assa-cr-co 794, 795, 796 
^, 78 . 785 

740 

irn)oci ^a--r oooou 768 
r rr13j-$' e " 14 

160, 162 



1838 



l 



660, 663 

207,208, 209, 218, 1281, 1232, 
1288, 1247, 1257 
\S' H99, 1208, 1228 

Lrttf*cto 111 
9 

610 
18 * 
871 

871, 872 
825 



612, 716, 840 
774 

776 

775 
776 



99 



19 



272 

S" 17, 6S, 254, 278. 282. 2s?, 
290, 298, 297, 310. 858. 401, 414, 
647, 648, 784 

359 
273, 287 

818. 814 

o 814 

- 

801 
224 



1189 

622 
46 



47 
200, 271, 1127 



44 



22, 184 

22, 1261 
"3o6otfeo SoCSboftj 68. 54 
) fibixjooaw 412 

So^geo 76 
1, 682 



543 
802, 826 
1006 
s 612 

ion, 1012 

007 ' 1008 
1091 



1033 

8, 164, 892, 8/4, fe95, 998, 999. 
1001, 1006, 1007. 1008, lOOy. 1010, 
1011, 1012, 1013, 1014, 1017, 1024, 
1028, 1078, 1088, 1251, 1284 

10 1 9, 1010, 1025 
B93 
1014 

1011 

botf ^rcr -r^eo^ex) 1009 
1006 
1006 

1006 
1008 



200 



U48 

ifi-sptfo 968, 964 



1824 SSAS>& II 



itf:fstooco 864 
148 *\x\ i"fj^v "oSjog'L. JOTT:)SSx> 622 



148 3^ (Itafjo 609 618, 521 64* 647. 698 t 

)ieo3o*xw 148 622. 8^3, 714. 727 

'v-gtfo 682 -Os^ "3o*<> 645, 6*6, 647, 648 

in-TT-eo 968 -Sfc 229 



9 

890 ftg'W 3&ir*Jo 681 

o 



612, 719 A* ^a>*> 891 

9, 719 A btfco 761 

733 >ex> 482 

Ql j[ -ft^- 6 2 fr 3_^) 

tfjtfj) 506, 606, 647, 667, 669. 67', 591, s5oo 569, 670, 696, 697, 598, 599, 806, 
682. 642, 652, 655. 667, 871. 676 849. <V2 718 

661 A^oo tftf 689. 678 

a 

. 302, 806. 651, 863, 778 **aLe /r*^)TT-e>3 242 

^ 1158, 1183. 1170 3*^ ^L rto 7 

61 Bi^fio i5t3o\ 'S^^N uo 

648. 647 3^> T 45, 746, 985 981 

1091 B* eo -6, 764, 446 

848 3&> 7*1 1 753. 758, 782, 784, 1228, 1882 

1180 5S 580 ' 684, 685 

K v*j *J *iJ dj5b(Xi oo i 

860, 861. 864 3^So 686 

870. 871, 372 3$ 6i;i>;fco 229 

871. 872, 378, 874* 375 ^^ -3^ 797 

812 ^aeo 898, 396, 400, 967, 982. 99 . 992, 
8 1112. 1118 

3 tfgotfoo 897 

689 gjsr- 8, 61, 802. 825, 976. 1 89, 1268 . 

60S 2_Jbctfx>eo 468. 1038 

flj'fio 880, 882 3 er**o3W5" 886 

80 ^pfe 682 

49 ^HoQar* S5ocQkTeo 1028 

68 T^sS" 1184. 1135 

60 ^)lojico 
61 - 3* HOI 



o 



1826 



186 



967 



498 



esoifc 

wofc Tr-agsSx> 813^ 314 

tea Sb 33SX> 06 

7 00. 701 

468. 472 



479 
"343 797 

812. 316, 820, 321, 322 5 323, 327, 
828 881. 338, 388, 839, S40 f 348 5 845, 
846. 851. 854, 867, 368, 876, 878, 888, 
889, ;90 892. S97, 400, 425, 426 ? 427, 
428. 488, 486, 488, 447 461, 468 456, 
48l t 468, 467, 478, 497. 60-=> 609, 649, 
670 701, 761, 798, 824, U6 966, 982, 
1081, 1118. 1217. 1274. I27d 

819 
491 

1278 
229 

289, 280, 288, 414. 881, 832, 985, 
1165, 1266 

621 

622 



688 



107 






82 

16 



trtf 



206 
400 



146 



SJQ e g =r-0(^)3o 699 
604, 608 
602, 604, 681, 683 



796. 796 
3< 5" 1121, 1122. 1124, 1186 

SSSfcgtfo 979 
(go 

806, 979 

700. 792, 798. 802, 804, 806, 821, 
824 

792 
110 

3^ 112 

293 
282 
20 

609 



498 
325 



) 686 
_oss 814, 826. 490 



841 

489, 498 
oessfco &26, 828 
612 

291 



328, 400, 449, 



46], 460, 478, 981 
346 



849 



494 
jjrasSa> 494 



468, 470 

880 

330 

SS>^ 280, 298, 821, 828, 828, 884, 886, 
387. 842, 848, 344, 846, 846, 349 f 360. 
418, 419, 449, 462, 467, 469. 470, 482, 
488, 484, 486, 416, 487, 488, J4IO, 491, 
493, 494 



1326 



sr 



102, 06, 326, 447, 460. 
, 483, 485, 497, 498. 499, 600, 390 
-^sfco - -tfd|j* 462 
So^tfsto 848. 847 
311 
800 

284, 835 
, 329 
482 

eo 468 
449 

381, 450, 885, 788, 800. 802, 804, 
974, 973, 998, 1039. 1183, 1167, 1161. 
1266, 1269 
S" 300 
676 

riir-co 678 
781, 826, 868 
wo&tf j*&je 720 
atfjS -fto^S" 231 

1^6 1681 208, 466. 718, 767, 800. 1068, 
1060, 1114, 1133 

21, 183, 202, 203, 1260 
666 

991 

979, 990, 992, 994, 1113 
1108 
jSr*^co U79 

1100 

ttotfco 681 

1148 

1161, 1168 
S4, 818 

1167 

1148 

1161, 1169 
^TTtx> 879, 880 
1100 



tftia, 680, 688 
V^co 821 



1157 



1148. 1161, 1164, 



1167 

1180, 1181, 1162 
1291 

968. 1054. 1122, 1148, 
1162, 1157, 1168, 1169, 1160, 1161, 
1192, 1200, J226 

363, 864, 1276 
1100 
1099, 1100 

.tfsSosSS 1167 
1086, 1088 
1101 

210, 211, 628 

698 
686, 688 

976 

(6) [J5ooo 693, 694 
-B-SSb^co 598 

CO 

en8 829, 380, 331, 882 
r*&o3o wT^cCJo&o 108 

644 



wo 



Tca 
463 



458 



779 



890, 904, 



914. 916 



Q 



942 
466 
998, 998, 1028 



er8 809 



667 
206 



680, 608 



6t8 

o 167, 774 



822 



1272 
ffijD -i3S 
746 v - 



, 760, 883, 838. 8S9, 869 t 
88 7 , 403, 413, 



878 

894. 895 897 

1018, 1180, 1271 
2, 270. 801. 691 
129. 180 

891, 726 
.64., 686, 643, 704 



621 



. 727 



619, 620 
802 



18 2 J. 22 t 270 , 29, 2^0, 2 9, 
. 296, 8U1, .^02, 804, 80-., 88 , 486, 
fill. 618, 6i8 3 619, 648 



67 , ? 80 
r 8 ^^ 687 
612, 721 

281, 2 8 
^6(js 848 

85,,. 867, 869, 879, 888, 40*, 
471. 494 

448, 449, 460 



466 



488 



281 



^ 605 

827 
868 

^e 4,00 
a 828, 888, 391. ^ 2 



, 811, 325. 827, 25, 

821,S8 I 96 

281, 471 

$ 346 



01, 302, SOS, 805 
299 
278, 280,281, 



298 



-citfo 284, 405 

812, 324, ^25, 452, 46* f 467, 48 f 
469 S48, 844, 846, 981, 984, 992, 998, 
999, 1000, 1014. i077, 1079, 1080 

846 



800, 801, 967 



^"S tf 301 



-^^J 427 
308 

125, 818 

19, 279. 301, SQ6, 3sO, 4u4, 
'467, 461, 470, 471, 681, 717, 80S, 1112 
288"" 



463 

281, 301, 308, 807, 808, 809 
620 

, 409, 423 



1828 



it 



463 

821 

829 



316 

19. 803, *07, 811, 322, 823. 324, 
8^6, 881, 8*3, 35. 842. 843, 344, 346, 
851, 864. 888, 890, 393, 897, 400, 401, 
427, 485, 461, 4C8, 470, 482, 488, 840 
308, 311 



99, 101 
465 

840 

907 



48 

867, 398 
229 
249 

O 

Cer^o 965, 970 

412, 440, 442, 670. 783, 752 ; 
766, 761 

. a. o. c&o. 270 
. vabS 1 198 ; 
ana tfo-^co 633 

m^&o 721 

v- 

o 394, 396, 483 
tr*gaofi 48, 61. 68, 60, 812 
62 
62 



1061, 1052, J1068, 1064, 1066. 1066, 
1057, 1063/1066, 1067,1068, 1069, 
1073. 1074, 1075 * 

, 3 

1062, 1058 



389 



176, 186, 869, 937, 182 
22 

340 

281. 1119, 1121, 1122, 1123, 1124. 
^9, 1130, 1131, 1132. 1133, 1166. 
1158, 1160. 1161, 1162, 1188, 1166, 
1169, 1170, 1171, 1172, 1180 
153 

1131 
1130 

r-. Aotf^ooaST) 
1132 
1132 
817 
278 

682, b87, 688 
12 

JbTroir^o 493 
12, 27, 717. 812 
247 9 243. 249, 261 
657 

1013, 1060 
881 

109 



t v 9 

826, 963 
745, 747 

646. 684, 611, 674, 899, 744 
424 
812 

756 

586 



278 



182 



l 147 



219. 267 



Q im 

266 "L^^g) 6 " 1S6 > 183 > 187 ' 188 > ^9, 12 28 

S" 24 1259, 1260 

Seco 881 itfs&" eso^aS" 670 
858 
317 

183, 1229 (jJ^ef ^ "3<xoo45a/T 60 

1280 n^ 3 ^" S&r-e-^eo 871, 965 

186, 183, 981, 1221, 1231, 1288 (J5*o 244 

1232 i^M>\<x&S 1000 
1231 

22, 87. 125, 178, 183, 1221, 1229, 

1237, 1288, 1239, 124 ', 1260, 1261 *' * 

1288 fiaoto pS>?5\ o 284 

1237 dotfv* co 672 

1240, 1241 ^dr^ L^ 880 

138, 1287, 1388, 1244 tfctfrCd" 647, 543, 549 

1S6 tfTBr-S" 187, 1249, 1259, 1261, 1262 

459 <tfo3ooo - *crfo!\r 826 

1281 ^6 501, 602 

1078 

802, 871 ""^ v ""* w 206 

OA< TrSj o l\)tr*otfsix> 303 

801 Q 

fnirn Tr&*NS" 622 

1258 < 

276,299, 831.806,990, 1110 " 861 

,978,1114 ' *"&'* 80S. 888 

- K tnajjST 19, 308, 809, 327, 828, 466 

oo ~ 

672 ^. <0 ^ 

xy^oS , er*5 221 

i-a^ab Stfe 1036, 1087 to 

*? A, iseJooCb 12 

183 ^ 1076 

748 ' 76 fla .ff 811, 814,816,1148 

816 c- 

1189, 1200, 1201, 1207, 



168, 189, 170, 171 ""*& sr 12 



1208, 1209, 1210. 1211, 1211. 1218. aw T 196 

1218, 1217. 1249 ^ a ^ a< 26j g()0> 01> 64g> g88> 9g2 

wotf) wotf "cr*j\K2Jbj co 1209 AlS^bTJslto" 271 

848 fl^Jv^S" 486 

g 1186 a D J87 



1830 



II 



14 

&. otoS". &. D. N. A.) 22, 280. 284, 286, 
291, 822, 826. 8*4. 836. 842, 348, 846, 
347, 348 9 849, 860, 856, 486, 488, 498, 
496. 496 

&. d3oS. 6. tf;fro&3r fiTTjotf 496 
159. J41. US, 1M, 172 
843 



28 



A SibJbS' 605, 540 
& a*!^ 2_t6" 
A. )". . 



ASfc 



761 
761 

^ 1oLtfT3fcsfc> 402,, 420, , 494 
1121, 1148, 1156 

1121, i22, 1161 
1121, 1122 



907 



189 



140 



4,66^ 488 



252 

1298 

1285, 1286 
1188 

69 

19, 46, 49, 60 
802 
266 
61 

^ 113 
660 

171 
187 
e-gg-^ 64 

. M. 818 
189 
20. 24 



301 

UT^OOO^" 120 
288, 875 
876 t 1186, 1166 
186, 202 

198 
928 
854 

^S 448, 449 
<&POCO 444 



14 
646 

281 

1262, 1268 
200 

827. 841. 345 482, 478, 479, 
480.482, 488, 487, 488. 490 494 
326. 388 



6 244 t 802, 808, 804, 825. 1092, 1118, 
?287. 1260, 1268 
6 Soss 861 



68 



1280 



674 



#0*0 eo$3 ^5 (Joi) 660 

o33tt 18 
720 
Su 228, 281 



$ CTTr-eo 168, 164, 321 
3 ^<5g 288 



1881 



&tf 1216, 1218, 1219 va "3c(jftT (^(Joco 1044 

790 -waiysbsfca 429 

247, 249 vS atfbsS ^StfSSboeo 1291 

C>^ q> 

"jwTyoi^ ViJiiSbo 8 VS5 SiSl'-Od cj*5t *5o^*5 AjiSCSo 1^98 

228 **&>& 852 

*P><*>) 613, 668, 747, 821, wtf^Jj 3*00 966, 962, 984 

822, 825, 844, 864, 868, 988, 964, 1062, VTr^rS" 158 

1066 1106,1181 *& *fS5j*co 247 

> CO 

Io ^ . O X 7 

t IOQ TP*OO IB? xr*co 2* ' 

&$oK ^fi-r(^six> 188 fi'^r ^^ dT (0 s3o|^ 818 

_^_ f 16S. 187, 178, 176. s&atf 30 81*"' 

182, Ibsl 257, 268. 269, 492, 688, 639. eeiae 740, 802. 824 

10*9. 1066. 1058. 1068, 1069. 1062, , r o&*. i .o* tftforr-eo 181 

1084. 1067, 1070, 1246 8 ^ r tftfoJnw , 8 
176 



tftforr-ea 180 

I Siiooaoo 142 . w _ 000 

L &&% Q&i5eo 833 

138 



.. . _ . 622 

187, 140, 188, 206, 906. 908. 



929, 968, 1116 

i j n ^Oo n ^5 f o otj 

tftfo^ Dfitfciabo 136 * otf ~ -iStoitr 728 

i * *a Soflb i\r*^C55) j"*tf 12<iU 

__ 18f 187 ab& TP-^AO 281, 816. 742, 848, 869, 800, 

Q 68 ' 886, 1018 

68 o^Sb 958, 960, 964 

tfoto Bw^co 508 &egTr> ^c^&>o 147 

762 764 tfo^oSS. S' woSb$)o 4S1 

gg4 nCo^ sT^S5x) 822, 861, 856 

64 "3* 381 

862 "3teeo 488, 489, 440, 441, 444, 445, 447. 

84 766, 768, 769 

602, 608 , ' "3rt>*^ $?*# 768 

229 " ' "BobtSbff^S^)^ nrocS:n30 602 
228, 229 
829 



v*v apBoao -3^0^ tfotf lOflt -3e)orr*TT* 076, 6S6 ; 878^ 889, 1108 

ssrcr aer'tfs 1006 



1160 

11SO 



1 -3, 1228 

3e> c*Scoeo 568, 691, 718 - . t Q 1A1 

r> Tsr*5o3a 1^9, 144 

752 
18 

3^ SoaSo5fc "Stoeo 441 ip-r wfc>& 26 

"Se^S 3TTgSx> 626 $ocbifo* S" 64 

"c 5 S" cfcjiScueG 652, 662 o3ao&3 ix> 1087 

IIIS dji^co 751 $ o5oo<s J9 ^JQ ^5~O9 1087 

c"S oSoo-cSi 1 54 ^iift Q (5o oUo 

961, 984, 987 
784 



a F~ C f \ Q 

1182 2_^*o bUtf 



jfg y u -\jou* ^A" $ 19, 305, 824 



^ 790. 846. 871, 876, 911, 9 

1277 

886, 9^8, 944. 1178, 1179, U81J 



678, 679 



138, 995, 1002 f 1014, 1024. e 

1025,1026.1082.1057 ffo JB. 588. 787' 

D "aosr^ T-tf^ 1025 tfctf-^gtfo^ 274. 777 

744 rf tf ^ l^g- 881, 86 . 8 8, 881. 909 

$4kc9 9i 2)i- 229 871 
S> 9 481, 432, 488 tf Ara figSg'c^ ^r*rt:Sx> 86^ 

881 CAra CS^SJSw 898, 894, 10*1, 1006 

008 



79 Q 

tf-r-cfSoo 109 111, 207 



47. 48,811, 812 

108, 109, 111, 217 



69 ^ ^^ 7Q2 

^ 825 ^^ ._ BO 



l087 - iOSS ^^ ^Lafc 772 

^vcw 179 "^^A d ' 000 202 

iSSjj&oci>sS3i> }46. 834 ^_ ^ -..BT-F" *^-rfjfc QOK 

I ^^^1 O ^ T3^o Q J * Oc/ OoO 

tfj e3^8 172, 174 ^^ ^^^ g'gg^ ^g 

148, 147, 208. 329. 880 a e8*S" e|T Ib^SxS" 20 

168, 168 - Sttr^a 484. 1087 



750, 787. 1107 

_i f66 fi^Jkgr 1 ^ 752 

280 e^a&u 8, '08, 118, 117 



iS88 

322, 690 



1 fl 1 1QO ,- 

10 S 2 * S^a Sr-tf^a ar^oSuS ".Gfltossu 64 



129 

188 efcga J84 

65" > ;J icss5 -tfe^iSx} 849 

|fiJ35 aStr** jSaj 198 

o "*$" do t$ i fO *5oo 4 
* L jtf oJ^|) 3rc 889 

284, 885. 888, 887 ^^ stfra &as&J 18 

88 iff&r ax> 197, IQS 

OQ A. 

oo4 r I'S^K'SK rftrt 1 * t(s 9flw Q1 

[UJAj(pJo ovcJi iAo oO J> 17 1 



407 , .xiw^o** ^.. 535 



?4R 

jtfsjj ^oSaiu 197 

681 



125 148, 168, 159, 171, 172, 178. 

178, 998. 1084, 1086. 1067. ~ 174, 176, 176, 1168, 1168, 1174 

1061, 1082, 1087, 1267, 126\ 1 69, ^gsto-^* ^ 

1S61 i cap tf-tfjtf 144 

^ tr-f 14^, 146, 147, 161, 152, 168. 

stfSbeo 877 168, 1"9, 160, 1*2, 164. '67, 168, 189, 

128 . ^258 ^ 172 178, 206, 217, 848 f 874 ? b97, 

s- 6 38S, 414 1017, 1018, 1023, 1026, 1026, 1042, 

jK ^&o 267, 68, 259 1048. 1044, 1045, 1060, 1061, 1063, 

8, H, 182 1064, 1069, 1116 

1 ^Si5CTT^ WOcfSSbO 149 

!OJ"5. 1088 LiSgTr- tftfg 17 

l Q (^=5g "Sr sSoa 188. 182 

467, 468 L 7 ^^ 748 

(jrS5a^bo 246, 261, 266, 890 

I "tar*D'*r v e) atf J^TT*orfi5ci2bo 889 

Kfti. U DO m 

1 - -^^ -^ ^-=s P"N KR7 

ro eO U0 j 1> ( 

ft 888, 40, 409, 418, 437, 470, 

** Oi ^ 481, 88 

47 S 

(?00b ft ^ rSo^SkT 1 *^ S)e)5JOO S16 

J 81 a 5 r 17 

69$ fljofeocfc ^oj/dS^cvSJbo 1253 



1884 



818 tf^tf *&&:&> 478. 476 

48 l$o*$ I ^""OT^OO 216 

1 QK 1 L JQ Q 
loD, i^OO 



C3 

119 tfoS tftfotfifcueo 132, 186, 218, 808, 681. 



ftTr-otfto 16 1281, 1238. 1246, 1246, 1247, 1249 

561 #J3^ ^i-E^&o 18, 124 

145 $g& f^sica&o 21 1 7 218 

48 

887. 404 

en& S3b$eo 669 

850 tfotftF 244 

g5Q tfoQ "S*r5" 818 

tffioe 3^"&fcco 719 



827, 828 CO^GO 719 



130 ^^(^a 9, 168, 169, 170. 171, 178, 808, 

1222 484, 848, 995, 998, 997, 898, 1002, 

120 1004, 1015, 1025, 1082, 1088, 1084, 

1086. 1087. 1088, 10S9, 1040. 1041, 

ftrr ^ I3l 1042, 1043. 1044, 1048-1061, 1064, 

"^ 72 1058. 1057, 1084, 1088, 1069, 1071-1078, 

11Q4 1075, 1088 



jog ^flUIW, W0 13-" 9 <JXT" V 1049 

541, 542, 645, 670. 622, 718. **\? wo*-^ a^tf o 985 

611 ^~ 



AOrt *"**(" v ** w w ws|rf*A< luoy 

614, 616: 617, 881. 726 ***-' "*** m5 ' 1W ' 7 ' ^ 

288 

118S 1 1 fl" 7 

tf&ltf aco^oo 82, 1038 
1187 



880. 871 

tf&l $ 3tf :Sr*e> 998, 104C 
880, 861, 864, 865 l " 



1006 

476 ^ r * e> T" 104 , 

971; 987 ss&S a-^ro 1084 

827 Stftf B7r-^r 805, 806 

972. 1008 Slew a-iri^a* infip 

OMU w o* TC8OJO xUOo 

(5 
Jog ^ 

*' 



1886 



r 1085 
788, 801 1107, 1108. 1114 

(jTsfc-sfc** ^s 118 

618. 698 

167. 76,884, 847, 867, 
862, 889. 870, 890, 891. 406 690, 748, 
987 It 00. 1001, 1019. 1079, 1264-1268. 
12*8 

ljfoa ^Co^eo 240. 1265, 1287 
16 -r-Sb> 2ft9 

L <-> 



afi 
tffl 
tffi 



1169 

1169 
820 
801 
468 981, 1100 

101. 126. 127, 129, 160, in, 
201. 8,6. 114? 1160 
679 



ia 828 



o 268 
692 



7 68 



187 






140 
, 1112 

801 
806 

aBrtfn 802 
SOI 

981 986. 1098, 1120 
* 804, 460 
761 

1028. 1082, 1105, 



1167. 1161 
cfc; 

.S" 826 



8^2-894, 528, 669 
sri ^ci^oaCrco 892 
691 

892 

646 
649 

inco 896 
*o*>o 892. 898. 894, 527, 872 

Sg^SS 896 
561 

401 

898, 899, 41tt, 628^ 
646, 725 
snA 2oj*ao 27 
KT*A fl^r^tu 660 
7r*A Sana5&o 721 
sr-A a^ssSAJ 18 1 19. 645 
689 

892,186, 698 
892, 898, 894 

560 

329 



2_SbcfJO 670 



1266 

878 
267 

26. 258 
766 

766 
672 
JJ U61 
-r* res irr"co 444 

^Sr'-r" Sr' eo 444 
686, 647. 728. 727 

5ox> 1-71, 1216, 1267, 1258" 
* 
aa>to^ y 686 

So^go 681, 686 
tff * 682, 587 



13g6 



II 



681. 580, 688. 687 
229, 281. 881, 871, 89?, 908, 920. 
1018, 1027, 1222 
288 

873, 873 



828. 831 



46 



TO 



408 



765 



1176, 1177 
217 

15, 224, 08, 309, 1019 
95 

a* Tm^F 1234, 
ssg 785, 788 

S41 
!S6 t 180, 189 

498 



1198, 1194, 1196, 1220 
810 

CaniStfw 2, 50 



1268 
822 

1084, 109fi, 1094, 1098 
217, 219, 219 
168 
606, 



856 
819 



atn^oCo S 

1118 



1160 



120 



48 



228, 229, 248 
480 

948 
J 62 

5, 961. 1019 
^r>cxx)c5 1126 

CO 

fctf ^Q^O' s^^c3 SgtfrS 424 

S)5 ^c&<^e 8 ft 786, 750, 781. 799, 1104, 

1105, 1106, 1107 
ibtf ^Ob^e) ST^&oeo 1104 

1008 

744, 674. 968, 994, 1081, 
1088 

Jb&3 S2io3a^tf a;&n <p^ ^gS 480 
ft 43 SolfceRttbo 389 
fttf ^j^S-o- 1110. 1112 
fcW s5tf?Tr Jgs5g 1111 
fc ^cOo2Lr30 2 
fco3o^ 167 

fceo 198, 218, 809, 810, 819, 822,884, 
866, 87, 889. 371 888, 889, 892, 480, 
486, 446. 456, 644, 671, 701, 742, 7*0, 
798 3 79, 884 ? 928, 969, 973, 990. 1002, 
1110, 1113, 1116, 1122, 1126. 1127, 
H28 f 1135, 1157, 1163, 1166. 1188, 
1171, 1198, 1200, 1268 
422, 483 

291 
469 

1048 

261, 262, 268, 264 
846. 647. 624 

1091 

J274 1275, 1276. 1277, 1278, 1270, 
1281, 1282 

Aoaco 764, 1279^ 1280, 1281 



1280 



1281 
1279 
8 

1064 
SrgS 309. 1016, 1028, 1024., 1078 

rS> 653 
448 

174, 1046, 1047. 1048, 1049, 
1055. 1088, 1067. 1069, 1070 
DCO 8 

oj^co 822, 828, 881, 832, 888, 889, 
1027, 1172 
167 

3o$ 580 
580 
529, 580, 588, 647 

580 

681. 582 

gsSiljtf Oen^&o 629 
826 

dSb^^ 108 
So 819 

Tie) vco^go 979, 980 
749 

216, 245. 248, 260, 848, 889, 
6, 1 
112 



1269 



80 



891, 1184, 1166, 1198 



982, 963 

964, 974, 976, 989 
269 
268, 269 



239, 240 
261 

197. 198, 220; 228, 288, 289, 
241. 243, 250, 254, 267. 268, 270 f 284, 
808. 809, 822, 414 
241 



826 

24, 219, 268, 267, 264 
851, 879 
^oeo 860 
289 

atf-oab (Eia^a^c5bo) 121, 188, 
276, 497. 1067, 1070 
. 727 

184, 210 
1084 5 1086, HOB 
287, 310, 312, 495 
282 

fcS") 22 ; 255, 270, 
804 

" 'g' fi& 154 

gj " 

jj oa&r5Sotf ^T^CO 986 
^ o&S" oej^boeo 149, 150 
o&fT ed^r Co co 168 

<-s ^ 

^oaoS" 289, 301 
fi oooT wS5rco 280 

*^ CD 

148, 149, 150, 161, 168 

489 

" 811. 812. 84T, 849, 495 
289 

294, 589, 686, Ilg6 
sDar-r 18, 17, 29, 49, 60, 182, 
188. 145, 14,7, 148, 430, 93, 997, 1017, 
1089 



88, 126, 137. 149, 161,162, 
169, 161, 162, 171, 172, 178, 221, 988, 
996, 1076, 1S, 1178, 1176, 1178, 
1178, 1181 

liatf aiteca 989 

1070, 1071 
980 f 938 
tf 988 



1888 



II 



ieo * 182 * 168f 186 ' 168 

276, 277, 621, 690, 681, 893 
5fcr-gctfr'S~j~ 802, 978 3 979, 1114, 1229 

648 
' 489, 490, 498 



1110 

1284, 1286 

#o&xfci3ctfx> St^sfcfco 1282 

fflrvS&D 1282 
732, 789, 806 
248, 428, 868, 825, 1105, 1106 

1109 
4S2 

oSb T^koi) 481 
00, 742, 744, 781, 956, 985 
j-0g- 768 
SSofc "3)CE)Aatfc 743 



1228 



S)0a 

o^8^A 742, 757 

428, 429, 432, 441, 445, 741, 744, 
749. 760, 760, 784, 785 t 980 
741 

766 
296 

8^ 428, 440, 602, 614, 745, 754, 
777, 779 

'ibo 702 
o 

2o& to esc 7CS 
c^ 

426 

707 
bvcaba 704 

705 



706 j 

> 70S 

7; o, 774 

706 

ar-fibco 708 
704, 705. 712 

299, 579, 584 f 648, 649 

482 

320. 821. 889, '90, 898. *96, 427, 
481, 4F2, 43,,, 434, 843. 982. 990. 992 f 
994^ 1030. 1113 

aex^ 554, 56j 
^ 58, 7|4 
42 

422 

1166 



1086 



132 

788, 801, 802, 808. 807, 980 
co 818 
264 



761 



20 



a 718 

idsfco 408, 447 



o 878, 429 
H19 
H14, 868, 858, 447 



217 



<P A 



217, 218, 219 



220 



784 

648 

768, 769 
acas So^oaLoeo 788 



818 



1178 

40 

tf^*sa,otfr*eo 81 
"lotas' OefcgCfc-^tftf 1155 
to^abo 148, 149. ISO, 151, 162, 
118, 172. 988 

"Son tf&o 03008^ tf^Stf 148 

22, 184. 191, 193, 
197 
3tfab-cw itfao-cr'f 149 

126, 171, 224 



17, 221, 



22, 804 



943 



802 



180 



291 



127 



128 



22 

224 

6" aj- c*> % 4, 88, 126, 126, 127, 
128, 129. ISO, 131, 182, 188. 184, 185, 
187, 140, 141, 143, 189, 166, 111, 173, 
176. 176, 177, 178, 182, 184, 196, 203, 
218, 221, 223, 224, 225, 227, 229, 267, 
267, 268, 291, 809, S64 f 884, 1000, 
1001, 1040, 1084, 1120, 1123. 1163, 
1178, 1174, 1175, 1176, U77, 1184. 
1187. 1276 

149 

S" S)^gK5a 222 

188 

C3 

152 
19 



126, 176, 222* 9S7 
129 



sae 



101 
225 
880. 411, 418, 417 



co 438, 489Tol8. 571, 691, 692 
*bft>j. 275, 651. 706, 711, 712 
108 

175. If9 
188 

206, 980 

996, 998 
875 

186, 206, 230, 908, 929. 980. 
9827*848, 1028, 1086, 1178, 1244, 1260, 

1266 

tfcfcrr-x) 208, 213 

13 
544 
619 

$5 611 
3-0-01 tfJ-* v!5bo 623 



97, 103, 104, 217, 221, 224. 267- 
401. 466 



120, 121, 122, 123 
208 
608 

19 

1^*06, 1074, 1078 
487 

689 






74, 75 
24 



1840- 



II 



6, 82 

6 

845 
S56a 6 r^tf Motfbs&co 81 

C9 

aea_o'r;fco 210, 218 
817 
1249 
1245 



1161 



1247 
1247 

1247 

152, 164, 155, 298, 297, 2*9, 
468, 601, 560, 7S8, 762. 786, s58, 9^8. 
958 f 978, 987, 988. 990, 9^1 994, 1081, 
1118. 1114, 1180, 1221, 1224, 1226, 
1255, 1266, 1282, 1289 

4, 118, 218 
119 



125, 1262, 2282 

414 
642, 648, 990 



977 



38 



664 



108 

o 104 
IOU9, 1011 



724 

812 
980 
1070 
1234, 1285 
1284 



S5o 



1124 

1147, 

bo 669 670 
79*. 796 
668 

497 

669 
301, 771, 797 



/^SJ-SS3*>o 678 



678 
670 



711 



714 



680 

102, lug, 106, 672, 678, 674, 676, 
67B, 677, 678, 679, 680, 681. 701, 704, 
711, 718, 714, 7 8, 722, 723, 726, 728, 
729, 748, 771, 772, 782 



crgao 668, 7i4, 115. 7 6, 717, 718 
-^&JO 718. 719 
o 674 711 
Dotfr 671 
) H88 

229 f 246, 451, 826,852, 
, 988 

^x3aoo|tfJS3o 976, 993 
761 



296 
691 



682 



825 



59 



101 



166, 168, 171, 172, 178. 



666 



802 



668 



672 



-*n>* fe>co 837 






772 



; SSbo 204 228, 811, 884, 1221 

^JSJO 466 

8U8 
-545, 847 

*r*0<*CO 8 8 

276 
'^ ~S6 66 

0^pea^^bo 117 
12 

46. 1088 
fij -tfeSo 1037 

1186. 1195, 1209 
i A'c^Soexj ^08 
r ;-"SS5 X)ld 201 
16 
i8b. 167. 174 

^ o 166 

808 

29 

98, 298, 784, 804 6 
M So 788 
"B Jco 122 
S5g6^Tr^tfraoDeo 9 8 

o 1086 
3 

^"8^ 12 

-B^<)^Q 1088, 1108 
802 
J 1148 

1148 



5" 156. 1Q08 

sS" o^^go 688 
6 9 



492 
49 
827 

J 881, 771 
3o 720 
632 

169, 189, 996, 10^6, 1048. 1047, 
1048, 1050. 10*4. 1069, 1M2. : L 61. 
1066. 1088, 1088, 1072 
1047 

^abeaSw 1061 
268 

266 

850 
26, 252 

262 t 265, 263 
404 
5 

4S6 
276 
778 






158 



0, 81 
2S9 

10 

12, 49, 9J 
142, 162 
^tro^ax> 142 
ft of 1022 

1270, 127S 
0, 411, 418 

409, 411, 412, 418, 418, 417. 800, 
601 

18 

288, 278, 881, 40i f 47, 64, 



6C7, 61 871, 898, 702, 777 



ii 



12, 74, 409, 418, 419. 420, 

607. 681 

T^sfcj 409. 418 
712 

611 

o$ 605, 608 
1206 

c9 1205 
621, 524, 696 
rr-co 692 
206 

108 

"3 1)^ SQ 
892 

easjO 68, 610, 1082 

J> 

616 

"3 eb oco 589 

* O 



689 

58S 



Iff 



198 



611 



12, 1082, 1090 



372, 878 



628, 830, 840, 955. 1274 
itfJS oo&oitf&o 1283 
4iO 

608 

69, 60 
o 852 



*>&$ 



164, 616, 588, 



666, 657, 664, 685. 699, 604, 684, 660 

ss3 fi^^co 447, 449, 460 
686 

826, 1082 
2, 4 



611 

807, 312, 316, 821, 830, 
888, 338, 342, 349, 855. 404, 417, 40 
485, 466, 471, 478, 664, 804. 608 
460 

281 
4 

326, 327 
1034 

O 1090, 1091 
511, 681 
661 
686 

418 

1. 418. 416 
fgSx) 901 

1086 

sj)-cnci wlb r 6 ^ 576 
q> 

ae^fi" AS"^gocjabo 664 

-cn^abo 664 
521, 726, 727 
26. 761, 762, 7?4 
afT*S5o&S5:fco co 608 
. l)BJS'caao 834, 886, 840 
&B "lo^tftfsto 885 

307, 600, 606, 607 

fcwabo 410, 418. 416 
726 

5&L3I26, 582 t 667, 722, 728 
%D-**S" 828 

sb^ 822, 883 



376. 578, 386. 887 

881 

803^ 804 
784 

181 



127 
676 
577 



1099 



1095, 1096, 1098. 
468 



tfea 880, 



81, 832 



874 

oifcs&ao 677 f 721, 722 
802 
767, 768 f 770, 786 

216.4219, S446, 2RO, 262. 269. 
790, 79*. 88'. 84^, 858, 859, 869. 881, 
98 . 1161. 1164. 1165. 1285. 1280 

M8 266 

,262, 866, 8^0, 890, 998, 1114, 
1184, 



"S)g 



841 

746. 747 

7g L"^txi 509, 619, 521, 528, 648, 590, 
828. 836, 7^7. 728 

S' ?^^5a> 7 

q> 

586, 646, 646, 648 

691, 
828 

82, 80, 165, 278, 441, 461. 561, 
670, 671, 6 2, 663, 676 
820, 832 
881 
19 296 , 

17 

osro 747 
801 

-o^tw 678 
2i9 



616 
757, 780 



' 80 



668 
1281 



851 



"Sco 652 

602 



721- 

1140, 1141 
S98 



, 655 
641 

5" 9, 61 
1072 
Sr 28 

f ^rr-es* 287 
784 
628 

73F, 768, 759. 784, 1104. 1228 
761 



1169 



759 
1264 



114. 2: n 9. 232. 2S8, 242. 248, 
279. 08, 8^0, 414, 616, 617^ 846, 885, 
871, 911. 984. 944 



2_|jfcAx> 248. 288 

228 

239, 848 
242, 243 
289. 248, 899 



18 



692, 698 



T78 



II 



679 



773 



248, 252 
764 



229 



114S 



16 



828 



1273 



311 



410 



642 



546 



60T ' 665> 066f 659 
365, 370. 7l. 378 

s5-o-T3-ex> 121, 273, 296, 301. 377, 
378, 404? 406, 407, 412, 448, 446, 478, 
476, 490. 618, 687, 780, 078 

613 
778 
684 

*** s&SgSoo 127, 128, 129, 182, 186, 
176, 178, 179, 182, 183. 184 5 192, 193. 
194, 19b, 19*5, 208,207, 210,213, 827, 
845, 468, 490, 493, 688. 689. 9U8, 926, 
926, 945, 946, 1068, 1069, 1068, 1064, 
1116, 1192, 1194, 1196, 1232, 1233, 
1285, 1236, 1237, 1240, 12*2, 1244, 
1245, 1246. 1248, 1249, 1260, 1267, 
1268. 1260, 1261 

tSs'oca 1237 
"?6s'tf jttswr&a 1241 
stfltftfw TT*TRS~ 1234 
1007 






129 

22 



sso 



142 



iS 



itf 

aj 
-, S5v 



263 

728 
405 
833, 644 

1099 
442 

416 

451. 462, 455, 457, 581, 789, 794, 
799, 821, 836. 933. 982. 984, 986, 990. 
1081, 1116, 1147, 1176, 1176, 1286, 
1286 

825, 827, 828. 404 
816 
466 
59 
812, 814 



466 

3ooiTFQKx> 804 
382, 440, 422, 446 
293 
646 

1109 
80 

108, 122, 1086 
121 

680, 661 
486 

108 



8S4. 840, 378. 497 



1156 
288. 285, 677 
6B9 t 691 



489. 490. 8 12 , SJ3o ^ jj-^tfcao 769 



o 172, 178, 174 iSSotf rTr*tftfc SoS 051 

211, 218 9 



908 js^ao 605 

.ineo 659 , ^*\v*<^ |Qg 



**U !*;<*_ -,<-ff>.'<r^ 1)| 



111 

108. 109. 110 jW^B-tf tf tf irttf 559 

Q "7 

ip'&oc&slM 102, 121, 140, 141, 144 

* i *5 3ooQo *3~*tf iSoo 52 
118 

102, 108, 104, 105- 106, 10T, ,2otfj-K 802 

108, 111, 118, 119 ,_ ^_^^._ 9Q7 



^^ [ Sjd3j^caTro-e5p'6' "S^jco 906, 906 



1196 , v;^yv-^-r.-.. -rf^_. gno 



^"^ , *<-*^> w' v_w'r-. CD 



! - 894 - 89e , i75to.lf a. * ?7 

| a) COJ^A r\J3p* ol 

:&j 10 

8, 5, 114, 126, 127, 187, 276, 



89o .^^=_^ ^.^^. 1Q0 ^ 1Q1 



SoS8 g" fioCSb^co 67 
o -* ^ ^93, 295 

60 ^^ 9? 

491, 664 ^ 

73*. 764, 768, 782. 783, 784. 1,04 ^ 115 > 1?5 , 888. 997 

67Q 1^56*3* L^ 6 ^^^ 1194 * 1195) 1196 



154 |J3-s^^ CCSbg 1147, 1183, 1184 

40^ ^*r:f s ) |So-qr?5 ^irjo 1101 



Ann i 33 S* "Sr*^ ^^siTr 11 30 1288 

^uu L. * 

22$ (SXitfca <5^^-eo 566 

601, 502, 04, b76 [f^ 602 

12^2 . |j3*tf8rjSM 399, 1233 

57 |3&*tf ljr iit SS^e' )i?~**Sfc)bo 1249 

73 iSd^C^ e^tfort" oPjSi^^pSSw 207 

78 iSjd^cr tftfotf&o 206 

72, 73 > [J3^tf 2-^7^00 1250 

855 |j5?d^cic8 213 

792, 793, 807^ 812, 820, 966, 97* ^^^ 498 

711 latrAo 625 



1846 



it 



871, 



\tr>f "I 



86 1 



fiojJDaQjS" 



748 



781 



7 

32 



IbS, 167 e ill 



189, 140, 141 

1093, 1104, 1105 
2_#g 3artfo 627 

L>*6, 611. 512, 618, 741. 742, 
9*78, 991, 992, 994,. 1000, 1169, 1178 



108, 104, 105, 108 



887 



sag' 107, 108 

947 

129 
59 
404 

870, 871, 90S, 9i 1. 912, 918 
631 

(jsrWa) 49 
880 
1188 

98 

592 



r 



54 

I "Sag 1 7r(5bco 728 
a 186. 188 

216, 819. 893, 894, 580 
95 



i 



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u 



1069 



168 



, 268 



1170 

j^p-gd oaj45f g'ra&oco 861 
, 2^2, 7T8, 779 
864 
1062 
972 

S^ 607, 608 

88, 86, 12^, 14S, 149, 161, 168, 
168, 119. 161, 187. 168, 171, 173, 178, 
22 1, 222, 408, 1063, 1076, U68, 1178, 
1176 

813, 815 

27, 2^8, 270, 271, 27 , 275. 280, 
282, 2^8, 284, 287, 296, SOl, 810 822, 
8^6, 48, 860, 852, 863. S^s, 36^, 860, 
&63, 3^7, 870, 80. 899. 406, ^08. 488, 
489, 448, 602, 818, 614, 785, 798 
780 

814 

i^ ^ovrco 291 
a5jaao 291 

276, 81^, 815 822, 351 
18 
404 

acw^o 810 

189. 148 

128 

184, 189, 176 
187 
\ 745 

w 

280 
818, 1086 



e" 



1274 



f 24 



460, 589, 590 



o 258 
828, 3 



61 



849 



86?, 863, 358, 874 
163 



509 ? 524, 668, 567, 668, 659 
g^ 657 
761, 1016, 1016, 1078 

124, 153 

162, 153, 1178, 1181 
17 

840 

818 



671 



49 



717 



409 

830, 843, 380, 411, 412, .416^ 
418, 467, 471, 472, 478, 480 

866 ? 876, 381, 403, 407, 418, 416, 
427 

17 

8io 

gg" 1276 

864, 1276, 1277, 1278, 1281 

" 

16 

use 



198 
1289 

634 



686 



666, 666 



611 



188, 220, 808, 407, 414, 614 

" 242 
24, 289 
627 
144 

- ^"^C 2_cf 26 
20 

s-^^j*8dSr* 448 
47 

802 

14, 1281 
676 



252 



100, 



iso 



875 

lleo 
817 



882 



77, 99 



72 
76 



72, 74 



182 



296 



T^OOCO 836, 886 



14 
124B, 1246 



201 



1348 



r 1260 > 

18 ' 118 rs^ 9B9 5>S 

OoeSjOJuO^ 2joo, aS 

i i^oDc* 88$, 416 

L eoA-tfsfco 228. 2SO, 824, 8U, 868, 866, 

*Jm.818 871 ' 1018 

-"7^ ^o Borv^vt^aSw 821,822, 825. 828, 867, 

421, 428 

~"~ 89u, 960. 983 



571, 624 Dorv-vwoi) 446 



187, 138, 189, 169. 160. 182. 165, >""" 8l * 

166,188,175,176.178 .0*^*00.802,806 

-,-/j ooC^JS^ 8 202 

1 loo 



205 



t 5>179 .0^^8.267,868 

^-3^5 1087 

ev< F ** *s^ on ta^cto o A^"3oSo6ji5jo 264 

Jy'er'OGGS Jdo^i^Soj ov eo 



& "^ p* 

OQO C^J&SA)^ 5ooi<5c9 265 

dyo ^ v. 



1270, 1271 



pfec 

1 j AI ttVOOO (00 
J. 4U J 

3o 751 



787 

3o . 1188 acfl^l" 626 

<p 

238, 569, 502 ^^^ RNA 891 



ui afi^co^ocu 692, 698 

o 

296 cg^fcoi .60 



808, 1066. 1188, 1266 

188, 1089. 1040 a-cr*j 774, 825 



20 ue> tftr arJ3 -ai JOA> 916 



294 ee> o^eo 16 

, OQ /iQt " fiDV t ^ r a^ % ^ A^'cBeo 684 

^o^, 4o i v eo 

c^^ H87, 8a8 f 879, 911, 928 
18 ^ 

JM 65 1^ 1 O J iJ ?5o J5 TT* CO 8^2 

lo ej 

862 



620 

83 Dfr^tfTT* laifioao 668 



" , rr-S" 256 ^^ tf^a^ 469 

J (V) ** 



<Sb 10^-4 

i ^^ A 



344 
22, 80, 1228. 1269 atr^:^ sSrMj-tfJto 1268 

1188, 1190 



220, 617 fttr5fc 806, 608 



I@49 

w 848 V*&T* Broaje>5 1126 

8 2, 882, 884, 386. 892, 408, irW 4 -'jc&' *e*tf-*r^Jfcj 44 

At} l7O 1T*D6 < ' r *}OJ><53O 468 

TV I 1 , ~ ' U 

487 vow lU-jfi 

412 iroQbfib "3^cjo 1068 

119 m>oooe>cb 1126. 1126, 1127, 1128. 1129, 

225 H8o. 1167, 1168, 1170 

248 mff co 8> |5- JStf* 760 



r ^ejijoco 403 

X 



5.s 112 ^ L _. ^ 1126 



D^OC- ^Co?x 104 ^ ^ _ ^ g^g 






tf&*0& liJ'B^J^ i*^-*, m ^__^ __ ggg 



tfr>s:Soo 426, 429. 966, 961, 973, 974 



11-06 .c ^ oyjfl ofto * np inK 

1r(>rB^^^5^ S6o, SDO, ofo, *uo 



869 92 -K fl98 

TJ~--JO o^V 



, 486 

ir-I^bcsaoS 277, 73, 280, .87, --18, 816. ^^ *3^;52uj 692 

866, a! 48', 486 440. 44^, 468 ^^ ^^^ 4f - 9> 410 

IT*! ioSj- 2^6. S79 28 f % 28&, 29* 29^, 

29 5 299, 822. &4.0. ?-61 f -5--, 489. ^8, 

496, 64,4, 611. 982, 992, 993 ^^ sr^tfoo 847 

ej t> u w 

_ 612 Do&>3$)^ ^^^) 69 

*^ a 

1^80 2)o^SbJj)o anoJbfi^^ 64 

ir*A 80 Doi3b5$)co 99 

co 707, 709 Doa) ^D-t> JT^?5 69 

709 CAooJbssS" 248 

7lO DcSo^x : ^7S 

708 B-.-iSwco 1009, 1010, 1012, 1026 

7s 7 &&$&*&} 897, 401 

i 7Q7 &fr***:Sbo 465 

707, 708, 710 fcartdtfoSx) (esfrSg" 79 

587 t)83^.^sSoo (ipr*c&Q&) 42, 47, 60 ? 72 
t)*Lrto$ 600, 6Q6, 606 



1860 



II 



401 
659 

60 

600, 606 
64, 57 



48 

Xjcr'S'a^tfSbo 78 
ftif tfrif 1382. 1285 
Jfcofi 

1284 
160 

ft AT- StfcaJfco 152 
6^ 20 
fcs^S" 229, 243, 73 1 ( 825. 862. 857, 860, 

885, 871, 872, 982, 1258 
co^^&o 148, 1014, 1018, 1017, 1018 
1078 

848 

460, 462, 489 
S/teo 445, 757 

626 
o> 

SStfrf S5oa^5 1169 
ej e ni 

908 
g" 288 

1C9, 110, 111 

111 

98, 109. 110 
726 
1042 

S5fl<&co 103 
26 

745 



626, 661, 662, 6 a 6 



fr* &>& 



664 

660, 668, 864 
680, 662 



61 



80S, 804 
17, 247-249, 281 
15 

60 
829 



"36 8)63oS" 17 
3^" 824 
Bej.6 172 
-SS" 802 



120 

156. 170 



o oS8 68 t 



14 



812 

" tfss^f 66 

136 

B_^S" 26, 256 
14, 19 
1101 
1188 
S29 

OCoSbS 844 
1084 

181, 164, 165, 187 
1178 
3 5", srS 1287 





250, 802, 803, 804, 806, 860, 



1065 



526 



163, 165, 269. 824, 88 l p 868, 869, 
920. 1118, 1161, 1166. 1189. 1172, 
1178, 1176, 1200, 1265, 1266 
462 
1157 

sr'otfo^ 506,512, 518, 607, 
741, 951, 964, 978. 978, 988, 1000, 1008, 
1179 



800 jD^ST 206, 294, 875. 982 

667 jfcfipS"" POSTS' & 1181 

920 | k D'35''*80. 482 

SScea 920 tvrxztT 709, 776 

671, 6-4, 1110 ^<r 28 

a^ 54Q nStotx) use 

I 33 fi" 1144, 1145 






*64 . ,evrwe" gO 



!* 9 ir-r^iF 1045, 1068, 1070, 1071 

cr> 

127 ' 12 ^r ^t 

29, 184, 141 

^eso 128 ' 

ir^S S5"9N^ 22 

186, 203, 239, 742, 988, l:?65 t 



1272 

A - US' 209 

'4 1 *"** 

.- "Si^ "3j^y 880 

"* 188 5-4*8.4*7 

j ' 

167 



472 g 

164 

962 <SKSx> 804 

ar-(o ei ^leworaM 1094 

4f ^S 284 

a lSJ 1098 ^tfTT-jj--*) 818 

8 187. 8^5 1242 tfgg a^aSa, 8, 1083 

T f *> " JF""sr \ "Br^ooooOb 1128 ^ ^^ 1091 1092 

^ 27 tf^o-Sw 1091. 10**, 1116 

3 f 27 

I. 317 
^, * 82^, 828, 964 2gg 

jQ74, 1078 ^^ *^ ^ 

irtf A5kiD 1 166 
168 v 

22 g ir0ai)aao 1178 



O va^l i vw, 



708 778 777 vtfS ie)"F*^ft)S>\ )Jb^>" 1260 



1863 



n 



oeo 857 
fitf 866 
868 

826 

8, 168, 229, 262, 421, 422^ 
423, 424, 425, 612, 825, 626, 668, 681, 
708, 7^0, 784, 750, 770, 796, 799. 803, 
804, 05, 806, 823, 826, 827, 828, 829, 
850. 863, 855, 866, 859, 868, 889, 871, 
896, 907, 915, 916, 920, 942, 949, 960, 
982,964, 984, 1082, 1061, UOf. 1110, 
1114, 1117, 1118, 1129, 1149, 1157, 
1161, 1256, 1258, 128i, 1282 

867 

-(3l>3 825 
850 



L5fr.Sr.rfs- 3o3 1092, 1118 

SoS 1149 
889, 890, 942 
9-51 

T-^ 904 
1199 

6*^^^ ^0X3 786, 7S7 
812 
g'-cr-eo 158 

fc A 881 

<P 

629 

118 
1187 



241, 242 
164, 2S9, 494. 616, 818, 748, 



1284, 1265, 1268 



1266, 1288 



822 
802 



974 



864 



157 ; 848, 
897 
esctfb^otf abo^g'S.^&o 899. 

/ 765 

904, 906, 928, 
NS 1117 

^aLw 928. 929, 980 
^CS 902, 903, 904, 90t 
930 

902, 906 
876 

(^o 1116 
r^&o 1116 

865, 907, 909,98^, 1110, 1117, 
1118 

788, 787 
948 

12 
912 

847, 848, 849, 894 3 1OO2 
1104, 1124 

1083 



1080 



886 
811 
820 f 821, 421,789, 81S, 884, 



788, 789. 794, 79T, 801, 
807, 811. 8i7. 848, 1086 

928, 928. 1083 
879 
878 
1220 

611 
63 ^tf fivotftf tkjrf (5ir"^> 

926 



(2 Q 

84,7 



1854 JJe'fSfiSiS' II 

1100 



626> 627 sfcodTr. 828, 827 

626, 628, 627 ^ 874> 981 

^ sfcotf g'io tffix> 241 

^as S56?STreo 797, 798 tibofibo tfo3j*8 1285, 1286 1283 

v-^&o 219 &>uttto 24, fi84, 585, 1282, 1286, 1286, 

'ti*, 1289 1287 

588 



9, 11, 16, 20, 102, 124, 

1 J5b3) S5& CTO 821 

125, 126, 186, 187, 188, 140, 148, 148, _ 

5bo\e ttex>A "64 
146, 168, 219- 279, 801, 802, 631, gig 

1076, 1081, 1084 . F ^ V Q49 ' 



125, 128 ^btf^b Kr*o 70 

T^eSj^^^ 844. 897 abcS^pS" 826 

^8 g'^'ca&u 845 JSbtfb ^-IboCoiSboco 295 

A 

644, 845 3b8b sSbofioejo 20, 8ll 

n An o5bc$ \O3^ 1 U~ 88 61 

e? T! | ^0^^ 

w 92g ^b^sb 789, 808, 804, 86P, 1129, 1161 

647 t 608, 609. 818, 777 



928 

843 
&>$& gtf fioj 585 686 

456 - %3680 



849, 685 K^n , v<75f 990 701 32i ( Qgg^ ggj^ 



885 854, 860, 871, 1268 

^ 914 iSo#o;i) ir*?5j 5)^rS) |o5*fr*tfstoo 1247 

909, 912, 918 sfctfg "Sotfdb 647 

ia-5r"S^o 909, 910-912 &#g oaSo^Sbo 9 

910 sfcccjtfg'o *S\eatfooeo 866 



ca 

863 

244 



^ 896 
882, 918, 916, 948 *>*** ^(g)* **, 808 

Sbasfcgeo ,-30,322, 389,840, 425,600, 

131 606. H26, 1217 

151 K _ n ^ Kft , 

UOJJ "oT^vCpOCO 000 

1003 



^ ''W abCtiSoo 400 

/>r\7 _ ^ _, _ , t-rti 

OU i fSbOO OmC9S>3Oi> 6U4 



1856 



614, 615, 778 



616 



599 

764 
891, 545 

774 



Sfce DStf tf 595 
801 
605 



275,276, 687,628, 645,891, 



806, 983 



276 

276, 641, 646, 611, 623, 646, 
690. 705, 808 

846 

647 



680 
282 

822, 823, 830, 881, 888, 



1028 



827 



803 

802, 804, 806 

731. 739, 821, 825, 861, 868, 
859. 88. 1108 

^sj&o 720 

228 231, 280, 268, 414, 616, 
742 824, 8S1. 882, 869, 871, 1285 



609 

fceo 17, 288, 804. 390, 495, 640, 
648, S&T, 554. 690, 607. 671, 687,696, 
701, 704 727, 970, 1274, 1281 
688. 701 

140 

138, 134, 135, 187, 1188 
184 



874 s 917 
207 
887. 839 

1167, 1298 
"Sf 1292 
612 
409 
142 

abo 188 
v^fi 140 

140 
Q 

fCr>tfa;5o 191, 192 
74 
480 

-Oil ^otf^ 8 ^ fcgtfo flabco 816 

788 
816 

812, 818 

-^ajo 789 ? 811, 812, 818 
(">*) ^UT-CO 788, 811, 812, 818, 
816, 816, 818, 825 
985 

1282 
98 

rf T-^Sbj 811 
18 a 20. 717, 811 
1289 

4 r 2, 438, 410, 447. 462, 4S5, 
467, 487, 497. 499, 711, 712, 714, 716, 
719 f 730, 78 ? 744, 788^ 790, 791, 794. 
796, 797, 807, 809. 872, 874, 958, 9b6 ? 
978, 9tO, 982 98-^, 986. 992, 984. 99o, 
977, 10u4, 1007. 1009, 1080^ 1078, 
1098, U07, 1113, 1114, 1115, 1120, 
1147, 1182, 1261, 1282 

*re>o 490 
828 
6i 



1368 



II 



686 
880 
26 
562 

660 

299, 648, 661, S62 
51 
sfaba 14 

115. 118 
754 

8l 
810 
2 1018 
4 1020 
8 1020 
s$F 7 1030 
S" 942 
S" "Sto- \!b 76 

~ 
tftf 44., 69 



" aer 284 

Q 



788 



261 
1S5 



61 

99 

728 
600. 801, 602, 807 

28ei r 742. 1266 
408 

423 

1014 

802, 961 

618 



418 



418 



10 



768 



So vS" 16. 167, 168 



24, 526, 1021, 1023, 1024, 1266 9 
148 



68 



Co -B-S" ftTr-otf^xj 169 

r*> Q 

So ^" o&oitfsfco 1141 
Co SX)doC6 tf tforr-oo 179 

CO 

So 5", ^S" 809, 415 

CO 

780 
240, 243 

281 

215, 2^7, 228 2SO f 281, 
1125, 1288, 1290 
fcodo U17, 1-19. 1222 
6 



51 



1097 



149, 1B6, 158, 169, 160. 182, 
168, 164, 165, 186, 167 

149 
414 

681, S84, 685, 688 > 587 
1288, 1289 
1288 

o|jj Scf^Sb >#;$ 1288 
219 t 8^8, 800 

784 



100 



sfcug aba^o 284 



18S7 



789 

844 

990, 991 
f e?*o$ 1111 
fci3 ^tttfo 1088 
183 

. -3, 804, 492 
668 
826 

58 

625, 699, 601 

688 
641 

604, 606 
619, 525. 606 
co 6^50, 662 
535 

563 



653 



, 89, 390, 891, 401. 
> 614, 516, 519 f 620, 524, 648,149, 
560, 651, 668, 563, 664, 666. 591, 605, 
636, 658. 728 

fcorf -sr^e 650, 688 
660, 652 

616 
560 
889, 649, 660, 651, 568, 663, 656 

^&o 624 

606, 615, 697, 698 
616. 624 

i rf i3-0(^beo 663, 599 
id So-3 641 
^d ^cfas5) ^joSbco 660 
Br*f o&ttu 61&, 568, 6(6, 



789 

6S7 

8, 660 
661, 561, 666 

158 

126, 162. 171. 185, 186, 188, 
189, 216, 219, 220, 221, 2^4, 225, 239, 
2 0. 288, 288, 236, 246, 864, 365, 670. 
876, 933, 986, 948, 985, 981, 1044. 
1076, 1269, 1288 

219 
221 



CO 

652 

i ^-sr-ocx) 642 
64, 638 
659 
676 
1144, 1274 



602 



1239 



1273 



g'co 824, 829 

gT^^ 1089 
ar*o&o 444 

631 



17 
84.4, 466. 4*6, 467. 469 

465 

466. 470 

w 844, 466, 466 
1078 
846 
229 
21 
1271 
SB! 



1818 



229, 281, 289, 288. 808, 870, 
4i4, 616, 617, 865, 1067, 1265 

ntf^ko 288 
1290 

738, 744 
> 786 
788 
510 
"s-oA" snsS) 678 



Tr-Sj.5" 942 

645, 647 

j 

831 

18, 272, 281, 808, 894, 395, 896, 
399, 441, 5Q, 507. 513, 529. 30, 640, 
642, 564, 686, 667, 568, 605, 609, 629, 
641, 648 

"SotfCJo TT*&3 30 647 

% 642 

277, 586, 621, 649 
46 



"SoBST* ^T"^eo 686 

fcO 



15 



14 
660 

629, 584 
961 

610, 715, 801 
18 
922 



958, 1008, 1100 
164 
826, 869 



175, 176, 177. 184 

25 
-g ess 

606 
697 

O 

302 

824. 832 
15 

185 

186, 136, 175, 176 
280 

439, 443 

fo^&o 963 
611 

-5-0^03^ 289, 351, 35, 854, 865 f 
37], 401, 402, 471. 496 
828 

1082 
50 
204 
421 
723 

Be^eo 508 

826, 341, 422, 431, 442, 704. 
788. 715, 787, 761, 775, 784 

312, 318, 314. 316, 817,823, 
326, 327, 328, 380, 331, 886, 888, 839.' 
340, 845, 346, 361, 864. 366, 357, 368, 
364, 366, 866. 367,349, 870, 375, 878. 
877. 878, 379, 380, 382, 883, 384. 886, 
887, 888, 397, 403,406. 409, 411, 415, 
421. 422, 423, 426. 428, 429, 430, 482. 
435, 488, 441, 443. 444, 446, 447, 451. 
462 t 463, 455. 469, 460, 461, 4(33, 486, 
467, 439, 470. 549, 742, 743, 744, 751 t 



767, 985, 946, 967, 992, 1264, 1266, 
1274 



j3TT-Tre> adf) 374 
884 



664 

"300(543 "Sotf* 4 tftf)^ sr'o&iao 539 

oSStf^cjJbo tfifcj < ara$eo 539 
818. 815 
662 

768, 758 
718, llll 
847 

907 



1107 



408, 404, 406 



724 
190 



, 1181 



1229 



S" 611 



486 



844, S46, 880, 484, 



^ 143, 145 



761 
716 



1126 



497 



849 



182 



104, 760,790, 1188. 1140, 1142, 
1H8, 1146, 1149, ll4 r 1116, 1169. 



1168, 1170,1197, 1226, 1228, 1227,1286. 
1280, 1283 

^o"38sr T^^^bo 1119 

g3ca&>eo 800, 632 

- -3 (X - Ray) 633, 657, 962, 1290 

o&e -&& 64 

* 

S3e&r*cao 1038, 1041, 1043 
1076, 1076 



. fc ^S"\ 477 
ej w 

3 1 1 12 



164, 988, 1184 
SETT'S" 849 

ac^j-^r^ 299, 01, 676, 577, 652, 
676, 679, 696, 699, 705 

tj^Tr-eg 278 
99 



oCar-o ^7^- 



136 

s eca-o ^js;^^ 8^6 
O q> 

1200, 1211 

^fijj 1290 

_fl 8o7, 1121, 1122, 1128, 1,24, 
1182, 1151. 1166, 1168, 1164 

r ^ v^sSoo 11, 12, 124, 140, 145, 
146, 147, 1090, 1092 



^L?oooS" 568 

116, 117 
99 
107 

i06, 118 
100, lOl 



103 



118 



gtf n>fib o^Js? 113 



116 



188, 143, 166, 208, 207, 218, 



490. 1188, 1218 

149 1 168, 168 



I860 



II 



79 

o 467, 4S6 
45, 48, 64 
l3aS~^ 109 
cGoo, fi. 868 

"3oL&otfn 1034 
1015, 1023, 1078 
StfTT-e 12 

151. 64^, 790, 845, 971, 875, 
984, 985, 936 ? 5348, 944, 1176. 1178, 
1178, 1180, 1181 

fcoeo 851 
~ 50, 51, 61 
fic&S' 363'Tr'oo 62, 58 
43 
64 
84 
148 
^o 65 

115 
812 

es'S^'o 222 
e^^&o 221 
801 

610. 611,802, 808,819, 977, 
1114 

890 891 
j 

58 



289, 241, 244, 245, 390, 891, 
1287, 1288 

1239 



1278 



. S09 



152 

812 
141 



119 

j 800, 601, 604, 605, 60? 
S-56, 860, 382, S68, 869, 878, 
31, S86, 440 



61 



ai3-Tpco 284, 466 



<P A 



1241 

261 
216, 868, 1264 

809 

26, 878, 617 
*r3)co 881 

cf^o 448, 460. 618, 618. 628, 586, 689, 
545, 6^8. 560, 562. 554, 556.667. 569,' 
b62, 568, 687. 599, 649, 665, 718, 779, 
880 

u Jf {ftx-co 891, 602 
tf f r^tfsfcoeo 616 



712. 71S 

679 
672 

502, 608, 530 ? 572, 575, 641, 
648, 676, 728 

i ^ooo<? -sng<5bo 556 
499, 598, 779 
A-fibo 699 
677. 607 
tf jf^SStfca =5no3b ^J^^ 512 
tf jf jjSSJtfra 5jo<a)&M 626 
tf Jf (jasjtfttaaa 18j 510, 611, 618, 562, 

6UO, 658. 661 
tf J'^as^ff SSoo^e^oo 724 
682 



1861 



105 660 



25, 289,549, 660,652, 687, 



601, 809, 618 
tf jf :5ooe>:$u 889 
tf sf tftfstoex) 691 

* A 

tf jf-ar:r*!b DBJJJS&O 721 
tf S^tp&co 660 

4 

tf Sf 3"3x5tf5fco 564. 690 

tfjf X5o^T0 r^tfJfcu^L ko^' 00 685 

tf Jf |j^aa 566, 568, 666, 58f , 694, 

60S, 6b6, 778 
tf jffctf 401 

tfjf Sr-rftf 6&8 : 59, 608 
o'^ JLratf 644 
ef&sf ??&^JiM 278 
c^tr rsstfaoo 1178 

^_ 1212, 1216, 1217 
114, 125, 161, 162 

118 

eo 24, 26 ? 27. 2S3, 745, 784 
tf fc^ aoioco 1108 

1107. 1108, 1109, 1166 
163, 114. 155 

^^feo&Sfco 1174 
1178, 1174. 1175, 1181 
229 3 250, 804, 951 ? 998, 1094, 
1114, 1167 

SGo 681 

1041, 1043 

15, 218, 221, 224, 225, 
227, 236. 261, 266, 280, 295,297, 07, 
868*, 869, S61, E83, 384, 664, 762 
iSoaoco 238, 252 
816. 
223, 268- 288, 290 

419 

868, 480 
218 



9, 16, 125, 215, 217, 
218, 219, 288, 295, 801, 681 

^^PCO 221 
280 
487 

O 

867, 388, 786 



17 

24, 97, 100, 114, 288. 
743, 745, 747, 768, 977, 1284, 1265 
^n^o 886 

597, 682, 6S4 687 
^-sngcb 114 

3-crejfcoo 275, 276. 298, 801, 
<P 

808 

^tfg 285 

250 

760 
^co 8G2 

126 

-^^tf^^3 984 
808 

884, 864. 885 
1221 

15, 335, 682, 878 
786 
122 
21, 88. 157. 288, 302, 574, 778. 

ro 

1181 

1129, 1156. 1176 
\ 

822 

228, 229, 231, 289, 288, 616, 742, 
824, 881, 882, 884, 858, 869, 880. 865, 
88S, 920, 921. 933, 938. 1018, 1184. 
1187 1192, 1208, 1266, 1288 
518, 570, 868 
881, 862 
1099 



It 



428, 668, 685 3 781 f 825. 828, fl&Hf /ssfi^tftf&o 72 

851, 858. 669, 860, 871, 984.^ 1258 6:5b-" iSfi^tf^sSto .iss^r-Tr-orat^otfaSba 74 

1105 SoouS" - &5*^E -yoijfco i097, 1098 

740 floGold~ jJr^^T "\<T ~B"o| li-W fj5bo 1096 

22, 136, 203, 207, 208, 210, 211, ^^ ^ 1021 

SIS. 21A. 877, 942), 946, 946, 9^, 968 Ca-*$S~$<fc 127 

la9, 1288, 1234, 1*86, 1286 > 1260 ttrotffi %& Soj*sr> 127 

(3 

209 CfcrOSe^s 6t H'98 

118 tfrd-otftf (; b- J) 836 889 

28 Ccr^otftf te3o 889, 880 

t)tfsj) i5o"^^ 1098 Or*S)(ioQbo 846 

873, 878 CcnS"^r- 244 

858, 869 &%,*(? 62t 53 ' 

o r>fl ** \ 

228, 714 188. 10&0. 206, 4*1, 808 952 

9 

69 "Brtoo^"^!^ Sj*~di r tx> 770 

776 Sd5 rt '3"^ 288 

-* r*: 811 -erf^ 629. 630, 688 

299, 628 -brf-T* e^n-eo 684 

381. 1172 ^g" .c,ac&S> 796 

CO 

887 -9^5 26 

S02 ^co 682 

'^oto 8*4. 878, 964 ^ VQU 1Q78 

1088 "tw* ^Ctfo 157 

5 , "3^ ioo 167, 1088 

21( J. ^0 -3^, ^c5 tf v-^abo 42, 99 

6 L, gexj ^ 4 - '^^ "3fr (jaid^oaoo 1289 

8^ii&> gT7o^&o 128 3 i9 "64^20^!$ -Oit" 8 ^ tw 816 

8<S ^AC 76J -9^0 Stf ao^o 1064 
cs T ca 

Co 1123, 1124, 1178, 1T9, 1180, ^^o ^oeas& 184 

^* "3fio3b& 688, 642, 948 

148 ~3&oo I Oca Coo eo (n-:Sr- l^o&oto) 688 

68 ^SoQoq 08\ 597 t 682, 687 



1863 



664 
638 

295, 449. 491, 492, 493, 688 
7jg$ 804 

(s"3o<5~) 13_tfg:i 682, 634 
87, 125. 188, 1221, 1237, 1241, 
1248, 1251. 12S9 



^" 1241, 1260 
1069 

158, 154, 155, 806, 
498, 494 

1287 
196 

1086 
T-^J&D 1060 

2oo 22, 18^ 1057, 
1068, 1060, 1062, 1084, 1065. 1067, 
1070 

^X5&o 22 

* 

185 } 186^ 173, 174, 

176, 178, 179, 194, 207. 218, 1000." 

1080, 1065, 1058. 1059, 1060, 1062, 

1063, 1064, 1067, 1229, 1238, 1285, 
12S6 

579 



&rtftfe>:fceo 998, 1080, 1061, 1067 
sD^^ 6 ^) 149. 162, 370 f 
911. 9J6 



162 
186 

16, 139, 166, 805, 870, 
873, 885, 934, 986. 989, 967 
eo 842 
44, 845, 876 



s-cr-tfjfco 186, 1128 

871, 911, 988, 



980, 98,4 



869 

342, 643, 878 
152 

642 
984, 947 






1062 



1244 



1281, 1245 
C& 945 
1068 

1062, 1068 

642 



12 



1060, 1082 

802 



18, 14 



2_bco 428, 674, 730, 736, 737. 741, 

765, 763, 769, 770 
2_tf* to(j5 -ff-^Sbo 439 (-2SJ*. 2.^ Jfo*g 

F es^a&w'l 

C" CO I 

(SNA.] 847, 495 
408 
363, 85, S70, 371, 401, 



1127 



1084 



471, 619 



_eo 



113, 164 



1097, 1098, 1099 
to 1109 

tftfon-co 929, 980 

652 

1286 

^^ (Sgc&o) 839* 668, 664, 1286 
r^s 544 

294, 305 



498 



1864 



II 



8"* 



575 



1181 



no9 



457, 629, 681, 1229, 1286. 1242, 



1244 



er*<r!b 



> 628 

467 

21 188, 190, 628 
188 
629 

881 
21, 209, 628. 1116 

21 

/o 627, 881 



9 



i^-S'co 610 

543 
505 



905 



SOS, 802, 9T8, 1114 
206 
9 

268 
o 751 
825 
$ 668 

104 
681 
763 
19 



^3\o 



906 

749. 978 

870, 8^8, 891, 664, 671, 706, 
742, 748, 920. 1167 
-3 185 

17 

118 
726 
644 



596 
662 



1128 

841 
Sfe-sngca 127 

66, 114, 116 



168 

-,r 6io 

99 

bU8 
166 



860 



198. 870 
812 

5" s 6" 611 



416 



687, 688 
1278 



144 



c^9, 547 



144 



841, 727, 728 
612. 1012 
^cfi<T^ 802 
trS s^S* 69 
Oort tfe^S 690 

Do* JDo^oaoaw 476, 477, 482, 488 
to* 252J 190 



1886 



II 



828 



-sr-o&eo 270, 549, 



804 



tftforveo 9S1 

997, 998, 1004 
688, 684 
875 

182. 126, 906, 908, 929, 980, 
982 

882, 858 

218, 824, 882, 868 
^&eo 882 
761, 788 

CO 

682, 687, 588 

452 

739, 790, 792, 798, 872, 873, 874, - 
882, 941, 942, 943, 1128, 1160. 1200 
983 

j 463 
&&co 421 

&i^^ ^otf^cs 461, 463 
aajjnrco 451, 672, 990 

462, 453 
823 

429, 480 
288 1 

960 

6 97, 881, 412, 498, 870, 788, 7316, 762, 
766, 760, 785 
5~j r 3?S' cc6o(jrco 1188 
tf 48 



59 



A 

58? 
tf 



167 

487, 499 
268 



182, 184. 1048. 1050, 1038, 
1069, 1072, 1078 

D^aSibj 148 

Cp 

XfcR^tf ^-cr-^CT&o 142 

13, 182 

997, 1023, 1026, 1089. 1040, 
1043, 10S5, 1056, 1064, 1070 
"S^co 1068 
1085, 1036 

C9 

^o 981, 992 

5tf 3-&j 428, 431. 828, 855, 956, 967, 
^60, 981, 975, 1104, 1105 

1091 

55 ioew 1 106 
SScoCo A3o^ 1196 

723 
913 

27 
27 

1092 

666 

1101 
1100 

117 .. 

T9T 

r 0^o3j TT-^fiw 1094 
)S5bo co 8 

tfCSfco f Emetics') 586 
v y 

-sr-ofi ae^^r&oco 686 
694. 696 

612 
68 

itfabo 1268 



X 



CO 

719 



206 



1168, 1167 



1197 



sni? Suii& 1197 

22. 847 495, 497 



L 



fiFe> 



495, 496 



208 

6PO 

1094 
1094 

1068 



*virto 969 






i/c $Pjtf 678 
429 



7 



Ui2, 1156 
964 

958 

427, 428, 429, 482, 448, 462 
466 469 50^. 848 964. 966. 99, 984, 
98 1 998, 999 1000, 1008. 1022, 1092, 
1113. 1115. 144, 1171. 1234, 1243, 
1247, 1265. 1*86. 1288, 

967. 968 

102, 184, 427, 482, 
94&, 950. 952, 959. 960 

3o<K**p>eo 950. 852, 966 



999 



It 



oj 957, 979. 986, 989, HIS 

728 

1218, 1214, '217 

1125 



5 C 6. 687 
, 961, 1173 

61 

zncttw &> &e3&io 863, 958, 969, 960, 981 f 
978, 9d6, 987 988, lOQQ 



1109 



944 



166, 197, 198, 199, LOO, 205, 224 
CTu-^ejo 157 

i^ O&'gf to|tf&ueo 1122 
246, 802 

?aw 918, 919 

400,401, 402.408, 404,406, 
407, 40S 409, 668. 574. 598 
*!* SojjfsfcwSx. 400 
8 

287 
78. (281, 1269 



=r*eo 



;/f 472 
1047 
187 
f 1129 

gS" 228 

228 
201 

202, 203 
1127, 1129 
961 
a> 62 



62, 861 
61 
201, 208 



I'rf 801 



202, 208 

1282 
Q 

200,201,202,1154, 1235. 1246, 
1246. 1247. 1:48 

1107, 1108 
506 

664 . 



1368 



168 



166 



830 



861, 664 



134. 174 
SEftf ca S>TT*o#:iD 168, 169 

X O 

oc&tfo 68 

a& ?^&o 804 



304 

126, 127. 134, 140. 156, 169. 174, 
175, 176, 177, 184, 804, 805, 400,428, 
629. 899, 938, 937, 955, 957, 1026, 1060, 
1088, 1C64, 1065, 1070, 10:6, 1210 
DStfra * 172, 21T, 230 
Sfitfei to *J 835 
987 
795 



117-4 

112, 118, 114, 118 
831, 852, 864, 1028, 1110, 1246 
1248, 1260 



tftf 

* 7r 



28 



26 
'tf 28 



38 



97, 197, 216, 216, S06, 628, 



w^o^nexs) 



27 



21 



d 615 

^ 640, 616 

"8 81o 

& 274. 296, 574, 815 

S> 296, 540, 664 

12 669 

318 
540 
-S 660 
Jb 296, 297, 574, 618 

21^288,270. 273, 274, 282, 
288. 296, 297. 372, 414, 442, 481,640, 
636, 68, 554 665, 676, 602, 607, 818, 
615, 871, 696, 701, 706, 727, 775. 777, 
778 9 779, 760, 798, 1274, 1286 
S* 16 
' 1238 



12 



656 

886, 385, 376, 877, 331, 403, 
7o7, 408, 412, 422 f 42*. 427, 429, 448, 
444, 446, 446, 489, 748, 759, 769, 760, 
761 

879 
800 



CO CO 

611 

158 
886 418 
6T4 



787 



779, 780 



n 



802 



269 



j 133 3 153, 158, 802, 672, 922, 
, 994, 1129, 1147, 1148, 1162. 1154, 
1155, 1166, 1163, 1181, 1172, 1180, 
1188, 1191, 1197 - 1199, 1202, 1814, 
1221, 1224 

&*$ 1160 
18 



99 
1146 

e>s>5$r-8^raoeo 1206 1207 
aejfco 1186. 1187, 1188, 1189- 
lF90,'ll91, 1194,1197, 1198,1200,1302, 
1210, 1211, 1214 

1168 

1148, 1163, 1160, Il68, 1164, 
iTei. 1171, 1172, 1180, 1192, 1196, l01 
1206 

esbgf 193. 196, 200, 780, 885. 1187, 
1192, 1193, 1216, 1222, 1238 1240, 
1243. 1247, 1266 

875 
14 

f SMS 1149. 1224 
1226 

1219 
309 



Stfbrlf 



Scbgf* "So^jfcj 1123, l'60 f 1162, 1200, 



1207, 1211 

1187 

177, 180, 181, 187, 2QO- 
. 924, 1248, 1249 

2;300 200 

999, 1164 

604 

o 12l8 ( 1217 

1S6. 186, 188 3 210, 213 
1192, 1220, 1281 
r_^ 200 

gr5 1195, 1214 
so 1202 
1159 
874 



Ofibg 



1212 

16, 186. 04, 876 
1154, 1188. 1184. 1185. liw * 
1169, 1198, 1195, 11Mf 11BT ; 
1506. 1207, 1208, 1210, I212 f 
1220, 1221, 1281, 1249 * 

221 
1207 

1212 

186. 1185, 12Q6. 
1212. J213 

^\aca 1205 
1196 



180 



1212 



1196, 1200^ 1200 9 1811, 

1211. 112, ISM 
186, 280; 1205. 
1224 



^ficoo 1256 
fgsss 1135 

_^ 14,199, 1120, 1121, ma, 

1124. 1182 
StfbgS" fSj 1160, 1199, 1208, 1206 , 1207 S 

1219. 1221 

SDCfrgd ^^TT- 1145, 1SCO. 1202, IfOfi. 
1205, 1206 

9, 1198 

1201 
SDBbgo ?^otSr 2g^iu 1147. 1149 

tr-od&oew 1149. 11S2 
12:02, 1S03 

Xtytfweo 207, 907. 944 
1221 






944 9 1160, 1162 
124 



187 



II 



tftfon-*eo 4, 127, 188, 
184, 136, 136, 175. 179, 180, 208. 945, 
1242, 1248, 1246 

tfo&tf^otf tftfS5bo3o 160 

ao&s^otf SStfSbeo 924, 926, 1186, 
1187 



tf\s5 1171, 1172 
Sfiog tfcfcj_otf [tcra 1154, 1166 

S3<b;Sx> 267, 943 
o tfd&d^otf 3^ sgs 132 

tfotfd^o*s$M 126, 885, 920, 1280, 
1257 

139 



1150, 11S8 
196. 926, 927, 
948, 1189, 1198 

CbgcSbtf^J 1106, 1121,1148, 1149, 1160, 
1151, iTeS.. 1U7, 1158, 1159, 1162, 
1164, 1171, 1172 1178. 1178, H79, 
1188, 1184, 1188, Il99 f 1224. 1226 
SigcSbTr^a ^ojtftfw 1152, 1198. 1201, 
1202, 1214 

802 

1193, 1220, 1222, 1248, 
1247 

Sjasfaeo 1214, 1216 
187 

290, 1216, 219, 1220, 1221 
StfSbeo 921, 924, 926, 

164 

126, 127, 180, 184, 148, 
149, 158, 159, 160, 184, 168, 172, 213, 
221, 222, 227, 230 

940, 1160, 1162 g 
1221 

1200 

1217, 1219 
1208, 1204. 12u8 



18 

921, 922 

180,187,1188, 1187, 1190, 
1191, 1192, 1198 

2?^s$) 948 

287^ 1198, 1202, 1212 
229 
1187 
189 

875, 1146 
204, 1145 
180 
1187 

1197 
80 
288 



345 



1101 



1099, 1100, 1101 
&o 1229 
1148 



1218 



ir-^ 782 
- ooco 



i9, 1226 



281 



447, 6S5 



80 



g-caene)^o 876, 877, 407. 408, 414 
524 



98 



^ 876 



Stf o&o 419 
tf 661 

*oJn3nr*eo 818 
190, 209, 877. 886, 1122 

^ 1087. 1088 
U81 



1371 



1084 arjfitfa S5er*#$x> 157, 168 

91T ' 918 ' 019 a*jj*w*eo 168, 158, 169, 182, 168, 

D 954 172, 291 

485 

S^fcQjft 126 

o 21 j 4 

)* Q*5'a~*tf'S5bo 1014 

18 ' 28T arjawjo 41. 169 

1281 " ~-tfcj 1074, 1075, 1078 



819, 858, 854, 865, 886 ar Q a^ 174 

1074 



D1A " WW Q 

CU4 _ S ., ggg 



688 _ .... 7U 



156 -" , 625 



OOCj a\ *^ ^* ^r n -j> .s^j*-f KOj 



* 44 '- 625 



5 . 4 

u SiloSoccfiortSeio 467 470 

841, 848 ^_ JA .J S nu 



fin 

a^.t)S5^o 626 
490, 491 ^^^^ _ ^_._. 3g0 



S45, 479, 480 ^*^. 898> 



i DoO *i^m e- -fl ., p=- ppri 



1058 Ojjro 1245, 1246, 1247 

137, 188 ^t^_ ^ Q ^ ^^^ 1245 

1260 
ipco L. 

S) S3c a Ib'o^o^JSbo 740 



1041 a^* a^riQ 106 

^^S^OA 1228 Oc^tfsjfco 1247. 1248 

1260 



14 

1SP7 ~ 

l ^ { a^fetf ^ofix) 262. 980, 984t 987 

[18* n 

824 5)Sbcw 18 

^'1 bootf'caSjo 608 

2-6, 821, 888,868,881,889, fe^g^ $ 606 

10 7, 1028, 1250 !Ws$x> 683. 729 

l |L3e r 'tfs-rj! e 921, 922 !>S~&> 466 

1 -~i& v SjT3-otf^oo 14Sj 144, 146, 146 S&^ G^^iixj 640 

201, 206. 386 $\ 156 

118, 115, 280 S5v; ^csfiw 615 



1 ft V 

y> 167 - ^6^^558 (ACo^co 668 



1873 



"3 tfS" 


"3 



769 

-*o&>co 628 

^ 

673, 577. 678. 579, 580 
819. 820, 321, 326. 827, 28, 



1. 419 



61 



822, 824 



49 



1197 

149. 166, 158, 184 
200, 808, 1148, 1187, 1195, 1199, 
1100, 1202. 1204, 1206, 1207. 1208, 
121 l f 12i8. 1214, 1228, 1249 

642 

18, 187, 188 
JTeaSbo 119, 160, 172 

186 

165 



a-' 



r)0^ 



, 1196 
258 

S5o3 v ^o 640, 6*1 
768 

v^r 762 
782 

784, 789 
106 

tfort> >5^) 



782 
760 

7S4, 786 
785 
760 



770 



769 



789 

7, 162, 164. 462. 456, 497, 
730, 782, 784, 7^8, 744, 75i p 167, 768, 
782, 784, 797, 799, 953, 969, 990, 992, 
1081, 1098. 1098, 1228. 1264 

P 91, 294, 800, 427, 
o s 731. 769 3 7^6. 80 1, 886, 977, 1198 
,Ea 766 



686, 740, 741 



738 



740 

T&O 780 



sr 



g$ 



785 

]98, 875. 397, 398, 399 
x) 718 

^-ew 699 
427 
Jl^ 274, 444, 688, 690 

567 
215 

gtfbex. 274, 278, 281 , 404, 436. 444, 
446, 461. 4ft2, 640^ 699, 604, 806, 600. 
618, 619. 668 4 674, 705, 761, 1111 

;087 
769 

1014 
1009 



680 



789 



r^ 126, 128, 146, 160, 152, 158. 178, 
176, 178. 180. 188, 188, 198, 1^4, 196, 
ii8, 201, 218. 217, 222. 267, 289, 278 f 



1874 



ii 



279 2S7, 289, 828. 356, 857. S6&, 860, 
368, 890,405, 428, 793, 1152,1163. 
1174 

* wctftfiiu 206 

r iTr-ytt 1120 

943, 947 



507 



578 



1174 

oao&Sfco 302 
860 

201, 202 

428 

217. 218. 856 
1120 
357 
368 
205 

ig&u 139 
139 
[o3(Jo3oco 153 

143 

180. 175, 176, I9o, 201, 202, 
208, 206 



203 

^to 161, 1186, 1198, 1194, 1195, 1200, 
1206, 1216, 1216 
vg^J5bo 1187 
o;fcj 280, 803 
f 8 2# rBP^^c&Soa 61 
IffSSfco &09, 1015, 1022, 1028, 1078 

foo 145 

o 

973 



728 



no 
401 
449, 472 



678 

721 

20, 529, 6^4, 568, 668. 689 f 
672, 573. 675, b77, 578, 684. 688, 638, 
589. 592, 93, 595, 598. 597, 599. 611, 
633, 684, 687, 638, 648, 654, 657, 658, 
859. 660. 665, 666, 677, 678, 679, 680, 
716. 720 

v*TFOo&cnjc 568 

100, 101 

69 

o 5* 80 
882 

vflc**' T^^,O 962 
388 

b 719, 720 
1086 

216 
216 

884. 886, 887, 839, 844, 849. 862 f 
863 f 866, 874, 879, 885, 888, 910, 986, 
946. 1010 



C2 



840 

35, 814, 89, 840, 841, 842, 848, 
844, 845 V 

840 

913,916 
T-^&O 1088, 1084 

886 

837, 847 
840, 848, 860 
635 

982 
662 

a-cp-o^oo 992 

cp 

447 



318, 322, 861, 422, |482, 487. 
4S8 440. 441, 442, 448, 445," 498, 619, 
622 
60 

546 
679 

449, 4-0, 464, 666. 690. 698, 6 8, 
80i, 802, 604. 614 
vS<& *rfs- 22 
687 

634, 1171 
423 



3 142 



1171 
197, 198, 199, 1179 

o&CO 1106 

frw^-eSM 982, 969 f 1006 
7*2, 799, 968 

481, 819. 820. 82S, 828, <M8, 
n. 964, 956, 96',, 9o7, 989 



aoo<2er*eo 961, 9/4 

rwco 89-, 418. 481, 463. 464, 4^2, 
478. 474, 476, 478. 479, 480 
478 

476, 477 

1014. 1016, 1018. 1077, 1078 
1007 
46, 47, 58 



o 344 

147, 183, 188, 182, 195, 204, 307 
A^u^tf 198 
1 io^S" 161 



185, 186, 1S28 
160 



e>g&o 8S8 
8B7. 898 

S, 816, 
669 

676 
[tf (5Sbo 617 

157. 129, 1S9, 140. 1S4, 19?. 206, 

218 

1S8, 1040, 1048. 1060 
seo 517, US 
572 

517, 518 



"Io l jre3o S80 



161 
181 



210, 211 



681 

6o 

ca dCb { vco 686 
^g 5 530 
tiOO 

824. ^32, 8ES. B64, 863, 6fi9 
747 % 942, 96. 3^ 1QSO 
.f sfr^o "Scb&> 1080 
1167, 1161 

62 

652 

699, 601, 808, 60S 
571 
667 

604 
16 

668 357 t 863, 869, 861. S84, 
876, 428. 510. 611. 518, 584 

2)T7"^o 611 
:^ Atft JSoB^o 612; 



1876 



ii 



612 



12 



720 

728, 986 
91, 528. 128 
Tn*g- 606. 651, 664, 728 
610, 611 
657 



^ 802 
802, 1114 
16 

F 117 

<u 
1058 

843 
71 

134, 188, 140 
stbg'<5cSbo 141 
205 

lisa 



cS 

r*a 694 

*^_s 771 

675, 77S 
S5ort-cr-o 787 
a ^7re3o 768 
469 
463 
882 
266 
26 

ssbo 1228 



f 397. 898. 199 
569, 570. 676^ 6SJ 
b66 



48 



?d&>XigX)J 72 



o 1289 

1207, 1214 

100, ^07, 217, 218, 219 



764 
1196, 1196 



1108 



878 



SoSr 



1195 



1107 



818 



Q C3 

^ 

6 



674, 684 
S04. 205 
929, 930 



931 
108 
1008 
1212, 1218 

928 

197. 198 
286 
vjjoko ?do^>o 181 

1007 
108 

109 
972. 973 

667 

1029 

1027, 1028, 1080, 
1031, 1082 

;5r> aj*r<g|jten a^^ ax> (1980) 

1027, 1028 

-^06 flc>e3aco 22 

64 
48, 99, 100, 101, 108 



1377 



101 $&&&> 316 

99 3* 412. 670, 733. 767. 761 

3 

;v *r3tf 98, 102 3<bS\ #2x> 344, 346 

1104 



|V frcno#;5bj 98, 99, 100, 102, 117 $&* Xti&ncx tfSxrw 180 

rao 84,0 ^Stf ^*>eo l0 t 132 



!, 418, 445, 467. ar oJztaSx* 130 

471. 477 



s3-crTro 17, 215, 219, 220, 3r*?)t;jjr 3eoi5 1276 

Q 



221, 227 x S5s5tf 623 

JO^T** I)e3&o 844, S45, 66, 461, 466, tf S56 ^33^00 1034 

466, 487. 4^9, 470, 472, 478, 484, 485 sFetf^ooofi" 3e>o 62? 

soj asjjras U78 

C\f\C\ _ 

^80, 290. 160 jCjSo-^e a -%w- SStfo 916 

229 r55c"*c* !^2iSSbo 48 

L 244 Josbitf wtap S*o' Soirioaao 672 



StfSbao 219, 282 
Q 



219, 253, 265 SSbtfe&o 814 

) 22 3S5bv|8 897. 982 

8, 1033 SJfc&n'jQTr.iHtfo 780 

3^0 ;5b;$QoooS;Sbo J^o tf\Jx 582 



e)ej 
7 ^cfloitfjao 467, 470 



24, 27 ;5b o5r*3sS)o3o ao^^lw 225 

228 5 236, 860, 862, 856, 449 SSfooaj^wSaafcfca 2i7 

215 ^2aDo^T ^^jeo 481 

842, 844 ^^Domejo 482, 483 

8 2 4 ^SbS^ajsSco SS3, 884, 883 t 837 f 342, 412. 

341, 323. 3S6, 889, 894, 471, 472. 473, 476 

899, 431 - sfc"3tf tfcSbB'&oeo 162 

&k&o 1087 ^ablS^ix^ ^^rycco 423 

S&ls*;! sSbocTcabo 827, 384 % 408, 466, 974 

C* 9 

279 . , jasfclaw 60 



1873 a^SAfc^ II 



108, 107 a^tf^eo 287 

101 3oOb<0" tfofaco 282 

3 3o"tf&x> 789 eft ar 1 ^ fcr* 3(6 

204, 206, 105, 1176, 1178 Soaj-Co^ ^5^689 

49 3cDa-*;5LU 774 

52 #~ wCiSGo rA 1058 

1 O fl O ^ J? "d <* \ * % v ^ A 1 1 

ldUd rOO W500^ iOOtJ^R) Oil ^ 

SSe>oCiro 189, 19Q ^S" ir-ajS" SS Tr-iS* 1234 

9 ^6" e^eaS" "3:!f 8ll 

73 x &" &*&*" -cr-5 687 

^ a 

o#eo 111 s6~ ^o'5) "3D<i" 1188 

89 J\5^ Jr*"n~i !T^SNO 210 

s5G<? i veo 940 ^tf^TT' ^01 6 aj-tf&x> lir'8, 199, 1200, 

aco 339 1214 

863 R5tft 6-5~*ti\^ o3T*fl T^CJO 882 

941, 942 ' HI 

N @ 940 X5TT^8 102, 104, 106 
t) 

_ _ ^ A v QoQ QQO D^Q 

989 94J c\jo?o\5j*co oww, ooop 040 

866 869 til3$o&tf 69 

970 toCAj^^ej ^BJSQJ 

940 #tf^ A"$ 26 

1181 se^tf iB 182 

948 a*a *&**<* 

j3^ 111, 1087 

568 ^^ ^S^sSoo 1088 

SjoSboi ZT'C^ JG GSOO 968 ^O^gJttt SO6 919 

868, 940, 941, 949, 958, 966, 3"3^r- OT^S&O 914 

96., 970, 973, 974, 976, 991,1084. 8 -flij *>*> 1087 

1100, 1234 ^3 S ) "o^-^r^A S" 738 

1144 jS'SjoOboCSo ^r<3o ^><^i!SDto 1087 



Q ^ 

62 S"3^oa> ^ 1086 



1144 afiff 






220 270 308, 



276. 8" 7. 278 



22 



26 
261 
b 

21 



10 



, 240, 248 



, 803 
-sr-gS 6 9 s 864 

611 



g 5^S_c a 447 

io - ra 789, 741, 761. 756, 982 
ffdfcca -CJ^ 65 



tf&et S^Soex) 751 

770 



767 



787. 768 769 
80 
^02, 20S 



124 



12174 



tfa^S" 264 

ar ooca 790, 792, 793, 794, 798, 799, 
800. 1089 

2-50, 2F1, 886,918, 914. 915, 
lUiO. 1164, Ii8fi. 1266 

-^ooabo_r X) ^geo 73 
, 45 

44, 845 



107 



880 

"Sfi^T i7g p 180 



827 



822 
1282 



878 



4tJ 

21, 11SO 12^4 
8S. 7 84, 7 2, ^7 



1098. 1119 
97, 98 

115, 116 



18 

. 10S, 108 
103, 104, 10-=>, 108 107 

97 
116 



67, 97, 98, 99, 1CS. 138, 



112, 122 



-* 80^, 810 

^ 807, 808. STB 310 
T*^C 8U9 
88, 267 



544 

797. 798 
o 970 
; 929 

760 



I860 



14 



749 



1101 



781 



654 



384 



411 



1142 



142 

148 
148, 145, 146 

^S] 21, SO, 43, 
H7, 197, 10&2, 1074 

101 

100, 101 
1075 

. 697 

<*r 

r^oo 191 

104, 106 3 117 
7 

SSI 



161, 



20, 275 



88 



108, 104 
61 



^97. 393 
i:r 15 



45 



1286 



1083, 1070 



876 f 877, 983, 944 
48 



244 

828 



850 



613 
20 
S>, 4. "Sofi oS" 477 

CO 

a. o. r<r 1022 



165 



S). 63. e3<T. Oe^ST 168 
859 



810 



430 

841 
\j 

409, 886, 441 
65, 498 
D 618 
^&o 1094 

217, S21 

219, 282, 2S4, 286, 286, 866, 
1224, 1270. 1272 



802, 826 

495 

1289 
1270, 1274 

ef^&j 1270 
& 

511, SIS, 617, 624, 626, 725 

170, 171 



719 



1881 



21. 188, 202, 203, 289, 280, 
808, 865, 871. 908, 1260 

232, 285 

wA 530, 32 
eg?o 232 
26 



619 



1081, 1082. 1085, 1059, 
1093, 111-5, HIT 

. vco 1082 

12-54 
o 

349 
469 
194 

195, 196 
185 
759 

488 
3.28 
10 

228 5 881. 882, 843, 846, 868. 859. 
o 597 
752 

147 



824, S89 t 848, 844, 864, 
858, 859, 879, 92&, 984, 
tf^sta 2S2, 238, 1013 
&>7S 381 883, 443 

<p 3 f 

774 

1110 

812 
9. 609. 612, 719 

, 545, 6T6, 706 t 718 



489 

77*0(5000 830 

0, 274, 275 t 279, 286, 294, 295 f 
297, 808. 432, 4S4, 440, 442, 448, 460, 
482, 490, 464, 502, 60S, 564, 548, 570. 
57j, 577, 811, 619, 8^2, 6*9, 651, 668. 
662, 659, 709, 718, 749, 980, 1110 
183 

V^aj) 22 
o&o r vco IS 4 

21, 179, 180 9 182, 183, 184 
^6j ^ar-5 ^SPi^j^j 163 



o2, 17], SC'J. g7, 
, 661, 7GO ( Ti7 
477 

s5oo 188 
481 

co 481 
409 
814 

876 
208, 210 

843 
980 
J5 603 
is 241* 242 
^9, 1089 

1158 
, 1124 
999 

18 
08, 1021 



e, 688, 



1882 



II 



*'&**& 89, 216, 2S& 296, 308, 67, 
486, 444. egg. 741. 776, 79^. 957, 960, 
967, 971, 972, 974, 988, 1120, 1243, 
1289 

459 

8, 9. 133, 14?. 148, 153, 169, 
19;, 228, 09. 363, 789, 848, 892, 899, 
900, 901, 944, 97l, 978, 974, 9*6, 993, 
999, 1000, 1001, 100V, 1003, 100S, 
1*06, 1007 3 1010, 1011, 1014, 1015. 
H'18, 1018 1020, 1024, 1026,' 1026. 
1028, If 29, K-80. 1081. ,082, 1033. 
10-36, 1088, 10S7 5 1088, 1040, 1041, 
1042, U,4S. 1046, 106 1. 1068, 1067, 
1068, 1060, 1064, 1087 3 1068, 1070, 
1071, 1072, 1077, 1079' 1058, 1151, 
1156, 12:8 



147 



18 



1016 



598 



2S6, 288 



o 395 
cxa 
136 



5" 198 



1008 
8b4, 366, 471 
S87, gg, 841 
668 



588 

272 



626 



24, 248, 264, 284, 269, 284 
co 254 
54 

15 



441, 

748 

24 



. 448 



184 



889 



-a dS" 289 



" A T4 

881, 38:, 408. 416 
286 

106 

278, 586 
844 

1194 
929 
876 



sfiM 1088 

861, 882, 1084, 1160. 1162 
1281 

156, 218. 221, 224, 229. 282. 
281. 308, 616, 617, 866, 1050. 1181 

1281 

218. 224, 226, 
268 

^(3o 248 
206. 210, 212. 218,214 

211 
210. 21 

128, 129, 201 
128 

>" 825. 1256 
128U 

799 



fi" 5> eg 



664, 1014, 1016, 1024, &&^ tarotfJfc> 894 

102&, 1027, 1048 -as^-Softg- 22 



1 07 w' n O1 

J. O cOofij fD^"U"^ j)C35oO ft "HT^ rv^ CO Ol 

(9 



' L -r 

10 d^7p>otf tftf:\o 603 



ern _ - 

00 (^rj^o^t'ca oST'olSfiSSbo 872 

^ ft Sffl iPtfrfco 51 

1018 fte,, ^j 18 , S57 

274, 574, 778 |* ^Tsi6. .248, 1219 

. fs ^ 2 ^ ftfi*J 1158 

7 88, 812 allo;9l 

Oo^c^o 811 fte ^^ 906 

812, 818, 814, 816, 818, 1087 fta^sf tfoctf&oco 847 

^4 eg" IJ^ITS 60 a 6 ^ 3g . aocr-scaeo 928 



^ *& ft 8^-a^ * ft 253 



188S 



900 

*cA$ OO wwu>otj 

CeJCO Ow eij'ajJljOO ol* 

e -^ 

Sc^Sr* 1089 ^o ScS^-c^^abj 145 

a3^c 480 S5erg'^8 Sij^xjco 868 

38, 89, ^90, 789. 790, 817, 974, ;57*\a SCP'^OI ^eo 816 

! l 50 ^2>^os&)o 897 S 898 

8 jfr*;5j ^oifo 1004 

00 ^^^ j^sS ^o^T i 2 *r*^-siDo !38 



129 ft 8 ^^.co 264 

19, 268^78, 287, ?64 ^ 0&gf lgj 1U? ^ U69| n88> H84 

, ^ ft tf a^oirtfjg' aoo 224 






84e - 47e - 48 SNOCS &Tnojs 1116. HI? 






231, 1289 s , oS ^^g- 206> 20 7 



^- - f^^ 1 ^ l ' >"* N^*^ w UO 



1041 ^Aotf "3<5"o3o^ ^tforr^tDo 207, 209 

tj i 9 * 

129 ^^g 1 tc 218 

< o Ooo *< v Ht? tta* ff M __W- it 1 Q9 

i O O(7 u P^ \ vJS TO II QOCu^O O Lv& 



1884 $&$&&$ II 






46 tf^oSoo [ S5e rf #g' ar#o&oeo 554 



876 






180, 162, 184 33 tf tfes 587 

1 A < v *^\ i^K' PI Q D ft Q fi ' "> ft flOC 

1 u u rOQO aJfcjS c/OQ. O<0c*i Utjt'< Out 

142, 188 JSgtftfoK e^tfsfco 848 

" 19 ^^ itftfo 1039 

Q.o | OoU <0 v. Q * * 

328 ^JS^" ^ oci) ^~^ 1^11 

808 *J r ^ tf 7rgo3cro 79 

187 * ) JS s '. tf a<!5e " i00 - 1 2 
^__^ v 

201, 202, 836 ^JS" 38 " 8S1 > 876 . 1167 H 6 1 

^(5,1 686 "^S^ 5 I ^o$oco 680 

S 183, 194, 196 3 S ctf L 3o& 24, 240 

IS "3$tf;52fco 219 

760 



8 



1221, 1222 *lr$? 1068 

ifj>S STrcaooeo 368 [ijp^ofi" 118 



boo Lr4ii f o^O" j\5T^*5o3o5JSx) co 806 

c*> V^^y gj 

"S)S" i r*aS' CJb 87 (Aj Btfftr*^ o^sSjJboco 804 

CO lu. J CO >Zx 

"" 659 



l7fi ^^i Sj)0o2x &3?5'CT^25o3o25iSjoe/6 r * 'ST'g^bexi 808 

63? (^} ^OO^L fcei^o e'oooosf 806, 607 

Boaj-^g) 1181 ^ feesg'CT&o 334, 886, 336, 340, 411 

105 ^ ftaiabo 800, 608 

"^ (Aj ^o"o9crK IbejtfSfco 410, 413 

Q j^&o 844 iSTS 0350 98] " 4 



1232 

128 ^gr* gjag" 278 

p U_3~ S86 * 4S4f L^! 15 '* 812 



863 



f, 820, 858 

895 

1C52. 1063, 1051, 1073 M^^ 433, 12, *34 826, 827, 

107?, Iu74. 1076 28. 852. 863, 867, 964, 970, 111? 

3** Sr-Tr^fcir 807. 8*0 

si 

^ * * Sr^S^&sSr* 460 

1265 fr**3r"S)g>otfr 486, 487 

852, 855, 3c6 fr*u-SoS" 1157 

Opg e- 

888, 851 !j,e* 1129 

825 li06 !p>o3oS 15, 168, 158, 178, 197 198, 199, 

224, 250, 308, 809, 1051, jOSS. 1040, 
1044, 1179, 

SnDcOoo ~oiJ^^bo 1S5 



i3 ., J . 744 j^ris 

o **- 

270, 280, 2S8, 289* 296. 299, tf^*bfr.o-tf5$ a^Saik* 865 

01, 78, 8SL, S86, S87, 403, 403. 6^8, ^ r *j.i r &o 660, 666 

585, 547, 548, 674, 300, 616, 619, 843, *$&*&* a&-itf^a>5 668 

651, 656, 65b, 659, 682. 743 frtf*^ *.& 665 

684 



720 
^ 18, 463, 7i7 tf^tfoab&o 803, 521 

20 S 



662 

s n 

1C7 nro 

Jj'xii)^ fiT*aLaboeo ^67 
"B. S). ctf>" 309, 811 ^^'jSSM 661, 862, 7^6 

178 a^^/raw 60S, 616 

811 

571 - " s^A~ L S ^^ 8e2 

826, 868, 960, 93S, ^>xfii 826 



654 -=VT,.-^ VN^A^VW =? ^g 



^^' 7 ^ "2r-S" c^5" t O^A-S"^ ^J&5" 346 

, 610, 612. 71 6,719 7r..g. ^^ff 325^ 



fiv *^ 3?Q 718 2x^ - . ^ t 8^ .rW^xS" 845 






1886 



H 



1078 



tr-S". 



476 



&S' IS 
U83 



1034 



72 

917, 922 
JT 61 

602 

649 



1058, 1233 



592 
162 

2r!) tsooo^" 247, 248 
27 

263. 288, 666 3 563 
448 



1100 



1187 



1100 



1279 
810 

15, 129, 141, 184, 197, 198, 
218, 220, 221, 22S, 226, 228, 241, 246. 
252, 287, 288, 270, 271, 279, 282, 08, 
809. T-22, 364. 385, 497 t 614, 742, 908 

-oi^sS" S^-dfz 226 

L <r>* 



264 



189, 140, 141 
139 



6S6, 7g9, 779, 808, 821, 881, 
8&0, 691, 914, 981, 932, 998, 997, 998, 
1039, 1028. 1085. 1110, 1112, 1113 
7 JDS" SoEftf sr*foeo 463 
728 

188, 140 
610, 613 
519 
188, 187^ 168. 202, 208 

1247 
1248, 1250 



884, 386, 387 






247, 250, 252 



1220